BY: JULIA BURTON MARIA CHIAFFARANO Nothing Worse than Tainted Ham!
Background Information <ul><li>Local Festival was held in Palm Beach County </li></ul><ul><li>90 people became ill  </li><...
The Affected System  <ul><li>Digestive System is made up of the  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Espohagus  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Our Job <ul><li>Given a culture from one of the 17 patients  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the cause of the outbreak </li...
Possible Causes <ul><li>Escherichia coli </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella enterica </...
Possible Cures <ul><li>Antibiotics  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetracycline  </li></ul></...
Procedure <ul><li>Gram Stain provided the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Culture organism on selective/ differential media </li...
Gram Stain <ul><li>Information:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram positive stains (using MSA agar) and Gram negative stains (usi...
Gram Stain <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps to differentiate the two distinct bacterial species (negative and posi...
Gram Negative <ul><li>Doesn’t react to crystal violet  </li></ul><ul><li>Stains pinkish-red </li></ul><ul><li>Can be decol...
Gram Positive <ul><li>Reacts with crystal violet dye (stains dark purple)  </li></ul><ul><li>Unique cell wall (composed of...
MSA Agar <ul><li>Selective and differential medium </li></ul><ul><li>High concentration of salt selects for members of the...
Selective Differential Media <ul><li>We chose the MSA plate because it is used for gram positive bacteria  </li></ul><ul><...
Staphylococcus aureus <ul><li>Gram positive spherical bacteria  </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in microscopic clusters </li></ul>...
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test <ul><li>Information:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram positive bacteria are easier to treat (...
Results <ul><li>Antibiotics used:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillin 32 mm diameter - Sensitive  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Results (cont.) <ul><li>These results told us that the bacteria was sensitive to most of the antibiotics (gram positive ba...
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Tainted ham

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Tainted ham

  1. 1. BY: JULIA BURTON MARIA CHIAFFARANO Nothing Worse than Tainted Ham!
  2. 2. Background Information <ul><li>Local Festival was held in Palm Beach County </li></ul><ul><li>90 people became ill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>17 victims sought medical attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most cured within 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It’s thought that the origin of the infection was from ham sold at the festival </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Affected System <ul><li>Digestive System is made up of the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Espohagus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gallbladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Our Job <ul><li>Given a culture from one of the 17 patients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the cause of the outbreak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify antibiotics that may be used to treat the infection if necessary </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Possible Causes <ul><li>Escherichia coli </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella enterica </li></ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus aureus </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus pyogenes </li></ul><ul><li>Haemophilus influenzae </li></ul>
  6. 6. Possible Cures <ul><li>Antibiotics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetracycline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chloramphenicol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streptomycin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vancomycin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentamycin </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Procedure <ul><li>Gram Stain provided the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Culture organism on selective/ differential media </li></ul><ul><li>Antimicrobial susceptibility test </li></ul>
  8. 8. Gram Stain <ul><li>Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram positive stains (using MSA agar) and Gram negative stains (using MacConkey agar) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What we chose: Gram positive plate (Mannitol salt agar or MSA plate) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gram Stain <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps to differentiate the two distinct bacterial species (negative and positive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster than bacterial culture approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant in identifying a working diagnosis of certain disease conditions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Gram Negative <ul><li>Doesn’t react to crystal violet </li></ul><ul><li>Stains pinkish-red </li></ul><ul><li>Can be decolorized in accepting safranin (counter stain) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses MacConkey Agar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential plating medium used in detection and isolate of all types of dysenter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used (generally) to differentiate strains of salmanella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies of bacteria are brick red in color </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Gram Positive <ul><li>Reacts with crystal violet dye (stains dark purple) </li></ul><ul><li>Unique cell wall (composed of several peptidoglycan layers, multilayered, thick) </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of techoic acids </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks lipopolysaccaride content, peryplasmic space and outer membrane (makes it low in lipoprotein and lipid composition) </li></ul><ul><li>Release exotoxins </li></ul><ul><li>Uses MSA agar </li></ul>
  12. 12. MSA Agar <ul><li>Selective and differential medium </li></ul><ul><li>High concentration of salt selects for members of the staph bacteria since they can tolerate high saline levels </li></ul><ul><li>Contains sugar mannitol and pH indicator phenol red </li></ul><ul><li>Acidic byproduct is formed which causes the phenol red to turn yellow </li></ul>
  13. 13. Selective Differential Media <ul><li>We chose the MSA plate because it is used for gram positive bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout our testing, we discovered that our bacteria was gram positive and would only grow on the MSA plate </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Staphylococcus aureus grew at a fast rate, the E.coli did not grow at all (it is gram negative), and the patient’s bacteria did not grow either </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, due to technical difficulties, the patient’s bacteria was supposed to grow, therefore giving a positive result for Staph </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Staphylococcus aureus <ul><li>Gram positive spherical bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Occur in microscopic clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells divide successively in three perpendicular planes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fermentation of glucose produces mainly lactic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Ferments mannitol </li></ul><ul><li>Golden yellow colony on agar </li></ul>
  15. 15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test <ul><li>Information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram positive bacteria are easier to treat (with antibiotic) than gram negative bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is because gram positive bacteria lacks a membrane whereas gram negative bacteria contain two membranes which regulate what goes in and out of the cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For the lab, we put the patient’s bacteria on a plate along with six different types of antibiotics to see which antibiotic would be most effective to cure the patient </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Results <ul><li>Antibiotics used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillin 32 mm diameter - Sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetracycline - 24 mm diameter- Sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chloramphenicol- 19 mm diameter- Sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streptomycin- 12 mm diameter- Resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vancomycin- 13 mm diameter- Sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gentamycin- 23 mm diameter- Sensitive </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Results (cont.) <ul><li>These results told us that the bacteria was sensitive to most of the antibiotics (gram positive bacteria) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most sensitive to Penicillin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistant to Streptomycin </li></ul></ul>

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