The Catholic Church up until the Middle Ages controlled a great deal of the beliefs of the West. Everything from when to plant to what one should ‘scientifically’ believe in. The Church: taught that Earth, not the sun, was the center of the universe. Scientists, like Galileo, were excommunicated because of such beliefs. Science begins to challenge such beliefs as Creation, Creator, miracles, etc.
Religion & culture at times are intertwined. Separation of Church & State:
Elements of Islam are found throughout almost all of the “Islamic States.” The nation of Israel is based heavily on its relationship with Judaism. India & Hindu. Imperial Japan & religion, even China & atheism.