Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
My Dog is Broken!<br />Maria Chiaffarano and Julia Burton<br />
Signal Transduction<br />Process by which an extracellular signal molecule activates a membrane receptor that in turn alte...
Signal Transduction (cont)<br />The conformational change in the receptor also changes the part of the enzyme inside the c...
Email 1 <br />
Email 1 (cont) <br />Nitric Oxide is the first messenger and binds to the extracellular domain of the receptor<br />Guanyl...
Email 1 (cont) <br />The lowering of Calcium desensitizes the cell to Calcium and increases blood flow<br />Increased blow...
Email 1 (cont) <br />The receptor in this cell is an enzyme-linked receptor<br />Has two important domains<br />Intracellu...
Email 2 <br />
Email 2 <br />Ginseng <br />Ginseng is shown to increase locally produced nitric oxide (NO), all over the body. The mechan...
Email 2 (cont) <br />Ginseng is known to increase NO2<br />If Ginseng was used for the dog, the amount of NO2 would be in ...
Email 2 (cont) <br />Phosphodiesterase (PDE5) is any enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond<br />It functions to remove ...
Email 2 (cont) <br />If neither chemical works, PKG is suspected to be dysfunctional <br />PKG activates the proteins and ...
Email 2 (cont) <br />Inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3) <br />Membrane glycoprotein complex that acts as a calcium chan...
Email 2 (cont) <br />Phospholamban (P Lamban) <br />52-amino acid integral membrane protein that regulates the Ca2+ pump i...
Email 2 (cont) <br />Myosin-light-chain phosphotase is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction<br />It is important f...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

My dog is broken!

14,349

Published on

1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • This is a case study from the National Center for Case Study in Science. This is supposed to be a website which answers are password protected only accessed by being a professor/instructor. Can you please remove this powerpoint from this website as half of my class has cheated on their homework by copying these exact answers.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
14,349
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
89
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "My dog is broken!"

  1. 1. My Dog is Broken!<br />Maria Chiaffarano and Julia Burton<br />
  2. 2. Signal Transduction<br />Process by which an extracellular signal molecule activates a membrane receptor that in turn alters intracellular molecules to create a response<br />Transmembrane receptors span the cell membrane (part of the membrane is inside, part is outside the cell)<br />A chemical signal binds to the extracellular part of the receptor causing a conformational change in the receptor (shape change) <br />
  3. 3. Signal Transduction (cont)<br />The conformational change in the receptor also changes the part of the enzyme inside the cell <br />There is a cascade of signals within the cell once activated <br />With each step, the signal is amplified, a small signal can lead to a large response<br />The signal causes a change in the cell <br />
  4. 4. Email 1 <br />
  5. 5. Email 1 (cont) <br />Nitric Oxide is the first messenger and binds to the extracellular domain of the receptor<br />GuanylylCyclase is the second messenger inside the cell. The Nitric Oxide enters the cell and activates the messenger. The input of GTP makes cyclic GMP<br />GMP and the addition of ATP is an input of energy into the cascade and activates PKG (protein kinase) <br />Activated PKG activates the Phospho-Proteins which then lowers the amount of Calcium in the blood <br />
  6. 6. Email 1 (cont) <br />The lowering of Calcium desensitizes the cell to Calcium and increases blood flow<br />Increased blow flow leads to relaxation<br />The arrows in this diagram become increasingly larger because cell signals are amplified throughout the cell so that a small signal can trigger a large response<br />
  7. 7. Email 1 (cont) <br />The receptor in this cell is an enzyme-linked receptor<br />Has two important domains<br />Intracellular <br />Extracellular <br />
  8. 8. Email 2 <br />
  9. 9. Email 2 <br />Ginseng <br />Ginseng is shown to increase locally produced nitric oxide (NO), all over the body. The mechanism is not completely understood, but the outcome is enhancement of erection in males.<br />Viagra<br />Muscle relaxation is countered by the activity of PDE breaking down cGMP. Viagra increases erection by blocking the activity of the PDE; by slowing the break-down of cGMP, erection is enhanced.<br />
  10. 10. Email 2 (cont) <br />Ginseng is known to increase NO2<br />If Ginseng was used for the dog, the amount of NO2 would be in greater supply. More NO2 would enter the cell and trigger the cell signal and response<br />Ginseng would increase blood flow by increasing the signal <br />
  11. 11. Email 2 (cont) <br />Phosphodiesterase (PDE5) is any enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond<br />It functions to remove cGMP once a signaling molecule, such as nitric oxide, is no longer present<br />This turns off the function of the signal molecule<br />Viagra inhibits phosphodiesterase so that it does not get turned off<br />This leads to increased blood flow and relaxation<br />
  12. 12. Email 2 (cont) <br />If neither chemical works, PKG is suspected to be dysfunctional <br />PKG activates the proteins and the lowering of calcium; it is activated by the cGMP<br />PKG affects other parts of the “cascade” in the cell <br />IP3 <br />P Lamban<br />Myosin light chain phosphotase<br />
  13. 13. Email 2 (cont) <br />Inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3) <br />Membrane glycoprotein complex that acts as a calcium channel<br />When activated, it releases calcium into the cytoplasm<br />If PKG is dysfunctional, too much calcium will be released which would then raise calcium levels and decrease blood flow <br />
  14. 14. Email 2 (cont) <br />Phospholamban (P Lamban) <br />52-amino acid integral membrane protein that regulates the Ca2+ pump in cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle cells<br />Cardiac muscle is also smooth muscle (same as the muscle in this case study) <br />If PKG is dysfunctional, it will not be able to control P Lamban. Therefore, the calcium pumps would not work properly and create a build up of calcium <br />
  15. 15. Email 2 (cont) <br />Myosin-light-chain phosphotase is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction<br />It is important for regulating contraction in smooth muscle <br />It is inhibited by calcium pathways for maintaining muscle contraction <br />If PKG is not working properly, the myosin light chain will contain too much calcium and muscle contraction will not function properly <br />
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×