D) Scrip Formation 08 9


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4th PowerPoint - Scripture Formation

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  • D) Scrip Formation 08 9

    1. 1. How Christian Scriptures Were Formed Review
    2. 2. Stages: <ul><li>1. Historical Jesus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus is born in 6 - 4 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dies approx. 30 A.D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lives normal Jewish life until about 27- 28 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public life: “Jesus teaches, heals, and proclaims God’s reign. He forms a group of apostles to carry on his work. Pontius Pilate has him crucified in April of 30 A.D.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Oral Tradition <ul><li>30 - 50 A.D. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disciples live life in light of resurrection of Jesus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reflect on his meaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They preach, teach, and worship in his name. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to assemble collections of Jesus’ material (eg: miracle stories, parables & passion narratives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move from Palestine to Mediterranean world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paul’s 1st letter: 51 A.D. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Written Letters & Gospels <ul><li>50s - 60s: Pauline Epistles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65 - 100: Gospels written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90 - 110: Revelation & other Apostolic writings… </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Historical World of Jesus: <ul><li>Holy Land: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Promised Land” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Land of Israel” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Land of Judah” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Land” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Palestine” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greek name, after the Philistines </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Geographical Shape: <ul><li>Rectangular </li></ul><ul><li>145 miles, North to South </li></ul><ul><li>25 miles wide in North </li></ul><ul><li>87 miles wide in South (near Dead Sea) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Served as a crossroads for Egypt, Syran, and Persian expansions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later: political conquests of Greece & Rome </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Map of Palestine <ul><li>Ancient Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Western portion: rain </li></ul><ul><li>East. portion: no rain </li></ul><ul><li>Dead Sea: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Below Sea Level - and therefore holds a great amount of salt within its waters. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Three Key Regions <ul><li>1. Galilee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northwest. Farmers/Sheppard's in the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus & most apostles were from here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capernaum, Cana, Bethsaida = important cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Samaria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South of Galilee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home of Samaritans - who accepted the Law of Moses and the belief in one God, though they rejected the writings of prophets & wisdom writings -- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected the Temple in Jerusalem as the center for Jewish worship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Judea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern most part - dry, barren, and rocky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of the leaders of the Jewish faith resided here… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jerusalem was here - most of population here/Jericho </li></ul></ul>
    9. 16. Religious Practices <ul><li>Only one Temple in Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Place in Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place of offering sacrifices to God & where they believed God to have resided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the High Priest could enter the Holy of Holies (during Yum Kippur) once per year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Day of Atonement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Testament Temple: Third Construction </li></ul></ul>
    10. 17. Temple <ul><li>3rd Construction in Jerusalem (at time of Jesus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st - Solomon: Stood for 400 years before Babylonians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd - Modest Version under Zerubbabel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd - Herod the Great: “magnificent temple” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begun in 19 B.C. (main construct finished in 9 B.C.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completely finished in 64 A.D. - six years before the time of Roman demolition. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 18. Jesus & Judaism: <ul><li>Learned his Jewish religion in Nazareth’s synagogue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synagogue: House of worship & prayer, a meeting house that was found in every Jewish community with 10+ men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jerusalem thought to have 100+ synagogues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synagogue - Three purposes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House of prayer & worship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place of discussion for legal settlements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local school </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 19. Jewish Synagogue – Turkey Ca. First Century
    13. 20. First Century Synagogue Remains
    14. 21. Jewish Oppression Under Foreign Rule <ul><li>6 Centuries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews under foreign rulers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babylonians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seleucids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Romans (63 B.C. under Pompey) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 22. Political Arena Around Jesus <ul><li>Palestine: Part of the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretched from Great Britain across the Mediterranean, including Greece, Northern Africa, Egypt, to Turkey… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pax Romana: Peace of Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone in Roman Empire: United under one ruler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common language, systems of roads, good system of justice, and strong army </li></ul></ul>
    16. 23. First Century Politics Even they had political differences…
    17. 25. Jewish Oppression Under Foreign Rule <ul><li>At the start: Romans allowed autonomous rule under King Herod the Great </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cunning, Crafty, and at time Cruel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known for his ‘slaughtering’ of innocents @ time of Jesus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historian, Josephus, writes that Herod even killed several of his sons, and one (of 10) wives as he feared he might be overthrown. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 26. Herod the Great & His Palace
    19. 27. First Century Jewish Beliefs What did the Jews believe in at the time of Jesus?
    20. 28. 1st Century Jewish Beliefs <ul><li>1st Century Christians were Jews, though their belief in the Messiah (Jesus) set them apart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Task: Spread the good news that Yahweh had fulfilled his promises to the Jews in Jesus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In order to understand better the N.T. - need to look at the beliefs of the Jews during the 1st Century… </li></ul>
    21. 29. The Messiah <ul><li>Most Jews believed (prior to Christ), that Yahweh would send a Messiah very soon. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messiah - translated to Greek = Christos (Christ), which literally means “Anointed One” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Belief that God would bring someone like David - someone full of love and care for the people of Israel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The successors to David were the opposite: full of corruption and weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They eventually faltered, allowing invaders in which destroyed the northern and southern kingdoms. </li></ul></ul>
    22. 30. <ul><li>Because of David’s failed successors, and the destruction, the Israelites were forced into exile in Babylon. At this time, they were certain Yahweh would bring to them the Messiah. </li></ul><ul><li>Different views of what the Messiah would be like - even during the days of Jesus - but most believed that he would be like David; a political leader and a military czar who would bring back Israel’s prominence in the region. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief was that Yahweh would completely restore Israel to its “rightful place among the nations.” </li></ul></ul>
    23. 31. <ul><li>Jesus: Contradicted popular expectations of what the Messiah was expected to do/say. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is why so many rejected him as the Messiah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jesus: A carpenter from Nazareth, not a military or royal figure </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus spoke of love and peace, not violence/war </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus interpreted his role as Messiah as one who suffers for others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As Savior - he was the “Suffering Servant” which even when against the thinking of this apostles until the spirit enlightened them at Pentecost. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 33. The Reign of God <ul><li>This refers to the acceptance of God’s will by everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>Central to Jesus’ teaching and Jewish belief/understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>When God reveals himself to the Jews, and then through Christ, heaven & earth will meet (the Kingdom of God) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice will prevail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God’s peace, shalom , will embrace the whole world </li></ul></ul>
    25. 34. Reign of God <ul><li>Acceptance of God’s will by everyone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central theme in Jesus’ teaching & in faith of the Jewish faith. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christians: believe Jesus both announces the coming of God’s reign and also ushers it in. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His life, ministry, teaching, & suffering: establish God’s reign once and for all. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 35. First Century Jewish Beliefs <ul><li>The Messiah: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N.T. period = high in “messianic expectations” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews: Most believed that YHWH would soon send the Messiah. Messiah translated to Greek as Christos - meaning ‘anointed one.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From time of King David’s reign, Jews believed that their covenant relationship with God meant that Yahweh would give them a king who would represent love and care for the people. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 36. Christianity & Reign of God <ul><li>Christians believe Jesus both announces the coming of God’s reign and brings it in. </li></ul><ul><li>His life, healing ministry, teaching, and sacrifice on the cross have established God’s reign once and for all. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians have Jesus’ own mandate to help the reign of God grow and take hold in the hearts of people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We do this by worshipping God, proclaiming the Gospels, living as Christ taught us, and helping those in need. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 37. The Torah <ul><ul><li>Abiding in the Law, or the Torah, was central to Jewish faith. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pentateuch, first five books, contains the Torah. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Law is not arbitrary, but God’s revelation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God expects obedience to the Law as a response to his covenant promise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>God had promised to protect, guide, and bless them forever…their response was to abide by God’s law. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 38. Judgment & Resurrection <ul><li>Since 2nd Cen. B.C. - most Jews believed YHWH would judge the dead by rewarding the good & punishing evil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prophet Daniel: Introduced the idea of the resurrection of good people who shall live forever. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jesus: accepted the view of human destiny - and is held as core to Christianity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resurrection: Will take place as we are one with the Lord who conquers sin and death. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 39. Spirit World <ul><li>N.T. times: belief in angels and demons </li></ul><ul><li>Jews began the thinking of angels as messengers of God. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews & Christians: believed in demons, but saw them as ultimately controlled by God. </li></ul>
    31. 40. Parousia <ul><li>The coming of the Messiah & the reign of God </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus will return in glory to establish the fullness of God’s reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Parousia = the Second Coming of Christ </li></ul><ul><li>N.T. epistles: state that they would see the Second Coming in their lifetime. </li></ul>
    32. 41. Jewish Groups First Century
    33. 42. Sadducees <ul><li>Priests/Aristocrats who protected the temple and scriptures </li></ul><ul><li>Theologically conservative - accepted the law, but not the prophets. </li></ul><ul><li>They made up the Sanhedrin </li></ul><ul><li>They disappear following the Temple’s destruction in 70 A.D. </li></ul>
    34. 43. Pharisees <ul><li>6000 members, but great influence at time of Jesus </li></ul><ul><li>Pharisee: “Separated One.” </li></ul><ul><li>Strict observance of the law - kept them from sin & Gentile influence. </li></ul><ul><li>Criticized Jesus for working with those outside the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Good models for fellow Jews. </li></ul>
    35. 44. Pharisees Con’t <ul><li>Desire to apply Torah to daily life </li></ul><ul><li>Many served as Scribes </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus criticized them because they thought they could earn heaven by keeping religious customs. Jesus taught that God’s love & reign are a pure gift - given to both saint/sinner </li></ul><ul><li>The continued after the destruction of the Temple - convening at Jamnia (near Tel-Aviv) and reformed Judaism. This is where the separation of Christian/Jew occurred. </li></ul>
    36. 45. Essenes <ul><li>Formed by a man called: “Teacher of Righteousness” </li></ul><ul><li>Belief: Most of those who practiced were impure, as was the Temple. </li></ul><ul><li>The withdrew themselves to a desert community - at Qumran (Dead Sea). </li></ul><ul><li>Celibate life, shared goods, lived a life of ritual purity. </li></ul><ul><li>John the Baptist may be a member. </li></ul>
    37. 46. Zealots <ul><li>Believed in violent overthrow in order to rid the Holy Land of Roman occupation. </li></ul><ul><li>Began in Galilee in protest to taxes and the occupation. </li></ul><ul><li>They were active as Jesus grew up and then during his public ministry. </li></ul><ul><li>Simon was a Zealot. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually: formed revolt against Romans </li></ul>
    38. 47. Jesus’ Origins According to Matthew & Luke
    39. 48. Gospels <ul><li>Matthew’s Version - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matthew: Jewish-Christian writing for other Jewish-Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: to show Jesus fulfilled O.T. prophecies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Matt - traces Jesus’ roots to Abraham. Jesus is the promised Messiah. Son of David, fulfillment of Jewish hopes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 49. Matthew Con’t <ul><li>Jesus comes through power of H.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He is divine and human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be named Immanuel “God is With Us!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph is made aware of this, according to Matthew, by means of an angel. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jesus is born in Bethlehem, David’s home and the town Micah prophesied would be the home of the Messiah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Magi: Recognized him as a great king. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 50. Matthew <ul><li>Jesus = the new Moses. He is also the new Israel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matthew uses the past to explain the present. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea: to convey theological truth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallels: Slaughter of the innocents, used to explain Moses’ parallel - and exile nto Egypt is parallel to Joseph (O.T.) taking his family there. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 51. Luke’s Version <ul><li>Showed his Gentile-Christian identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus = Messiah to all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stories of John the Baptist & Jesus mixed in order to show Jesus’ divine origins. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus’ connection to the poor, evident from his birth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharisees and pious Jews looked down on the poor; Jesus embraced </li></ul></ul>
    43. 52. Luke Con’t <ul><li>Jerusalem is a key city: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key symbol to Luke in Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Luke shows Jesus on a journey to Jerusalem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jerusalem: passion, death, & resurrection </li></ul></ul>
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