Biology case study #4

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Biology case study #4

  1. 1. Case Study #4 Julia Burton and Maria Chiaffarano
  2. 2. PATIENT HISTORY • 42 year old male • No major health issue to date • Notable increase in weight over past month – gain of 17 pounds • Recent lethargy • Patient is on a new eating regimen – every meal is from a ‘fast food’ restaurant
  3. 3. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION • Enlarged liver • Muscle weakness
  4. 4. LABORATORY RESULTS • Negative for hepatitis • Excessive glycogen granules in liver • High levels of fat in liver – abnormal fat metabolism • Low testosterone levels • Abnormal cell calcium balance
  5. 5. DIAGNOSIS The organelle that is malfunctioning is the Smooth ER
  6. 6. RATIONALE FOR DIAGNOSIS Fatigue/Abnormal cell calcium balance • Calcium pumps are not operating properly • The storage/balance of calcium is not working correctly (maintaining concentration process) • Calcium pumps maintain low levels for cell signaling • This could be the reason why muscle contraction is causing fatigue.
  7. 7. RATIONALE FOR DIAGNOSIS (CONT.) Possible reasons for the enlarged liver: • Cancer • Heart diseases • Liver disease • Cirrhosis
  8. 8. RATIONALE FOR DIAGNOSIS (CONT.) Increase in weight • The current “fast-food” diet is a factor of the weight gain. Fast food has a lot of fat that is bad for the body in it. The excessive intake of fast food increases body weight. • Weight gain can also be caused by nutritional imbalances (increase in fat and sugar)
  9. 9. RATIONALE FOR DIAGNOSIS (CONT.) Low Testosterone levels • Testosterone is made up of steroids which are fats • The smooth ER is involved in lipid synthesis (making of fat) and therefore would affect levels of testosterone if there is a smooth ER problem
  10. 10. RATIONALE FOR DIAGNOSIS (CONT.) Excessive glycogen granules in the liver/Enlarged liver • Glycogenoses are resulted from abnormal metabolism of glycogen or the lack of a particular lysosomal enzyme to degrade glycogen or catabolism of glucose • Results in excess glycogen • The liver and heart can also be affected
  11. 11. GENERAL DIAGNOSIS The patient’s symptoms cannot be classified as a single disease. The smooth ER is causing multiple problems, especially with his liver and fats because the smooth ER is responsible for lipids and detoxifications and calcium storage.

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