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    Location based services nz Location based services nz Document Transcript

    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE LOCATION BASED SERVICES Prepared by Keith Pinney
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE For some, it might be hard (or impossible) to Today, that unit has now been universally replaced cast your mind back to 1979, even more difficult by our new best friend the portable digital music to remember the TPS-L2, or as it later became player along with a plethora of other portable known in 20th century parlance; the ‘Walkman’. devices. Our personal hardware now seamlessly integrates with the internet experience, connecting From that moment in time, and well before the and sharing content with cameras, video, gaming, concept and ubiquity of the home computer TV and hundreds of thousands of applications. (much less the portable PC or mobile phone), a dizzying array of devices surged into the public We now indeed seem to be living Kraftwerk’s vision consciousness and onto and into the heads of tens of the anywhere, anytime always connected world of millions of people all over the globe. in the 21st century, albeit from our pockets. Music had moved quite literally out of the pubs, The impact of this constant connection to content, clubs, bedrooms and living rooms and for many, services, networks and each other, whether at the soundtracks to their lives were created, edited, home, or wherever we may be, has placed sharp compiled and shared around on the (now not so) focus on what the potential is for our beloved portable media formerly known as the ‘compact handsets. And it is very much, just the beginning. cassette’. Later superseded by the Compact Disc, In a recent report published by Morgan Stanley, Mini Discs and the rest as they say is history. there is an interesting insight that states we are Indeed many people would entering the ‘5th Cycle of computing’, that of the have first heard the term mobile internet which points to the enormous ‘Home Computer’ while upswing in app usage and content consumption. listening to Kraftwerk’s 1981 This is clearly reflected in leading markets with a electronic masterpiece LP high adoption of smart phone technology and with (Long Player for those not increasingly cheaper access to greater bandwidth. of that generation), ‘Computer World’, portending a future where we would be forever tethered to In fact, when compared to regular ‘feature phone’ technology and data. All while wandering around shipments, in North America at least, smartphone town or sitting on the subway. sales look set to eclipse these regular handsets in 2011. (Interesting to note that much of the lyrical content centered around the privacy of information and Add to that the fact that 550 million of these GPS how it would be shared) enabled devices are forecast to be sold around the world by 2012, and it’s not hard to see there is a One could argue that this was the first real moment very interesting story emerging. in history where people and technology were connected to content they could control on the move (bar the car radio), and at a price most could end up affording. Location Based Services 2
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE KICK OFF Much of this initially of course can be attributed You have the backbone of why location based to Apple’s introduction of the iPhone in 2007, and services are fast becoming the latest, greatest the subsequent ‘Techgeist’ of other manufacturers story in this space. innovating around the model and in every case, It is also very much linked to the desire by looking to improve it. networks to grow ARPU and where there will be Rapidly, Google and its Android platform are sure to be a new battleground as we head toward looking to assail this position. Most recently stating 4G and beyond. the objective of entering the music distribution In essence then, a new context has emerged marketplace, Apple’s hallowed ground. Watch that for advertisers, marketers, content creators, space in the coming months, as this will be sure to business owners, visitors or just simple be a mobile play. bystanders all linked to the real and virtual worlds, Interestingly enough, even in Japan where it can’t on the go. be disputed the birth of the mobile internet truly had it’s genesis with NTT’s DoCoMo in 1999, Apple handsets have taken almost no time in establishing a prominent position (although in 4th Some notable pundits have place at the time of writing with handset sales called Location Based Services behind other Japanese manufacturers). the ‘Epicenter’ of mobile So, when you add the ability of these handsets innovation, so here goes. (and the rapidly emerging ‘tablet world’) to handle the delivery of a vast galaxy of up to the second content, services and personal networking, to the increasing trend of Telcos offering flat packet rates. Location Based Services 3
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE The Commerce Utility Geo Spot Community The 3 Lenses NEO GEO Key to the success and adoption of location based services, is the accuracy and relevance of Geo Data and ultimately the accuracy of location determination (LD), for a user to a specific service. Access to that data (and it’s currency) therefore defines how well a service can interact within that space and deliver salient up to the second information. We’ll look at the 3 areas in the developed markets that make up the current offering to users and marketers and how the landscape is moving and converging quicker than with what developers can dream up. Location Based Services 4
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE GEO TAGGING: Geo tagging is described as the process of adding although now mainstream, became location ‘aware’ geographical metadata to media where it can be in November 2009. Recently acquiring ‘Mixer Labs’ accessed by a handset. which they will almost certainly utilise to build out their own location driven applications. Or, a little more simply the capability for businesses, content owners, creators and users to place Powerful stuff when combined, especially when information, comment or deliver offers at a specific considering their current 16 million strong business place and time. database and the ability to include media layers to enhance this offering. Although currently much of these actions tend to be more like pins on a map, or made up of ‘badges Additionally, whilst the powerhouses of Google and or mayors’ based on checking in, increasingly Microsoft have extraordinary mapping services, with the advent of AR (Augmented Reality), the the likelihood is they may seek to further acquire capability for these ‘points’ to be rich in information existing complimentary businesses such as Loopt is fast approaching. Targeted not only to broad to augment their Geo offerings. A good example offers, but increasingly specific and detailed of this being Google’s recent interest in Yelp, content shared peer to peer(s). something that could enhance both their Latitude (formerly ‘Dodgeball’) and Place Pages products. The interoperability between various platforms will be key to seeing this become a more powerful Geo tagging is also progressively becoming socially enabled action, ‘sharing’ the location more automated. This will increase the frequency and aggregating these datapoints, and ultimately users add locations to their social data, inflate the creating a virtual ‘crumb-trail’ for others to follow, volume of locality related information and create exchange and interact with. new opportunities for services that collect, sort and share location based content. Many of the players in this space, are still relatively small and leverage other services to promote and enable this function, Twitter on the other hand Location Based Services 5
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE GEO NETWORKING: With the potential offered up by Geo Tagging allied The fact that the massive and growing domination to the enormous projected proliferation of smart, of social giant Facebook (in certain countries at GPS enable handsets, the future on a mobile social least) constitutes 400M+ people with over 160M scale for users and advertisers looks decidedly of these accessing their profile via their handset. bright. It seems very clear that social networks and their instant appeal have a big future in the LBS Increasingly, with cross-platform operability, ecosystem. aggregators such as Tweetdeck, Facebook and Wikitude allow users to shuffle between multiple Personal location based updates will be as services and jack these into their Geo-Coded common as changing status and could well location. Sharing content, experiences, data and develop into one of the most valuable aspects dialogue seamlessly across these networks. of the social networking universe. As long as marketers understand the responsibility associated The potential for brands and marketers to then with this information and the Telcos continue to be placed at the heart of these conversations play nicely. After all, it is still their infrastructure that opens up huge opportunity to create transactional provides the backbone of these services to the offers or messages. Enabling brands, retailers and handset. businesses to take part precisely at the right time and right place. Location Based Services 6
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE GEO TARGETING So, with all these billions of pieces of metadata, has to offer to the user. Whether it be content, what to do with it? offers, rewards or simply ‘tips’. As with any technical application into the ‘real Location-based social networking (or dubbed ‘lo world’, there has to be a layer or interface that so’) currently forms the best lens to be able to take helps connect the relevancy of ‘data’ to the user. this data and apply it into a commercial context that resonates with users and businesses alike. We are no longer sitting behind a captive, fixed screen environment, seated and immobile. Instead, So, looking briefly at some of the current crop there we draw the data to us, accessing in our own time are some clear commonalities across the offering. and space, created as a sort of personalized digital As this space emerges we can more than likely ‘vector’. expect some consolidation as these morph into larger platforms and networks. So, the impact of this is that there is a greater need for the saliency of information and what a location Location Based Services 7
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE LBS IN MOTION: A SNAPSHOT OF 3 PLAYERS foursquare: Like many of the currently dominant location based Twitter and Facebook. services, foursquare’s offering is based upon A system of rewards serves as the incentive for interaction within a social context at a space and using the application and by ‘checking in’, status is point in time. Users either add existing foursquare attained in the form of badges being accumulated members to their network, or invite others to join by visitors. Actions such as frequently checking and participate. into multiple venues in one day, or a single venue They are able to view the locations and activities of on multiple occasions reward the most active with others within their network and contribute content, ‘Mayoral status’ in the form of a badge. read reviews or absorb tips placed at registered As of March 2010 foursquare was the largest of venues by other foursquare users. In terms of all location-based services, with over 1.3M users cross-functionality, this content has the capacity worldwide, and steadily growing. to be pushed to other social ecosystems such as Location Based Services 8
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE LBS IN MOTION: A SNAPSHOT OF 3 PLAYERS Brightkite: Established in 2007, Brightkite allows users to Whilst Brightkite has avoided employing social connect with existing friends and meet new gaming principles like points, leaderboards Brightkite users based on the places they visit. and rewards, it has embraced traditional social Users may check in using SMS, Email, Mobile pastimes such as group conversations and the browser or iPhone, Android and Blackberry publishing of images against locations for other mobile apps. users to view and comment on. Location Based Services 9
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE LBS IN MOTION: A SNAPSHOT OF 3 PLAYERS Gowalla: Gowalla is ostensibly based on the same principles into. Items can be collected at certain venues, such as foursquare however there are slight differences. as a margarita at a Mexican restaurant or a tour The application itself has a greater focus on design bus at a concert. Items collected replace those and usability, with emphasis on the application previously collected. tonally feeling more like a game than a pure social Being slightly more egalitarian, Mayorship cannot networking tool. be obtained at venues, replaced instead by a top Users have a Gowalla ‘passport’, in which stamps 10 list for the most frequent visitors. are awarded every time a new venue is checked Location Based Services 10
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE PLATFORMS Existing social platforms like Twitter and Facebook Perhaps the most interesting development using have succeeded in part thanks to the early all three of these location based services platforms publication of an API (Application Programming is the release of check.in. Built entirely in HTML5 Interface) for third party developers to consume by Brightkite, check.in aggregates place data from data and create new utility for the respective Foursquare, Gowalla, and Brightkite to provide communities. a much richer location data set. Based on user account settings, check.in has the ability to publish Foursquare, Gowalla and Brightkite all support into multiple social networking platforms. account sign up using Facebook and possess the ability to publish into Facebook and Twitter. This However, whilst foursquare, Gowalla and Brightkite has no doubt helped accelerate adoption and fight amongst themselves for the title of Location raised awareness of these new platforms in such a Based Services ‘Champion of the World’, they face rapid timeframe. stiff competition from the established players, well entrenched with their desktop and mobile services Brightkite and Foursquare both have rich, arguably and with significantly greater populations. well-documented APIs. Gowalla has a read-only API, which rather limits the creativity of third party As indicated earlier, Twitter entered the “Place developers. It may come as no surprise then, that Race” in late 2009 and Facebook are now foursquare has roughly five times the amount of rumoured to be imminently launching their own developers registered in their Developer Google native LBS capability. Group than Gowalla. Both of these networks boast user numbers in More and more third party apps are beginning the 100’s of millions and a fair number of these to appear. Yipit analyses your foursquare check users already use mobile apps to share content in history, then monitors those venues for offers. with their friends when out and about. Enhancing Layar, the augmented reality browser, can reveal these networks to be location capable is merely an who the mayor is, who’s currently checked in and upgrade away. what tips lay in wait for you when you point your handset in the direction of a Foursquare venue. Location Based Services 11
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE THE IMPLICATIONS OF GEOGRAPHY It’s no surprise that many of the start-ups and In all metropolitan environments there are different businesses in LBS are headquartered in cities with areas of intensity. Whether they be socially driven significant conurbation in the United States, Asia (pubs, restaurants, bars and the like), dwellings and Europe. or business hubs. Increasingly there is a trend toward vast vertical developments and building Take Four Square, headquartered in Manhattan clusters offering mixed usage. Including of course, for example. With a city based almost entirely residential. on a grid system, largely flat (with one or 2 minor inclines) and very much a ‘walking’ city, you have a These areas are where high population and traffic perfect virtual/physical ecosystem for services that provide the bases for complex interactions where can attract users and businesses alike. Offering content can be created, fed and exchanged. the potential to be virtually present on every street corner. From Delis and Diners, to Dry Cleaners. It’s no surprise it is also where traditional media tends to cost the most. Even the name Four Square very much reflects the cities spatial characteristics. Conversely. If we take a look at a city not reliant In this sense the media overlay seems very logical on dense and sophisticated public transport and the ability to navigate as such, simpler. Largely hubs with geographic sprawl and where much attributable to these topographical traits being of personal transportation is by car. You naturally mirrored in the break up of neighborhoods based have less of a place where people walk. A different on what they offer to the ‘walker/browser’. set of conditions then might apply. Los Angeles or Auckland would examples of this. Factors such as commercial density and physical land attributes very much play a part in defining Again, marketers and advertisers should be what services create the best fit for inhabitants or cogniscent of to whom it is they are trying to visitors. Remembering we are of course blurring connect with, and by what means and point in the boundaries between the real and virtual time this contact will have the greatest effect and environments and therefore, there should be a resonance. simple and elegant match as to how these worlds interlock through a superimposed interface. Location Based Services 12
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE GRAB A SLICE A fitting example of the differences might be 2 In the instance of a more suburban environment, pizza restaurants offering specials on a slice of which may represented by longer stretches of Pizza. One on Bleeker Street in Manhattan and the arterial roadway with distance to convergence other in a mall in Reseda, CA. points being greater, you will often find clusters of businesses or hubs such as malls or business Both share one trait, in that their street array is set parks for example. Much of the ‘traffic’ therefore is in grids, but that is where the comparison ends. vehicular. With the vast numbers of commuters in New York, The timing of offers and the draw to a location may using high frequency public transport, walking or therefore be less frequent and more suited to be cabbing, the city is very much about numerous a planned experience for potential shoppers. The and frequent shorter journeys between points and occasion may be centered around managing a visit neighborhoods. to a location for multiple reasons. Individuals in general are walking past large To that point, that location may be well serviced by numbers of separate businesses in a single day. having clusters of businesses link or aggregate their Due in part of course to urban density and the respective offerings, in order to maximize ‘dwell compactness of the location in terms of physical time’. This thereby creating the opportunity to have area. The chance for ‘drop in’ traffic for example multiple transactions or interactions in one locale, then is high. Particularly if the offer of that discount or framed up all under the one roof. pizza slice occurs as you are walking past or in the near vicinity around mealtime (especially if you are identified as a regular). The business thereby, creates virtual occassionality with its customers. Location Based Services 13
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS Still staying on the fast food tip. Let’s have a quick look at the McDonald’s digital With nearly 80% of handsets all RF enabled coupon mobile service in Japan. A truly ubiquitous in Japan, increasingly these near field and mass-market application specific to a localized capabilities are anchored to promotions driven mobile Ecosystem around specific locations. This is particularly interesting due to the structure of a joint venture between the fast food giant A simple mechanic to illustrate this is releasing and NTT’s DoCoMo; an abbreviation of “do coupons at around the time schools get out, and communications over the mobile network” and also where there is proximity of that school to an outlet. from the phrase ‘dokodemo’, meaning everywhere The ability to resist that temptation just got a little in Japanese. harder for some. DoCoMo is the largest mobile operator in Japan The difference here is in the way the Telco has closely followed by KDDI’s ‘AU’ and Softbank, who embedded a service into a mass outlet presence. interestingly are to date the only carrier supporting It hasn’t tapped into a social ecosystem such as the iPhone in Japan. Mixi, the largest SNS in Japan (much loved on Leveraging the vast network of McDonald’s retail mobile), but rather a bespoke offering around footprint and the love of coupons, users register POS and location services augmented by handset themselves to the service and are sent up to the capabilities. minute specials based on preference and location specific data. Coupon redemption can be via simply showing the coupon on screen at point of sale or by simply passing the RF enabled handset over the integrated iD scanner (as below). This not only facilitates an update on your profile activity and redemption to the database, it also facilitates cashless payment and sets up the next offer to be sent to the user. Location Based Services 14
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE PRIVACY AND CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS So, if we are all increasingly mobile, dwelling in From the early adopters view and for those now greater numbers in urban centres and letting reared in the era of the social web, the concept friends, very distant cousins and the world know of privacy and personal content differs greatly to exactly where we are at any given moment in time, many from the preceding Geny Y or X’ers. For how secure is this personal data and what degrees many others, as was the case with e-commerce, of control are available to us, the end user? familiarization and trust could well take a little longer. Simply put, much of that will depend where you are and under what laws the network you are tied Four Square, although relatively young, has around to operates within. 1.3M users and is the largest of the LBS providers at this time. Quite a small number when you think Ironically, in Japan which has increasingly of the global scale of Facebook’s dominion. implemented almost impenetrable privacy laws to protect the consumer. The Government enacted But despite the size of their ‘digital continent’ with a policy in 2007 that states that any phones a massive population of over 400M+, they are still bought on new plans from that date would have not granted access to China’s over 1 billion souls. their handset’s GPS chips permanently enabled. China along with many other countries who have This was stated to be in the interests of ‘Law their own well established social networks have Enforcement’. strongly integrated cultural and local attributes that have created a firm foothold that will be hard to As probably still the most advanced mobile shake. This notwithstanding governmental controls marketing enabled economy, Japan and its 109 that are also imposed in many states. Million handsets still have roughly only 2% of adspend applicable to the mobile space as of This is especially evident in the mobile sphere 2009. This still represented a growth of 60% from where in certain countries it is quite normal to be the previous year and double the global numbers pushed advertisers messages and offers when for that period. users are in proximity of an advertisers message or offer. As indicated little earlier, this kind of conduct Interestingly, while millions globally are happy would be illegal in certain countries in the APAC to share information over the PC centric web, region incurring heavy penalties unless adhering to operators and advertisers are not sure what strict guidelines. levels of tolerance users will have regarding the monitoring and sharing of their location based For many the thought of allowing brands activity from both a personal and commercial that close may be too close for comfort, standpoint. essentially viewed as ‘people tracking’. Location Based Services 15
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE PRIVACY AND CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS CONT.. It is this safeguarding of privacy that has to date, consenting to accept the upgrade license, you are remained firmly in the hands of the Telcos. giving Apple the license to both store and share that information with 3rd parties. Application developers o n the other hand (some merely months old as start ups), have the clear This kind of information has usually been only responsibility of adhering to the principles of user available from networks to the emergency services notice and consent. Being acutely aware also of in times of crime, or crisis. It begs the question the differences from market to market, ensuring where AT&T is in all of this. users know how and to whom their location So, the ongoing question of privacy will need to be information is to be disclosed. anchored to degrees of transparency. Essentially, To further highlight just how quickly this domain what you as the individual are prepared to give up is evolving, at the time of writing the iPhone ‘iOS4’ for these services in terms of how, where and to has recently been released. Interestingly (if not with whom your location and personal details may slightly concerning), the new terms and conditions be shared with. Doing this with the trust that those regarding location information highlight what is who hold onto it (often in perpetuity), will do so clearly Apple’s next play. responsibly. They state they have the right to “collect, use and When you consider the speed and dynamics share precise [your gadget’s] real time geographic of the M& A space in this sector, it is fair to location”. say that who has your information today, may not necessarily be the company who uses it Whilst Apple have been using location information tomorrow. gathering for a while, the difference here is that by Location Based Services 16
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE THE 4TH DIMENSION: AR IS THE NEW VR So, where to next? at a human level, overlaid with real time data into a system that is both sensory and participatory. Probably the most interesting and creative interpretation of Location Based Services is the Sekai Camera (or world camera) is an application advent of interpretive augmented reality. from Tokyo based Tonchidot. Applications such as Layar or Acrossair, combine It is similar in many ways to Mobilizy’s ‘Wikitude’, multiple functions of smartphones into a visual but takes the concept of cross-networking overlay, that has been referred to as ‘Terminator between businesses and individuals to a level Vision’. that might strike the right balance of how the social, virtual and commercial layers harmoniously These applications blur the lines between the virtual converge. and non-virtual spaces, combining the video/ camera functions, GPS, and accelerometers. Although still in Beta stage, there is a logical and Many view this convergence as the truest personal way that metadata attaches itself to a expression of LBS. specific location and encourages exchange within the app. In essence, It’s a real time merging of two parallel universes. The cybersphere with the biosphere. The concept here is that visitors, brands and businesses literally ‘Air Tag’ these spaces. So as Science Fiction? Maybe 3 years ago. But if we an example, a restaurant may leave its location look at how rapidly this integration of a few simple data, directions, menus, reviews and specials of handset features has taken shape, it does seem the day. A previous visitor or patron can leave their that the marveled sequences in certain movies just comments in text or voice or upload images or 5 years ago are now fast becoming the domain of video of their experience. anyone who buys a new smart handset. The application of this in the sense of a traveler We are indeed entering the era of the ‘Geoweb’ or turning up in a new city for the 1st time on the ‘V-Sphere’. recommendation of a peer, could turn up and have Virtual Reality essentially provided us with a world their friends experience left for them in rich detail. A that was tangible in a visual and spatial sense, sort of rich, virtual Lonely Planet. but largely based on fantasy. What we have with The restaurant, being aware of this exchange, Augmented Reality is the real world practical could leave coupons or offers for that person to application of vision, experience and information take up there and then. Location Based Services 17
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE THE 4th DIMENSION: AR IS THE NEW VR CONT.. Taking that to another highly creative expression is the location you are in. iButterfly. Created by Behemoth (no pun intended) Again, a simple, elegant and highly creative use of agency Dentsu. 3 core functions of the handset. By loading the app, maps depict active locations This is still in trial, but clearly illuminates the and by simply holding the camera up, ‘virtual potential for rich creative territory for marketers and butterflies’ float around, which you need to swipe advertisers alike. at and ‘catch’. Each butterfly collected may contain a different offer, which can then be redeemed at Location Based Services 18
    • WRAP UP ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE A great many of the readers of this piece will way of these core functions might not work to already be active users of some, or many of the advantage if perceived as interruptive services we have covered briefly here. As devices are proliferating and evolving, there The key question for many however, will be what will increasingly be new hardware to consider. are the real and practical applications for brands, With this in mind also, the functionality of these agencies and marketers when it comes to services will need to continually adapt. It’s activating the potential of the LBS ecosystem. important to think of how any integration will fit the experience, no matter what their handset The truth is, we are very much at the gates to a capabilities are new frontier if we indeed believe this is the ‘5th cycle of computing’. Many of the services in play Think of the physical landscape. How this today will evolve and innovate independently, or in overlays with the objectives of the activity turn be acquired by the ‘bigger fish’ to form part of and what the user will respond to based on a wider service offering. the social and geographic attributes in each location Moreover, as every service sits on a small but increasingly powerful piece of hardware, it remains Plan for and understand the privacy to be seen where handset innovation will lead and implications dependent on the service and drive how these services may evolve and expand what parameters and legislation may be in their influence. Initially for the end user and then place. As indicated, dependent on where you importantly, how these platforms move from are, there may be significant differences in how making connections, to actual monetization for this is managed and how you would then plan brands and businesses. activity around compliancy. Mitigate any risk to the business objectives and the user There are a few key points to be considered when looking at how LBS can integrate into marketing activities. Not surprisingly these resonate with So, whilst we have a uniquely fresh take on the the traditional social media tenets of finding an role of the handset and a very interesting potential audience (or a voice), and tapping into the potential future with a vast global audience. It is still a for dialogue, collaboration and exchange. nascent era for mobile marketing and LBS. It remains to be seen how marketers can prosper from what has been established as a beachhead Consider the kind of targeting that will mix from these start-ups and their early adopters. well with the platform offering and ensure that the tone and creative approach matches One thing however is certain. It is one of the the technology, interface and user/audience most interesting plays in the digital space when expectation combined with the almost exponential growth of mobile social networking, and will be sure to be Assess and tap into the utility and community among the most hotly contested for dominance in aspects of what the service provides to the the coming 12 to 18 months. user. Why are they there? These applications are essentially ‘enablers’ so getting in the Watch that space. Location Based Services 19
    • ALIGNED TO BBDO WORLDWIDE Prepared by Keith Pinney, Channel Planning Director, AIM Proximity, Auckland With assistance from Ian Hulme and Tenzin Pooch.