Tainted ham
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Tainted ham






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Tainted ham Tainted ham Presentation Transcript

  • BY: JULIA BURTON MARIA CHIAFFARANO Nothing Worse than Tainted Ham!
  • Background Information
    • Local Festival was held in Palm Beach County
    • 90 people became ill
      • Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • 17 victims sought medical attention
      • Most cured within 24 hours
    • It’s thought that the origin of the infection was from ham sold at the festival
  • The Affected System
    • Digestive System is made up of the
      • Espohagus
      • Liver
      • Small intestine
      • Large intestine
      • Gallbladder
      • Pancreas
      • Rectum
  • Our Job
    • Given a culture from one of the 17 patients
      • Identify the cause of the outbreak
      • Identify antibiotics that may be used to treat the infection if necessary
  • Possible Causes
    • Escherichia coli
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Salmonella enterica
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Streptococcus pyogenes
    • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Possible Cures
    • Antibiotics
      • Penicillin
      • Tetracycline
      • Chloramphenicol
      • Streptomycin
      • Vancomycin
      • Gentamycin
  • Procedure
    • Gram Stain provided the culture
    • Culture organism on selective/ differential media
    • Antimicrobial susceptibility test
  • Gram Stain
    • Information:
      • Gram positive stains (using MSA agar) and Gram negative stains (using MacConkey agar)
    • What we chose: Gram positive plate (Mannitol salt agar or MSA plate)
  • Gram Stain
    • Why?
      • Helps to differentiate the two distinct bacterial species (negative and positive)
      • Faster than bacterial culture approach
      • Significant in identifying a working diagnosis of certain disease conditions
  • Gram Negative
    • Doesn’t react to crystal violet
    • Stains pinkish-red
    • Can be decolorized in accepting safranin (counter stain)
    • Uses MacConkey Agar
      • Differential plating medium used in detection and isolate of all types of dysenter
      • Used (generally) to differentiate strains of salmanella
      • Colonies of bacteria are brick red in color
  • Gram Positive
    • Reacts with crystal violet dye (stains dark purple)
    • Unique cell wall (composed of several peptidoglycan layers, multilayered, thick)
    • Presence of techoic acids
    • Lacks lipopolysaccaride content, peryplasmic space and outer membrane (makes it low in lipoprotein and lipid composition)
    • Release exotoxins
    • Uses MSA agar
  • MSA Agar
    • Selective and differential medium
    • High concentration of salt selects for members of the staph bacteria since they can tolerate high saline levels
    • Contains sugar mannitol and pH indicator phenol red
    • Acidic byproduct is formed which causes the phenol red to turn yellow
  • Selective Differential Media
    • We chose the MSA plate because it is used for gram positive bacteria
    • Throughout our testing, we discovered that our bacteria was gram positive and would only grow on the MSA plate
    • Results:
      • The Staphylococcus aureus grew at a fast rate, the E.coli did not grow at all (it is gram negative), and the patient’s bacteria did not grow either
        • However, due to technical difficulties, the patient’s bacteria was supposed to grow, therefore giving a positive result for Staph
  • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Gram positive spherical bacteria
    • Occur in microscopic clusters
      • Cells divide successively in three perpendicular planes
    • Fermentation of glucose produces mainly lactic acid
    • Ferments mannitol
    • Golden yellow colony on agar
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test
    • Information:
      • Gram positive bacteria are easier to treat (with antibiotic) than gram negative bacteria
        • This is because gram positive bacteria lacks a membrane whereas gram negative bacteria contain two membranes which regulate what goes in and out of the cell
    • Procedure:
      • For the lab, we put the patient’s bacteria on a plate along with six different types of antibiotics to see which antibiotic would be most effective to cure the patient
  • Results
    • Antibiotics used:
      • Penicillin 32 mm diameter - Sensitive
      • Tetracycline - 24 mm diameter- Sensitive
      • Chloramphenicol- 19 mm diameter- Sensitive
      • Streptomycin- 12 mm diameter- Resistant
      • Vancomycin- 13 mm diameter- Sensitive
      • Gentamycin- 23 mm diameter- Sensitive
  • Results (cont.)
    • These results told us that the bacteria was sensitive to most of the antibiotics (gram positive bacteria)
      • Most sensitive to Penicillin
      • Resistant to Streptomycin