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  • 1. Surface Changes
    Howard Ignatius, “Delicate Arch, Arches National Park” May 1, 2009 via Flickr, Creative Commons attribution
  • 2. Two Types of Changes
    Slow
    • Weathering
    • 3. Erosion
    Fast
  • Weathering
    Physical or mechanical weathering
    • Frost Wedging
    Water expands when it freezes
    • Thermal expansion
    Rocks break due to temperature changes
    • Exfoliation or unloading
    Rocks break into sheets form expansion of rock
    Glenn Scofield Williams, “The Art of Exfoliation” July 7, 2007 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
    Samantha McGregor, “Weathering” October 5, 2009
    Samantha McGregor, “weathered roads” October 5, 2009
  • 7. Chemical Weathering
    Solution
    Minerals dissolved into water
    Karst Topography
    Groundwater dissolving sedimentary rock (sinkholes, caves, springs)
    Steve Barringer, “ Child Angel III-niño angel” March 24, 2009 via Flickr, Creative Commons NoDervs License
    Andrew Stawerz, “Cheddar Caves-Mirror Pool” June 11, 2006 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
  • 8. Oxidation
    oxygen combined with iron-bearing minerals “rusting”
    Andrea Schaffer, “Rust” March 10, 2007 via Flickr, creative commons Attribution
  • 9. Biological Weathering
    • Roots of trees and other plants
    • 10. Lichens, fungi, and other micro-organisms
    • 11. Animals (including humans)
    Waka Jawaka, ”Roots" August 23,2007 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
    Mike McCaffrey, “DSC N9622 Photographic Fungus” August 15, 2007 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
  • 12. Erosion
    Water Erosion
    • Rain and streams
    Wind Erosion
    • Sand dunes and deserts
    Smabs Sputzer, “Weir at Marple Dale” August 11, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution.
    Vyanchslav Argenberg,“Siq, Petra (2007-06-072)”September 6, 2007 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution.
  • 13. Erosion Continued…
    Ice Erosion
    • Glaciers ( Great Lakes)
    Wave Erosion
    • Coasts
    Ricardo Martins, “Perito Moreno Glacier” April 30, 2007 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
    Kyknoord, “Line in the Sand” October 6, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
  • 14. Volcanic Eruptions
    Blasts
    • Mixture of ash, gas, and rocks
    Hot lava
    • Covers ground, killing everything
    India Amos, “Eruption of Mount Vesuvius” April 17, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
  • 15. Volcanoes: Domino Effect
    Can lead to
    Earthquakes
    • Can lead to landslides
    Landslides
    • Mixing debris with water
    Tsunamis
    • Dirt overflows streams
    Clipart from PowerPoint
  • 16. Earthquakes
    • When two plates (parts) of the Earth Slide against each other
    • 17. Causes the Earth to shake
    Clipart from PowerPoint
  • 18. Landslides
    Downward movement of materials (rock and soil)
    Topple: Large parts of rock break off
    Slide: large connected mass “slides” down a slope
    Barry Maynard,”Topple” December 2, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
    Barry Maynard, “Slide” November 26, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
  • 19. Landslides Continued
    Debris avalanche
    • Rapid debris flow
    Mudflow
    • Wet material flowing rapidly in a downward motion
    Creep
    • Slow, steady downward movement of rock and soil
    Barry Maynard, “Debris Avalanche” December 2, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
    Barry Maynard, “Creep” December 2, 2008 via Flickr, Creative Commons Attribution
  • 20. Tsunamis
    • Large waves from the ocean spread over the coast and on to land
    • 21. Can be caused by:
    • 22. Earthquakes
    • 23. Volcanoes
    Clipart from PowerPoint
  • 24. Write
    Most interesting fact.
    Something you’re curious about.
    Favorite form of surface change.
  • 25. Think About It…
    • The land changes constantly.
    • 26. Many forms of natural changes.
    • 27. Humans contribute too!
    -How do you think we’re involved?
    Clipart from PowerPoint
  • 28. Citation
    Gore, Pamela J.W. "Weathering." Georgia Perimeter College. Georgia Perimeter      College, 5 Feb. 2002. Web. 5 Oct. 2009. <http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~pgore/      geology/geo101/weather.htm>.
    Impacts and Effects of Volcanoes. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2009.      <http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/volcanoes/effects.php>.
    "Landslide Hazard Information-Causes, Pictures, Definition." Geology.com. N.p.,      n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2009. <http://geology.com/usgs/landslides/#>.
    "Tsunamis and Earthquakes Life of a Tsunami." USGS Science for a changing world.      USGS, 22 Oct. 2008. Web. 5 Oct. 2009. <http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/      basics.html>.
    Wald, Lisa. "The Science of Earthquakes." USGS. N.p., 25 June 2009. Web. 5 Oct.      2009. <http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/kids/eqscience.php>.