D) Scrip Formation 08 9

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4th PowerPoint - Scripture Formation

4th PowerPoint - Scripture Formation

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  • 1. How Christian Scriptures Were Formed Review
  • 2. Stages:
    • 1. Historical Jesus
      • Jesus is born in 6 - 4 B.C.
      • Dies approx. 30 A.D.
      • Lives normal Jewish life until about 27- 28 years of age
        • Public life: “Jesus teaches, heals, and proclaims God’s reign. He forms a group of apostles to carry on his work. Pontius Pilate has him crucified in April of 30 A.D.”
  • 3. Oral Tradition
    • 30 - 50 A.D.
      • Disciples live life in light of resurrection of Jesus.
      • The reflect on his meaning.
      • They preach, teach, and worship in his name.
      • Begin to assemble collections of Jesus’ material (eg: miracle stories, parables & passion narratives)
      • Move from Palestine to Mediterranean world
      • Paul’s 1st letter: 51 A.D.
  • 4. Written Letters & Gospels
    • 50s - 60s: Pauline Epistles
      • 65 - 100: Gospels written
        • 90 - 110: Revelation & other Apostolic writings…
  • 5. Historical World of Jesus:
    • Holy Land:
      • “ Promised Land”
      • “ Land of Israel”
      • “ Land of Judah”
      • “ The Land”
      • “ Palestine”
        • Greek name, after the Philistines
  • 6. Geographical Shape:
    • Rectangular
    • 145 miles, North to South
    • 25 miles wide in North
    • 87 miles wide in South (near Dead Sea)
      • Served as a crossroads for Egypt, Syran, and Persian expansions
      • Later: political conquests of Greece & Rome
  • 7. Map of Palestine
    • Ancient Israel
    • Western portion: rain
    • East. portion: no rain
    • Dead Sea:
      • Below Sea Level - and therefore holds a great amount of salt within its waters.
  • 8.  
  • 9. Three Key Regions
    • 1. Galilee
      • Northwest. Farmers/Sheppard's in the region
      • Jesus & most apostles were from here
      • Capernaum, Cana, Bethsaida = important cities
    • 2. Samaria
      • South of Galilee
      • Home of Samaritans - who accepted the Law of Moses and the belief in one God, though they rejected the writings of prophets & wisdom writings --
      • Rejected the Temple in Jerusalem as the center for Jewish worship
    • 3. Judea
      • Southern most part - dry, barren, and rocky
      • All of the leaders of the Jewish faith resided here…
      • Jerusalem was here - most of population here/Jericho
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16. Religious Practices
    • Only one Temple in Jerusalem
      • Holy Place in Jerusalem
      • Place of offering sacrifices to God & where they believed God to have resided
      • Only the High Priest could enter the Holy of Holies (during Yum Kippur) once per year.
        • Day of Atonement
      • New Testament Temple: Third Construction
  • 17. Temple
    • 3rd Construction in Jerusalem (at time of Jesus)
      • 1st - Solomon: Stood for 400 years before Babylonians
      • 2nd - Modest Version under Zerubbabel
      • 3rd - Herod the Great: “magnificent temple”
        • Begun in 19 B.C. (main construct finished in 9 B.C.)
        • Completely finished in 64 A.D. - six years before the time of Roman demolition.
  • 18. Jesus & Judaism:
    • Learned his Jewish religion in Nazareth’s synagogue
      • Synagogue: House of worship & prayer, a meeting house that was found in every Jewish community with 10+ men
      • Jerusalem thought to have 100+ synagogues
      • Synagogue - Three purposes:
        • House of prayer & worship
        • Place of discussion for legal settlements
        • Local school
  • 19. Jewish Synagogue – Turkey Ca. First Century
  • 20. First Century Synagogue Remains
  • 21. Jewish Oppression Under Foreign Rule
    • 6 Centuries:
      • Jews under foreign rulers:
        • Babylonians
        • Persions
        • Greeks
        • Seleucids
        • Romans (63 B.C. under Pompey)
  • 22. Political Arena Around Jesus
    • Palestine: Part of the Roman Empire
      • Stretched from Great Britain across the Mediterranean, including Greece, Northern Africa, Egypt, to Turkey…
    • Pax Romana: Peace of Rome
      • Everyone in Roman Empire: United under one ruler.
      • Common language, systems of roads, good system of justice, and strong army
  • 23. First Century Politics Even they had political differences…
  • 24.  
  • 25. Jewish Oppression Under Foreign Rule
    • At the start: Romans allowed autonomous rule under King Herod the Great
      • Cunning, Crafty, and at time Cruel
      • Known for his ‘slaughtering’ of innocents @ time of Jesus
      • Historian, Josephus, writes that Herod even killed several of his sons, and one (of 10) wives as he feared he might be overthrown.
  • 26. Herod the Great & His Palace
  • 27. First Century Jewish Beliefs What did the Jews believe in at the time of Jesus?
  • 28. 1st Century Jewish Beliefs
    • 1st Century Christians were Jews, though their belief in the Messiah (Jesus) set them apart
      • 1st Task: Spread the good news that Yahweh had fulfilled his promises to the Jews in Jesus
    • In order to understand better the N.T. - need to look at the beliefs of the Jews during the 1st Century…
  • 29. The Messiah
    • Most Jews believed (prior to Christ), that Yahweh would send a Messiah very soon.
      • Messiah - translated to Greek = Christos (Christ), which literally means “Anointed One”
    • Belief that God would bring someone like David - someone full of love and care for the people of Israel.
      • The successors to David were the opposite: full of corruption and weakness
      • They eventually faltered, allowing invaders in which destroyed the northern and southern kingdoms.
  • 30.
    • Because of David’s failed successors, and the destruction, the Israelites were forced into exile in Babylon. At this time, they were certain Yahweh would bring to them the Messiah.
    • Different views of what the Messiah would be like - even during the days of Jesus - but most believed that he would be like David; a political leader and a military czar who would bring back Israel’s prominence in the region.
      • Belief was that Yahweh would completely restore Israel to its “rightful place among the nations.”
  • 31.
    • Jesus: Contradicted popular expectations of what the Messiah was expected to do/say.
      • This is why so many rejected him as the Messiah
    • Jesus: A carpenter from Nazareth, not a military or royal figure
    • Jesus spoke of love and peace, not violence/war
    • Jesus interpreted his role as Messiah as one who suffers for others.
      • As Savior - he was the “Suffering Servant” which even when against the thinking of this apostles until the spirit enlightened them at Pentecost.
  • 32.  
  • 33. The Reign of God
    • This refers to the acceptance of God’s will by everyone.
    • Central to Jesus’ teaching and Jewish belief/understanding.
    • When God reveals himself to the Jews, and then through Christ, heaven & earth will meet (the Kingdom of God)
      • Justice will prevail
      • God’s peace, shalom , will embrace the whole world
  • 34. Reign of God
    • Acceptance of God’s will by everyone
      • Central theme in Jesus’ teaching & in faith of the Jewish faith.
    • Christians: believe Jesus both announces the coming of God’s reign and also ushers it in.
      • His life, ministry, teaching, & suffering: establish God’s reign once and for all.
  • 35. First Century Jewish Beliefs
    • The Messiah:
      • N.T. period = high in “messianic expectations”
      • Jews: Most believed that YHWH would soon send the Messiah. Messiah translated to Greek as Christos - meaning ‘anointed one.’
      • From time of King David’s reign, Jews believed that their covenant relationship with God meant that Yahweh would give them a king who would represent love and care for the people.
  • 36. Christianity & Reign of God
    • Christians believe Jesus both announces the coming of God’s reign and brings it in.
    • His life, healing ministry, teaching, and sacrifice on the cross have established God’s reign once and for all.
      • Christians have Jesus’ own mandate to help the reign of God grow and take hold in the hearts of people.
      • We do this by worshipping God, proclaiming the Gospels, living as Christ taught us, and helping those in need.
  • 37. The Torah
      • Abiding in the Law, or the Torah, was central to Jewish faith.
      • The Pentateuch, first five books, contains the Torah.
      • The Law is not arbitrary, but God’s revelation.
      • God expects obedience to the Law as a response to his covenant promise.
      • God had promised to protect, guide, and bless them forever…their response was to abide by God’s law.
  • 38. Judgment & Resurrection
    • Since 2nd Cen. B.C. - most Jews believed YHWH would judge the dead by rewarding the good & punishing evil
      • Prophet Daniel: Introduced the idea of the resurrection of good people who shall live forever.
    • Jesus: accepted the view of human destiny - and is held as core to Christianity.
      • Resurrection: Will take place as we are one with the Lord who conquers sin and death.
  • 39. Spirit World
    • N.T. times: belief in angels and demons
    • Jews began the thinking of angels as messengers of God.
    • Jews & Christians: believed in demons, but saw them as ultimately controlled by God.
  • 40. Parousia
    • The coming of the Messiah & the reign of God
    • Jesus will return in glory to establish the fullness of God’s reign.
    • Parousia = the Second Coming of Christ
    • N.T. epistles: state that they would see the Second Coming in their lifetime.
  • 41. Jewish Groups First Century
  • 42. Sadducees
    • Priests/Aristocrats who protected the temple and scriptures
    • Theologically conservative - accepted the law, but not the prophets.
    • They made up the Sanhedrin
    • They disappear following the Temple’s destruction in 70 A.D.
  • 43. Pharisees
    • 6000 members, but great influence at time of Jesus
    • Pharisee: “Separated One.”
    • Strict observance of the law - kept them from sin & Gentile influence.
    • Criticized Jesus for working with those outside the law.
    • Good models for fellow Jews.
  • 44. Pharisees Con’t
    • Desire to apply Torah to daily life
    • Many served as Scribes
    • Jesus criticized them because they thought they could earn heaven by keeping religious customs. Jesus taught that God’s love & reign are a pure gift - given to both saint/sinner
    • The continued after the destruction of the Temple - convening at Jamnia (near Tel-Aviv) and reformed Judaism. This is where the separation of Christian/Jew occurred.
  • 45. Essenes
    • Formed by a man called: “Teacher of Righteousness”
    • Belief: Most of those who practiced were impure, as was the Temple.
    • The withdrew themselves to a desert community - at Qumran (Dead Sea).
    • Celibate life, shared goods, lived a life of ritual purity.
    • John the Baptist may be a member.
  • 46. Zealots
    • Believed in violent overthrow in order to rid the Holy Land of Roman occupation.
    • Began in Galilee in protest to taxes and the occupation.
    • They were active as Jesus grew up and then during his public ministry.
    • Simon was a Zealot.
    • Eventually: formed revolt against Romans
  • 47. Jesus’ Origins According to Matthew & Luke
  • 48. Gospels
    • Matthew’s Version -
      • Matthew: Jewish-Christian writing for other Jewish-Christians
      • Purpose: to show Jesus fulfilled O.T. prophecies
        • Matt - traces Jesus’ roots to Abraham. Jesus is the promised Messiah. Son of David, fulfillment of Jewish hopes.
  • 49. Matthew Con’t
    • Jesus comes through power of H.S.
      • He is divine and human
      • To be named Immanuel “God is With Us!”
      • Joseph is made aware of this, according to Matthew, by means of an angel.
    • Jesus is born in Bethlehem, David’s home and the town Micah prophesied would be the home of the Messiah
      • Magi: Recognized him as a great king.
  • 50. Matthew
    • Jesus = the new Moses. He is also the new Israel.
      • Matthew uses the past to explain the present.
      • Idea: to convey theological truth
      • Parallels: Slaughter of the innocents, used to explain Moses’ parallel - and exile nto Egypt is parallel to Joseph (O.T.) taking his family there.
  • 51. Luke’s Version
    • Showed his Gentile-Christian identity
      • Jesus = Messiah to all
    • Stories of John the Baptist & Jesus mixed in order to show Jesus’ divine origins.
    • Jesus’ connection to the poor, evident from his birth.
      • Pharisees and pious Jews looked down on the poor; Jesus embraced
  • 52. Luke Con’t
    • Jerusalem is a key city:
      • Key symbol to Luke in Christianity
      • Luke shows Jesus on a journey to Jerusalem
      • Jerusalem: passion, death, & resurrection