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Verb

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  1. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  2. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  3. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  4. by Rachel Bar Yosef
  5. A Note to Students and Teachers: These lessons are not intended to Introduce you to the English verb system. Use them as a review of what you’ve already learned.
  6. Are English Verbs “Ichsa”? Are you miserable because you make mistakes with English verbs? Do you think you will never be able to learn? Are you sorry you didn’t listen to your teacher?
  7. It’s not really so hard!!! You CAN speak and write good English You CAN get good grades on English exams. You only have to learn a few simple rules. Are you ready to LEARN and PRACTICE?
  8. LESSON 1 An Overview
  9. We talk a lot in these lessons about V1, V2, and V3. What in the world are V1, V2, and V3?
  10. Does this look familiar? – eat ate eaten – fall fell fallen – fly flew flown This is the table of irregular verbs that we know and love! V1is the first column (“eat”, ,(‫המקור‬ ‫צורת‬ V2 is the second column (“ate”, past simple form), V3 is the third column (“eaten”, called—oh well, V3)
  11. Lots of people forget that a verb that ends in “d” or “ed” doesn’t have to be a verb in the simple past. Maybe it’s a regular verb in V3 DISGUISED as a simple past verb. For example: love loved loved hate hated hated worry worried worried
  12. 5Verb Formulas be + ing (progressive)--He was crying. be + V3 (passive)--He was beaten. Four men were killed. have + V3 (perfect)--I have already eaten. do + V1 (simple)-- Do you love me? I don’t hate you. modal + V1 (modal)--I can wait. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  13. BE HAVE DO MODALS is, am, are, was, were has, have had do, does, did shall, will, should, would, may, might, must, can, could 1) be + ing (progressive) have + V3 (perfect) do + V1 (simple) modal + V1 The bus is coming. We were waiting. She has finished. We have eaten. Do you love me? I didn’t hear you. You should try. I may visit my aunt. 2) be + V3 (passive) A lot of money is spent. People were hurt. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  14. be is, am, are was, were 1.be + Ving (progressive) The bus is coming. We were waiting. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  15. be is, am, are was, were 2.be + V3 (passive) Our mother was invited. Many promises were broken. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  16. have has, have had have + V3 (perfect) You have broken your promise. Our friendship has survived. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  17. do do, does did do + V1 (simple) I don’t enjoy homework. Do you like school? ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  18. modals shall, will, should, would, may, might, must, can, could, ought modal + V1 (modal) Miri can speak four languages. We must finish. Would you like some coffee? ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  19. This is the end of Lesson 1
  20. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  21. by Rachel Bar Yosef
  22. do do, does did do + V1 (simple) I don’t enjoy homework. Do you like school?
  23. A special note about DO: We say that do is the helping verb for the “simple” tenses, but if they’re “simple”, then so is making peace with our neighbors! Pay attention:Pay attention:
  24. With PRESENT SIMPLE and PAST SIMPLE ONLY: In present simple and past simple, there are 3 kinds of sentences: – POSITIVE (+) Harry understands Amharic. – NEGATIVE (-) Jill doesn’t understand Amharic. – QUESTION (?) Does Jill understand French? What’s going on here????
  25. In ( + ), the verb really has 2 jobs: 1) MEANING (UNDERSTANDS(‫להבין‬ -- 2) GRAMMAR (UNDERSTANDS), which includes: •Time (understands, not understood; “‫“הבין‬ ‫ולא‬ ”‫)”מבין‬ •Number -- “understands” can’t be ‫רבים‬ (think of he/she/it, which are all (‫יחיד‬ •Person -- “understands” can’t be first person (I understands???) or second person (you understands????)
  26. ‫את‬ ‫עצמו‬ ‫על‬ ‫מקבל‬ ‫הפועל‬ ( + ) ‫ב‬ ‫משמעות‬ ‫הן‬ -- ‫התפקידים‬ ‫שני‬ HARRY DREAMS)) ‫דקדוק‬ ‫והן‬ . ‫פיצול‬ ‫יש‬ ( ? ) ‫ו‬ ( - ) ‫.ב‬ ‫תפקיד‬ ‫ואת‬ ‫המשמעות‬ ‫עתה‬ ‫תופס‬ ‫הפועל‬ ‫העיקרי‬. (Harry doesn’t dream) ‫תפקיד‬ ‫את‬ ‫תופס‬ ‫הדקדוק‬ ‫הפועל‬ ‫עתה‬ ‫העזר‬ (Harry doesn’t dream) ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  27. Now do you understand why the main verb must always be ?‫המקור‬ ‫בצורת‬
  28. Let’s Practice.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): “Shlomi loves computers. Before his father bought him a computer, he thought he would never be able to learn. He didn’t ________ he was clever enough. But now he’s a real professional!” “If Shlomi didn’t _________ computers to begin with, why did his father ________ him a computer?” “He __________ to encourage him. He knew that computers can be a wonderful help with schoolwork.”
  29. Let’s Practice.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): “Shlomi loves computers. Before his father bought him a computer, he thought he would never be able to learn. He didn’t _think__ he was clever enough. But now he’s a real professional!” “If Shlomi didn’t __like___ computers to begin with, why did his father ___buy__ him a computer?” “He _wanted___ to encourage him. He knew that computers can be a wonderful help with schoolwork.”
  30. Let’s Practice.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): “Hello, Mom? I have a problem. I left my keys at home this morning.” “Where did you ____________ them?” “I ___________ them on the table. __________ you see them?” “Yes, but you _________ have to worry. I won’t lock the door.”
  31. Let’s Practice.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): “Hello, Mom? I have a problem. I left my keys at home this morning.” “Where did you ___leave____ them?” “I ___left____ them on the table. _Can or Do_ you see them?” “Yes, but you __don’t__ have to worry. I won’t lock the door.”
  32. BUT Don’t think BE/HAVE/DO can only be helping verbs .(‫עזר‬ ‫)פועלי‬ Often they are main verbs .(‫העיקרי‬ ‫)הפועל‬
  33. be/have/do as main verbs: You are being stupid! Dan has had too many absences. What did you do last night?
  34. In the following passage, write “HV” in the parentheses after a Helping Verb. If the word isn’t a helping verb, DON’T WRITE ANYTHING. My parents never listen to me. Sometimes they want me to do ( ) something that I don’t ( ) want to do ( ), or else they want me to not do ( ) what I do ( ) want. I have ( ) always been ( ) jealous of Moshe. His parents are ( ) so understanding! He doesn’t ( ) have ( ) any problems with them. They’re ( ) young, and patient, and they remember what it was ( ) like to be ( ) young. Moshe has ( ) never had ( ) any problems with his parents. Not like me. Moshe has ( ) all the luck, and I don’t ( ) have ( ) any. And I never do ( ) anything right!
  35. My parents never listen to me. Sometimes they want me to do ( ) something that I don’t ( HV ) want to do ( ), or else they want me to not do ( ) what I do ( HV ) want. I have ( HV ) always been ( ) jealous of Moshe. His parents are ( ) so understanding! He doesn’t ( HV ) have ( ) any problems with them. They’re ( ) young, and patient, and they remember what it was ( ) like to be ( ) young. Moshe has ( HV ) never had ( ) any problems with his parents. Not like me. Moshe has ( ) all the luck, and I don’t ( HV ) have ( ) any. And I never do ( ) anything right!
  36. This is the end of Lesson 2
  37. by Rachel Bar Yosef
  38. LESSON 3LESSON 3 A Few Words AboutA Few Words About Modals andModals and Semi-ModalsSemi-Modals
  39. modals shall, will, should, would, may, might, must, can, could, ought modal + V1 (modal) Miri can speak four languages. We must finish. Would you like some coffee? ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  40. A NOTE ABOUT SEMI-MODALS You shouldn’t--indeed, you can’t--use “can” in the past or in the future tense. Use a form of “be able to” instead, or (in past tense), use “could”. Examples: I can’t speak Russian. I was able to or could speak it when I was young. I will be able to speak it again after my trip to Moscow.
  41. A NOTE ABOUT SEMI-MODALS Another way to say “must” is “have to” (they both mean the same thing). In fact, in negative sentences (-), questions (?), and in the past or future tenses, you can’t use “must”; you have to use “have to”. Example: I must hurry. I have to hurry. You don’t have to hurry. She had to hurry so that she wouldn’t be late.
  42. Let’s Practice.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): “Shirli, must you play the radio so loud?” “What __________ you say?” “Do you _____ ____ play the radio so loud?” “No, I don’t ______ _____. Do you _________ me to turn it down?” “Yes, I do, please, if you don’t _________ me to lose my hearing.”
  43. Let’s Practice.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): “Shirli, must you play the radio so loud?” “What ___did____ you say?” “Do you __have to___ play the radio so loud?” “No, I don’t __have to___. Do you __want___ me to turn it down?” “Yes, I do, please, if you don’t _want____ me to lose my hearing.”
  44. Let’s Practice.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): “_________ you help me, please? I want a book about the Internet, but I ___________ find one.” “_________ you look among the computer books?” “Yes, I __________, but I ______________ find anything.” “Well, I’m ____________ somebody else right now, but I _______ ____ ______ ___ help you in about ten minutes. ________ you come back in ten minutes?” “OK. And in the meantime, I __________ try again. Maybe I _____ ___ _____ ___ find it by then.”
  45. Let’s Practice.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): “___Can___ you help me, please? I want a book about the Internet, but I ___can’t___ find one.” “___Did___ you look among the computer books?” “Yes, I ___did____, but I __couldn’t____ find anything.” “Well, I’m __helping___ somebody else right now, but I ___will be able to__ help you in about ten minutes. ___Can__ you come back in ten minutes?” “OK. And in the meantime, I ___will___ try again. Maybe I __will be able to__ find it by then.”
  46. Refresh Your Memory-- Take another look at the table of helping verbs. Pay attention to the colors.
  47. BE HAVE DO MODALS is, am, are, was, were has, have had do, does, did shall, will, should, would, may, might, must, can, could 1) be + ing (progressive) have + V3 (perfect) do + V1 (simple) modal + V1 The bus is coming. We were waiting. She has finished. We have eaten. Do you love me? I didn’t hear you. You should try. I may visit my aunt. 2) be + V3 (passive) A lot of money is spent. People were hurt. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  48. Let’s Review.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. Moshe _________ drive (V1) more carefully. He _____________ drive (V1) so carelessly. 2. _________ you want (V1) anything to eat? Yes, thanks. I ___________ like (V1) a sandwich. 3. Bob ______ acting in movies and making lots of money. 4. __________ you seen (V3 - irregular verb) my hat? No, I ________ remember (V1) seeing it. 5. Dan ______ wasted (V3 - regular verb) all of his money. 6. Some Americans _______ surprised (V3 - regular verb) when Bush ____ elected (V3 - regular verb) President. 7. These photographs ________ taken (V3 - irregular
  49. Let’s Review.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. Moshe _should__ drive (V1) more carefully. He ___shouldn’t_ drive (V1) so carelessly. 2. ___Do____ you want (V1) anything to eat? Yes, thanks. I __would____ like (V1) a sandwich. 3. Bob __is__ acting in movies and making lots of money. 4. ___Have___ you seen (V3 - irregular verb) my hat? No, I __don’t_ remember (V1) seeing it. 5. Dan _has__ wasted (V3 - regular verb) all of his money. 6. Some Americans _were__ surprised (V3 - regular verb) when Clinton _was_elected (V3 - regular verb) President. 7. These photographs __were__ taken (V3 - irregular verb) at Niagara Falls.
  50. Let’s Review Some More.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. Don’t you ________ you _________ drunk enough beer? 2. People should __________ a dentist once a year. 3. I will ________ an umbrella, because it may __________. 4. Gabi has always ___________ to visit India. 5. Most of our friends had already _________ the party when we arrived. Why did they _________ so soon? 6. Please forgive me for phoning you so early this morning. __________ you sleeping? 7. I was ___________ TV, when suddenly I heard a shot. 8. Poor Miri! She’s __________ her arm! Call a doctor! ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  51. Let’s Review Some More.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. Don’t you _think__ you __have___ drunk enough beer? 2. People should ___see____ a dentist once a year. 3. I will __take__ an umbrella, because it may __rain____. 4. Gabi has always __wanted___ to visit India. 5. Most of our friends had already __left___ the party when we arrived. Why did they __leave__ so soon? 6. Please forgive me for phoning you so early this morning. __Were____ you sleeping? 7. I was __watching_ TV, when suddenly I heard a shot. 8. Poor Miri! She’s __broken__ her arm! Call a doctor! ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  52. Let’s Try a Test.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. I don’t _________ to think about it. 2. Anat _______ lost ten kilo. You ___________ see her! 3. Did you _____________ to take your keys? 4. I haven’t ________, and I _____ not planning to eat anything before dinner. 5. ________ you considered going into politics? 6. He is ______________ a great expert. 7. A lot of wine was __________ at the party last night. 8. We ___________ talking on the telephone when the lights went out.
  53. Let’s Try a Test.... Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. I don’t _want____ to think about it. 2. Anat __has__ lost ten kilo. You _should____ see her! 3. Did you __remember___ to take your keys? 4. I haven’t __eaten_, and I _am__ not planning to eat anything before dinner. 5. __Have__ you considered going into politics? 6. He is __considered__ a great expert. 7. A lot of wine was __drunk___ at the party last night. 8. We ___were____ talking on the telephone when the lights went out.
  54. A Test....Part 2: Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 9. You could _________ until the last minute, or you could ________ the work now and _________ it over with. 10. _________ you name ten countries in Africa? 11. I __________ sleep very well last night. 12. I have _________ my promise, and I _________ keep my word.
  55. A Test....Part 2: Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 9. You could __wait___ until the last minute, or you could ___do___ the work now and ___get___ it over with. 10. ___Can___ you name ten countries in Africa? 11. I __didn’t__ sleep very well last night. 12. I have __given__ my promise, and I __will___ keep my word.
  56. This is the end of Lesson 3
  57. by Rachel Bar Yosef
  58. ? LESSON 4LESSON 4 V
  59. English verb phrases can be l o n g! I couldn’t have been expected to havecouldn’t have been expected to have knownknown that. ‫!יו‬ An 8-word verb! ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  60. Forming Yes/No Questions Take the first element (‫)מרכיב‬ of the verb and put it before the subject (‫:)נושא‬ I can believe it. Can you believe it? I’ve been there. Have you been there?
  61. Forming questions...still! Follow the same rule even for a monster verb! He couldn’t have been expected to understand. Could he have been expected to understand? ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  62. How do I translate "‫"האם‬ when I’m forming a yes-no question? ©Rachel Bar Yosef,1997
  63. To translate “‫”האם‬when forming a yes-no question, simply begin the question with the suitable helping verb. ©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  64. Are you serious? ? ‫האם‬‫אתה‬ ‫רציני‬ Are you listening? ‫האם‬‫אתה‬ ‫?מקשיב‬ Do you collect stamps? ‫האם‬‫אוסף‬ ‫אתה‬ ‫?בולים‬ Have you lost weight? ‫האם‬ ‫?רזית‬ Will he succeed? ‫האם‬‫יצליח‬ ‫הוא‬ ? Can you convince me? ‫האם‬‫אותי‬ ‫לשכנע‬ ‫תוכל‬ ?©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997
  65. Let’s Practice.... Complete the conversation: BENNY: Arik! I haven’t seen you for a long time! __________________________________________? ARIK: Of course I haven’t been hiding! I’ve been very busy. BENNY: _______________________________________? ARIK: Yes, I’m studying a lot. I want to do well on my exams. BENNY: ________________________________________? ARIK: Yes, unfortunately, I still have that part-time job. It’s really too much. That’s why I’m always so tired. BENNY: ________________________________________? ARIK: You’re right. I guess I wasn’t smart to take the job. But I need the money! BENNY: ________________________________________? ARIK: Yes, I’ve been able to save a lot of money, although not as much as I’d hoped to save!
  66. Let’s Practice.... Complete the conversation: BENNY: Arik! I haven’t seen you for a long time! _Have you been hiding?_____________________? ARIK: Of course I haven’t been hiding! I’ve been very busy. BENNY: __Are you studying a lot?___________________? ARIK: Yes, I’m studying a lot. I want to do well on my exams. BENNY: ___Do you still have that part-time job?________? ARIK: Yes, unfortunately, I still have that part-time job. It’s really too much. That’s why I’m always so tired. BENNY: _Are you sure you were smart to take the job?___? ARIK: You’re right. I guess I wasn’t smart to take the job. But I need the money! BENNY: __Have you been able to save any money?______? ARIK: Yes, I’ve been able to save a lot of money, although not as much as I’d hoped to save!
  67. Let’s Practice Ask these questions in English: ? ‫רעש‬ ‫הרבה‬ ‫כך‬ ‫כל‬ ‫לעשות‬ ‫חייבים‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫האם‬ ______________________________________________ ? ‫הערב‬ ‫אותך‬ ‫אראה‬ ‫האם‬ _________________________________________________ ? ‫במילון‬ ‫להשתמש‬ ‫לנו‬ ‫מותר‬ ‫האם‬ _________________________________________________ ? ‫השתגעת‬ _________________________________________________ ? ‫מקשיב‬ ‫אתה‬ ‫האם‬ _________________________________________________
  68. Let’s Practice Ask these questions in English: ? ‫רעש‬ ‫הרבה‬ ‫כך‬ ‫כל‬ ‫לעשות‬ ‫חייבים‬ ‫אתם‬ ‫האם‬ _)Do you have to/Must you) make so much noise?_________ ? ‫הערב‬ ‫אותך‬ ‫אראה‬ ‫האם‬ _Will I see you tonight?______________________________ ? ‫במילון‬ ‫להשתמש‬ ‫לנו‬ ‫מותר‬ ‫האם‬ _)Are we allowed to/ May we) use a dictionary?___________ ? ‫השתגעת‬ _Are you crazy? Have you gone crazy?_________________ ? ‫מקשיב‬ ‫אתה‬ ‫האם‬ _Are you listening?_________________________________
  69. Let’s Practice Ask these questions in English: ? ‫בפטרה‬ ‫בקרת‬ ‫פעם‬ ‫אי‬ ‫האם‬ _________________________________________________ ? ‫מגוחך‬ ‫כך‬ ‫כל‬ ‫דבר‬ ‫בימיך‬ ‫שמעת‬ ‫האם‬ _________________________________________________ ? ‫בהפגנה‬ ‫הייתם‬ ‫האם‬ _________________________________________________ ? ‫שלי‬ ‫המפתחות‬ ‫את‬ ‫ראית‬ ‫האם‬ _________________________________________________ ? ‫אותם‬ ‫להזמין‬ ‫לי‬ ‫מציע‬ ‫היית‬ ‫האם‬ _________________________________________________
  70. Let’s Practice Ask these questions in English: ? ‫בפטרה‬ ‫בקרת‬ ‫פעם‬ ‫אי‬ ‫האם‬ _Have you ever visited Petra?_________________________ ? ‫מגוחך‬ ‫כך‬ ‫כל‬ ‫דבר‬ ‫בימיך‬ ‫שמעת‬ ‫האם‬ _Have you ever heard anything so ridiculous?____________ ? ‫בהפגנה‬ ‫הייתם‬ ‫האם‬ _Were you at the demonstration?______________________ ? ‫שלי‬ ‫המפתחות‬ ‫את‬ ‫ראית‬ ‫האם‬ _Have you seen my keys?____________________________ ? ‫אותם‬ ‫להזמין‬ ‫לי‬ ‫מציע‬ ‫היית‬ ‫האם‬ _Would you )advise me to/suggest that I) invite them?_____
  71. WH-wordsWH-words Learn these question words: who whom whose which what where when why ??????????
  72. And these, too: how how much how many how often [‫תדירות‬ ‫]באיזו‬ how long (ago) [(‫זמן‬ ‫כמה‬ (‫]לפני‬ how + ‫שהוא‬ ‫תואר‬ ‫כל‬ (how rich, how strong, how sick) ?????????? WH-wordsWH-words
  73. How easy is it? It’s really easy! (The answer:) I want my money. (The next question:) Why do you want your money? (The answer:) I’ve given Adam some money. (The next question:) How much money have you given him? (The answer:) I’m planning to leave tomorrow. (The next question:) Why aren’t you planning to leave today?
  74. “Who” and “What” as subjects Where who or what refers to the subject ,(‫)הנושא‬ the Hebrew translation is ‫מה‬ ‫או‬ ‫?מי‬ If who or what refers to the subject, DON’T use do- does-did in the simple tenses; DON’T change the word order: Answer: Tal loves Rami Kleinstein’s music. Question: Who loves Rami Kleinstein’s music?
  75. “Stumpers”(‫(מכשולים‬ How old are you? ? ‫אתה‬ ‫כמה‬ ‫בן‬ What happened ? ‫קרה‬ ‫?מה‬ What did x do? ? X ‫עשה‬ ‫מה‬ When were you born? ‫נולדת‬ ‫מתי‬ ? What do you do for a living? ?‫עובד‬ ‫אתה‬ ‫במה‬ How long will he be gone? ?‫יהיה‬ ‫לא‬ ‫הוא‬ ‫זמן‬ ‫לכמה‬
  76. How good are you at this? Ask the right questions. See how much you’ve learned. X: Hello, I’m phoning about your advertisement. _____________________________________________? MOTI: They’re not very old. Five years isn’t really so old. Anyway, they’re in good shape. X: _____________________________________________? MOTI: I’m not “getting rid of” them. I’m offering them because I’m moving to a new flat, where I’m not allowed to keep them. X: _____________________________________________? MOTI: I don’t understand it either. They don’t bother anyone.
  77. How good are you at this? Ask the right questions. See how much you’ve learned. X: Hello, I’m phoning about your advertisement. _How old are they?______________________________? MOTI: They’re not very old. Five years isn’t really so old. Anyway, they’re in good shape. X: _Why are you getting rid of them?_________________? MOTI: I’m not “getting rid of” them. I’m offering them because I’m moving to a new flat, where I’m not allowed to keep them. X: _Why aren’t you allowed to keep them?_____________? MOTI: I don’t understand it either. They don’t bother anyone.
  78. Keep going... X: ____________________________________________? MOTI: You can take them whenever it’s convenient. I’m always home. X: ____________________________________________? MOTI: I live on the corner of Plony and Almony. X: I know the building. ___________________________? MOTI: My entrance is Number 2. X: ____________________________________________? MOTI: Oh, I don’t want any money for them. All I care about is finding a good home for them! X: A good home! ________________________________? MOTI: Of course I’m not selling a set of skis! I’m giving away my beloved cats!
  79. Keep going... X: _When can I take them?________________________? MOTI: You can take them whenever it’s convenient. I’m always home. X: _Where do you live?___________________________? MOTI: I live on the corner of Plony and Almony. X: I know the building. _Which entrance is yours?_____? MOTI: My entrance is Number 2. X: _How much money do you want for them?_________? MOTI: Oh, I don’t want any money for them. All I care about is finding a good home for them! X: A good home! _Aren’t you selling a set of skis?_____? MOTI: Of course I’m not selling a set of skis! I’m giving away my beloved cats!
  80. CONGRATULATIONS! YOUR NAME has been awarded the M.V. )Master of Verbs(

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