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Lukes Gospel 08-9 (V. I)
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Lukes Gospel 08-9 (V. I)


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  • 1. Luke‟s Gospel
  • 2. Background  Gentile-Christian  Also: Author of the Acts of the Apostles  So similar in their formulation: words, phrases, dialect, etc. ◦ Believed too that Luke was present during particular events in Acts.
  • 3.  Believed that Luke was the missionary companion of St. Paul  Church historian Eusebius recorded that Luke came from Antioch  Believed that Luke was a physician as well
  • 4. Continued  Thought: Wrote for Gentile-Christian Communities  Idea of Christianity: not just for Jews, but for everyone
  • 5. Gentile - Christian Community  Omits Jewish titles.  Uses the following instead: ◦ “Master” in place of rabbi ◦ “Lawyer” for scribe (or law-keeper) ◦ “Savior” for Messiah ◦ Luke also stresses that Jesus is the only Lord - separation from gentile lords / pagan gods
  • 6.  No denial of Jewish background  Luke does not flat-out deny the Jewish background  There is no rejection of the Jewish heritage, only the omission of some things found in Mark and Matthew.
  • 7. Legend has it -  Luke was an artist and painted a portrait of Mary  More correct: Luke‟s choice of words and style of words, made him a “word artist” ◦ Luke wrote it beautiful (prose) & polished (educated) Greek
  • 8. Luke: The „Painter‟
  • 9. Historical Background  35% of Mark‟s Gospel present in Luke‟s  Luke: Also aware of the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple  Date of Authorship: 75 - 90 C.E. (A.D.)
  • 10. Why does Luke write the Gospel?  Look at Luke 1:1-4 - The Prologue  Shows - concern with historical detail and literary purpose  Dedication to Theophilus ◦ Who is this person? ◦ What does this word mean?
  • 11. Luke‟s Prologue  “Seeing that many others have undertaken to draw up accounts of the events that have taken place among us, exactly as these were handed down to us by those who from the outset were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word, I in my turn, after carefully going over the whole story from the beginning, have decided to write an ordered account for you, Theophilus, so that your Excellency may learn how well founded the teaching is that you have received.”
  • 12. Prologue Re-cap  The Prologue is written to a man, or a group, called Theophilus  The intent is to show that Luke‟s Gospel is presenting the truth.  The intent is to show history, and the history more specifically of the man called Christ
  • 13.  Luke shows concern for historical detail  References to Jerusalem as the symbolic center (place of Jesus‟ death, focus of the early church)  Salvation History & Luke -- 3 Periods: ◦ 1. First 2 chapters: Shows relationship between Jesus and history of Israel ◦ 2. Remainder of gospel: ordered account of Jesus‟ life, death, and resurrection. Jesus is the promised Savior ◦ 3. In Acts: Luke - traces spread of apostolic
  • 14.  Luke: “Historian of the Church”  Accurately connects salvation history & ordinary history. ◦ E.G.: Linking John the Baptist to historical figures (Lk. 3:1-2)  Gospel begins in Jerusalem: announcement of John the Baptist and tells about Simeon and Anna prophesying in the Temple that Jesus is the promised Savior
  • 15. Luke 1:5 - 45, 56  Recollection of Abraham and Sarah through Zechariah and Elizabeth  Gabriel, the angel present first in Daniel, to proclaim the coming of Elijah (NT: John the Baptist)  Annunciation: brings about a new era in the church - a “newness God has begun to bring about (Brown).”
  • 16.  Jesus‟ birth: a total surprise, and unlike that of other miraculous births found in either the O.T. or N.T.  Jesus is born to Mary, a virgin who is “totally surprised by the idea of conception” by the Spirit of God -- the spirit of God overcoming her  Jesus‟ birth is two fold: for Israel and for something new and greater
  • 17.  Jesus‟s Birth: ◦ 1. Jesus: will be the expectation of Israel; the Davidic Messiah  Proclaimed by Gabriel 1:32-33 (II Sam 7:9, 13, 14, 16) ◦ 2. He will be “the unique Son of God in power through the Holy Spirit.”  Proclaimed by Gabriel 1:35  Mary’s response: “Be it done unto me according to your word.” (Lk. 1:38)
  • 18. The Annunciation
  • 19.  John the Baptist‟s conception: already a pre-cursor to that of Jesus‟ birth -- Elijah will come before Christ, and is seen in the womb of Elizabeth  Symbolic also as Elizabeth blesses the womb of Mary
  • 20. John the Baptist
  • 21. The Magnificat 1:46-55  This „prayer‟ and others (i.e.: Benedictus, Gloria in excelsis), could be removed from their context and stated on their own to represent something  It reflects the style of Jewish hymnology as seen in I Maccabees  Christology: God has done something decisive, but doesn‟t reference right to Christ‟s mission  Magnificat spoken by Mary = significant statement that Luke acknowledges Mary as the first disciple; the first to hear of Christ
  • 22. Narratives of Birth, Circumcision, and the Naming of JBap & Jesus  Elizabeth unexpectedly gives „John‟ his name; Zechariah recovers speech  Zechariah‟s prophesy - states all that has been promised to Israel  Setting for birth of Jesus: supplied by decree by Ceasar Augustus for census of Empire ◦ Historically: this is inaccurate; Augustus never does a census and the governor of Judea asks for a census 10 years too late for Jesus‟ birth…Luke: setting something in antiquity
  • 23. Continued  Bethlehem: small city, but Luke calls it “City of David” in order to show Jesus‟ connection to Israel, and eventually to whole world  Augustus: presented as a great leader and „savior‟ -- Luke presenting Jesus as a more powerful one ◦ Presence of the angels
  • 24.  Presence of shepherds: parallel to that of Matthew‟s magi…  Notice: both the magi and the shepherds depart, and never return; therefore, not recognizing the immediate “Christ-hood” of Jesus -- not recognizing his Christology  Mary is the only one who is present during the time of his public ministry  Luke: preserves her status as the first disciple - up to and including his suffering and dying on the cross.  Parallel btwn. Jesus‟ parents accepting of the Law & Simeon and Anna: who are law abiding and are awaiting the Savior as Jesus is presented in the Temple
  • 25. Boy Jesus in the Temple  Luke is the only Gospel to have this expression of Jesus‟ divinity at such a young age  The Infancy Gospel of Thomas, is a non- canonical source reflecting this & Jesus‟ life btwn. the ages of 5-12.  The question is: When did Jesus acquire his divinity/powers? Luke wants to show that he had these powers @ a young age
  • 26.  Luke‟s placing this between infancy narrative & life of public ministry: Luke shows who Jesus is in a “Christological sequence” ◦ 1. In the annunciation: angel proclaims who Jesus is - the Son of God ◦ 2. At 12 yrs. old - Jesus proclaims who he is  We are told that upon returning to Nazareth, Jesus is obedient - by not provoking any more revealing incidents like that in the Temple ◦ 3. Age 30: God proclaims who Jesus is at his
  • 27. Jesus‟ Ministry  Luke 4:14-44  Jesus picks a passage from Isaiah to read at his synagogue in Nazareth ◦ Isaiah 61:1-2  Luke: Tells us in dramatic fashion - returns “in the power of the Spirit” following his temptations in the desert  The passage above - mentions the coming of the Messiah; the people in the synagogue recognize Jesus in an admirable way…In him the Messiah is taking place
  • 28.  What Isaiah prophesized is happening right now  In this passage: Jesus shows what he‟s here to do: ◦ Came to preach the gospel ◦ To help people live freely ◦ To perform acts of mercy ◦ To work for justice ◦ To celebrate God‟s presence in the world
  • 29.  The message sinks in  They question who he is: ◦ “Who is Jesus? Isn‟t he the son of Joseph? How could our carpenter neighbor be the promised one?” ◦ “It doesn‟t make sense”
  • 30. Jesus‟ Response  Acknowledges that no prophet earned recognition in his hometown  Elijah and Elisha were rejected by their contemporaries -- as a result: they helped Gentiles  Jesus‟ message is therefore identified as universal  They want to take Jesus and kill him - they lead him to a hill, to hope to push him over, but he escapes (prelude to his true death)
  • 31. Continuing Luke‟s Gospel Miracles, Ethics, & the Church
  • 32. Synagogue Reading: Isaiah 61  These verses in Luke‟s gospel are important for many reasons:  1. Reveal Jesus and his identity: what he thought he was (Messiah, Savior) - his mission is afflicted and oppressed (major pt. for Luke)  2. Scene: Foreshadows his public life  3. Two themes: Holy Spirit & importance of prayer
  • 33. Luke 4:31-44  Luke expl ai ns 4 events i n C apernaum  1. 31-37: The 1st (of 21 miracles) is an exorcism -- it is not the devil, but some other demon (Jesus will struggle with demons throughout Luke)  2. 38-39: Healing of Simon‟s mother-in-law (but without fisherman found in Mark‟s Gospel because Jesus has not called them yet) -- no crowd gathered  3. 40-43: Jesus goes to a deserted place  4. 44: Jesus travels throughout the
  • 34. Luke 5:1-11  The miraculous catch of fish and the call of the disciples  Luke‟s reordering of events…Not like Mark, who says the men were called before the Capernaum episode(s)  Simon more likely to follow, in Luke‟s presentation, as he has healed his mother-in- law and caught this great number of fish  Simon: Profession of who he is: an unworthy sinner -- parallel to Paul in N.T.  The act of leaving everything behind: important to Luke: illustrates detachment from possessions & willingness to follow  Next: Healing of a leper 5:12-16
  • 35. 5 Controversies with the Pharisees  1. Contention with the Pharisees and Jesus‟ healing of the paralytic  2. Contention with the Pharisees over Jesus‟ call of Matthew Levi, the tax collector  3. Contention with the Pharisees over fasting  4. Contention regarding the picking of grain on the Sabbath  5. Contention over the healing of the man with the withered hand on the
  • 36. Controversies Con‟t  Pharisees criticize Jesus for his work  Criticize his behavior: ◦ His claim to be able to forgive sins ◦ His associates ◦ His failure to have his disciples fast ◦ Their picking grain ◦ His own healing on the Sabbath ◦ Take special attn. to Luke’s announcement of Jesus praying: 5:16
  • 37. The Paralytic  Healing  Meant to show Luke‟s broadening of Jesus‟ ministry  Not just to the Pharisees & teachers of the Law in one area -- but to Galilee, Judea, & Jerusalem (and as such beyond to the world)  Power of the Lord was with him to heal (5:17)  Broadening as well as he describes a house that is roofed with tiles rather than straw/mud that was typical of Galilee
  • 38. Call of Levi  Luke: no longer focused on Jesus (out of respect?)  Focus: on his disciples -- sending the same message ◦ Seen in Mark 2:16  Question of fasting is in relation to the old and new (understanding) -- how it was to be in society.  Luke is respectful of the old ◦ Maybe to show respect toward those in his community that were having difficulty adjusting to new system of Christianity?)
  • 39. Result  Jesus gains enemies  Enemies who plot against him (Luke 6:11)  The Herodians (Mk. 3:6) -- not in Luke‟s Gospel; dropped out of the picture as meaningless ◦ Suggestion: Because Luke is writing to a Gentile community, they wouldn‟t have any idea as to what the Herodians were…away from Jewish thought.
  • 40. The Role of the Holy Spirit  Luke & Acts: highlight role of H.S. in salvation history…It‟s an unfolding of God‟s plan.  3 Stages: ◦ 1. Age of Promise - today: promises are being fulfilled; the H.S. has labeled him the man for the job ◦ 2. Time of Jesus - He = center of history; Jesus teaches salvation guided by the Spirit - miracles prove his power/message & paschal mystery: completes salvation ◦ 3. Age of the Church - H.S. empowers the Christians to continue gospel mission until
  • 41. Holy Spirit  Appears frequently in Luke-Acts ◦ Mary & conception: 1:35 ◦ 2:27 - Simeon convinced to accept Jesus ◦ 3:22 - Descends on Jesus in form of a dove ◦ 4:1 - Leads Jesus into desert ◦ 4:14 - Guides Jesus‟ emergence from the desert ◦ 10:21 - prayer is guided by Spirit ◦ 11:13 - teaches us how to pray for the H.S.
  • 42. Prayer & Jesus‟ Ministry  Look at the following passages, and note the times when Jesus prays: ◦ 3:21 ◦ 5:16 ◦ 6:12 ◦ 9:18 ◦ 23:34
  • 43. Prayer & Jesus‟ Ministry  H.S. and Prayer: “hand-in-hand”  Followers of Christ: Pray as often as Jesus did  Prayer of Jesus: ◦ 3:21 - at baptism ◦ 5:16 - He withdrew to lonely places: desert ◦ 6:12 - Before choosing disciples - prays on mountainside ◦ 9:18 - Before Peter identifies him as Christ - he prays over what people call him; Jesus tells Peter he prays for him ◦ Hanging on the cross: Jesus prays to God (23:34)  Jesus teaches others to pray (21:36; 11:13; Our Father)  Teaches us to pray: even in adverse times (Garden of Gethsemane (22:42)
  • 44. Parables  Luke: Focus parables on compassionate Messiah and universal Savior  Jesus draws parables on common activities: ◦ Fishing ◦ Farming ◦ Weddings ◦ Baking bread ◦ Shepherding  Contain: news of God‟s reign, repentance, and forgiveness  Parables: ask us to reflect on own lives in light of good news  Proclaim God‟s goodness & challenge those who resist this message
  • 45. Reflections on the Parables  Parable: vivid word picture -- makes simple comparison to daily life & a religious message ◦ Drawn on common experiences of daily life  Contain the heart of Jesus‟ good news about reign of God, repentance, & forgiveness…  Parables: show how Jesus faced opponents  Parables: Proclaim God‟s goodness &
  • 46. Joy and Peace (Lk. 15:11-32)  Luke: radiates joy and peace of Jesus ◦ Evident in opening verses of the Gospel  The Magnificat: sign of peace spoken by Mary  “The birth of the Messiah brings joy in heaven as the angels glorify God and announce peace.”  Shepherds experience joy & peace of Jesus - as they came in from the fields
  • 47. Continued  Crowds: rejoice over Jesus‟ life  Closest companions: experience Joy working for him  Joy at Jesus‟ entrance into Jerusalem: ◦ Blessed is he who is coming / as King in the name of the Lord! / Peace in heaven / and glory n the highest heavens! (Lk. 19:38)
  • 48. Most joyous occasion:  JESUS‟ Resurrection -- he greets his followers with peace and urges them to rejoice @ what God has accomplished for them.
  • 49. Joy & Peace  Luke 15  2 Themes: Come together in this chapter  Contains 3 important parables: ◦ Lost sheep ◦ Lost coin ◦ Lost son (“Prodigal Son”) ◦ The stories show the Pharisees anger toward Jesus for eating with sinners -- Jesus shows these parables in order to articulate God’s
  • 50. Parable of the Father‟s Love  Parable of the Prodigal Son  Focus: on God‟s love/the father‟s love -- @ lowest point in life, realizes he‟d be better at home  Son - returns at joyous occasion - which disturbs brother  The return: source of greatest rejoicing (15:32)
  • 51. Jesus as Compassionate Messiah  Jesus = compassionate Messiah who has come to prove God‟s great love  Born humbly, lives humbly  Outcasts - visit him first (shepherds)  Family: poor (gift of 2 turtle doves)  Luke‟s Gospel: resonates with the poor over the others  Look at Matt‟s first Beatitude and then Luke‟s (Pg. 122)
  • 52. Lazarus & the Rich Man  Luke: only one to tell story of Lazarus & the rich man  Lazarus: suffers in life - waiting for scraps from the table of the rich man  Lazarus: rewarded in heaven - the eternal reward [the rich man: opposite]  Those who have plenty, must share with those who have less. - Generosity is mandatory
  • 53. Continued  Zacchaeus: tax collector who climbed a tree to get a glimpse of Jesus  Jesus: asks „Z‟ to stay with him  Z: accepted Jesus into his home -- Jesus accepted him into his heart  People complained as Jesus ate with a tax collector/sinner  Z: Promised he‟d give 1/2 his wealth to the poor
  • 54. Jesus as Universal Savior  Savior for all people  Good Samaritan: story presented to show that everyone is our neighbor - Jesus shocks his listeners with this truth  Same as in Matt. 5:44 and Matt. 7:12 - embrace everyone & imitate our loving God
  • 55. The „Gospel of Women‟  Mary: perfect model of faith  Elizabeth and Anna: proclaim Jesus‟ true identity  Mary Magdalene: first to announce his resurrection  Jesus: includes women in key moments of his parables (parable of the lost coin)  Attitude of Jesus: contrast to that of rabbis/others - they are equals in the reign of God (faithful disciples who heard the word of God)
  • 56. Conclusion  Pgs 124-125