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Biology case study #4






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    Biology case study #4 Biology case study #4 Presentation Transcript

    • Case Study #4
      Julia Burton and Maria Chiaffarano
    • Patient History
      • 42 year old male
      • No major health issue to date
      • Notable increase in weight over past month – gain of 17 pounds
      • Recent lethargy
      • Patient is on a new eating regimen – every meal is from a ‘fast food’ restaurant
    • Physical Examination
      • Enlarged liver
      • Muscle weakness
    • Laboratory Results
      • Negative for hepatitis
      • Excessive glycogen granules in liver
      • High levels of fat in liver – abnormal fat metabolism
      • Low testosterone levels
      • Abnormal cell calcium balance
    • Diagnosis
      The organelle that is malfunctioning is the Smooth ER
    • Rationale for Diagnosis
      Fatigue/Abnormal cell calcium balance
      • Calcium pumps are not operating properly
      • The storage/balance of calcium is not working correctly (maintaining concentration process)
      • Calcium pumps maintain low levels for cell signaling
      • This could be the reason why muscle contraction is causing fatigue.
    • Rationale for Diagnosis (cont.)
      Possible reasons for the enlarged liver:
      • Cancer
      • Heart diseases
      • Liver disease
      • Cirrhosis
    • Rationale for Diagnosis (cont.)
      Increase in weight
      • The current “fast-food” diet is a factor of the weight gain. Fast food has a lot of fat that is bad for the body in it. The excessive intake of fast food increases body weight.
      • Weight gain can also be caused by nutritional imbalances (increase in fat and sugar)
    • Rationale for Diagnosis (cont.)
      Low Testosterone levels
      • Testosterone is made up of steroids which are fats
      • The smooth ER is involved in lipid synthesis (making of fat) and therefore would affect levels of testosterone if there is a smooth ER problem
    • Rationale for Diagnosis (cont.)
      Excessive glycogen granules in the liver/Enlarged liver
      • Glycogenoses are resulted from abnormal metabolism of glycogen or the lack of a particular lysosomal enzyme to degrade glycogen or catabolism of glucose
      • Results in excess glycogen
      • The liver and heart can also be affected
    • General DIagnosis
      The patient’s symptoms cannot be classified as a single disease. The smooth ER is causing multiple problems, especially with his liver and fats because the smooth ER is responsible for lipids and detoxifications and calcium storage.