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Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
Halderman ch103 lecture
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Halderman ch103 lecture

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  • Figure 103-1 Typical parking brake cable system showing the foot-operated parking brake lever and cable routing.
  • Figure 103-2 A typical parking brake pedal assembly.
  • Figure 103-3 Typical hand-operated parking brake. Note that the adjustment for the cable is underneath the vehicle at the equalizer.
  • Figure 103-4 A ratchet mechanism is used to lock parking brakes in the applied position.
  • Figure 103-5 A remote-mounted parking brake release lever.
  • Figure 103-6 Automatic parking brake release mechanisms usually use a vacuum servo to operate the release lever.
  • Figure 103-7 The two plastic vacuum tubes on the steering column are used to release the parking brake when the gear selector is moved from park into a drive gear.
  • Figure 103-8 The cable from the activating lever to the equalizer is commonly called the control cable. From the equalizer, the individual brake cables are often called application cables. These individual cables can usually be purchased separately.
  • Figure 103-10 Intermediate levers in the parking brake linkage increase the application force.
  • Figure 103-11 A cable guide is a common type of parking brake linkage equalizer.
  • Figure 103-12 Some parking brake equalizers are installed in the brake cable.
  • Figure 103-13 Many parking brake linkages use both an intermediate lever and an equalizer.
  • Figure 103-14 Notice the spring at the end of the parking brake strut. This antirattle spring keeps tension on the strut. The parking brake lever is usually attached with a pin and spring (wavy) washer and retained by a horseshoe clip.
  • Figure 103-15 The parking brake cable pulls on the parking brake lever, which in turn forces the brake shoe against the drum.
  • Figure 103-16 The inside “hat” of the disc brake rotor is the friction surface for the parking brake shoes.
  • Figure 103-17 A typical rear disc brake auxiliary drum brake friction assembly.
  • Figure 103-18 A Ford rear brake caliper ball and ramp-type apply mechanism.
  • Figure 103-19 Operation of a ball and ramp-type rear disc brake caliper parking brake.
  • Figure 103-20 Automatic adjustment of a ball and ramp-type rear disc brake parking brake occurs when the service brakes are applied.
  • Figure 103-21 A typical General Motors rear disc brake with an integral parking brake. This type uses a screw, nut, and cone mechanism to apply the caliper piston.
  • Figure 103-22 Parking brake application of a General Motors rear drive brake caliper.
  • Figure 103-23 Automatic adjustment of a General Motors rear disc brake caliper.
  • Figure 103-24 Removing the piston from a typical General Motors rear disc brake caliper.
  • Figure 103-25 Installing the piston into a General Motors rear disc brake caliper.
  • Figure 103-26 A piston installation tool is often needed to complete the installation of the piston in a General Motors rear disc brake.
  • Figure 103-27 A spanner wrench (or needle-nose pliers) can be used to rotate the caliper piston prior to installing the disc brake pads. A notch on the piston must line up with a tab on the back of the brake pad to keep the piston from rotating when the parking brake is applied.
  • Figure 103-28 After removing the parking brake lever and thrust bearing, remove the antirotation pin.
  • Figure 103-29 Unscrew the thrust screw from the piston with an Allen (hex) wrench. After removing the thrust screw, push the piston out of the caliper bore.
  • Figure 103-30 To test the piston adjuster, thread the thrust screw into the piston. Hold the piston and pull the thrust screw outward 1/4 in. (6 mm). The adjuster nut should not turn when the thrust screw retracts. Replace the piston assembly if not functioning correctly.
  • Figure 103-31 To adjust the parking brake cable on a Ford vehicle equipped with rear disc brakes, start by loosening the cable adjustment until the cables to the calipers are slack. Tighten until the caliper lever moves. Position a 1/4-in. drill bit or dowel into the caliper alignment hole. Adjustment is correct if the parking brake lever does not hit the 1/4-in. dowel.
  • Figure 103-32 After checking that the rear brakes are okay and properly adjusted, the parking brake cable can be adjusted. Always follow the manufacturer’s recommended procedure.
  • Figure 103-33 Many hand-operated parking brakes are adjusted inside the vehicle.
  • Figure 103-34 Always check that both brake shoes contact the anchor pin.
  • Figure 103-35 A 1/8-in. (3-mm) drill bit is placed through an access hole in the backing plate to adjust this General Motors leading-trailing rear parking brake. Adjust the parking brake cable until the drill can just fit between the shoe web and the parking brake lever.
  • Figure 103-37 An electric parking brake button on the center console of a Jaguar.
  • Transcript

    • 1. PARKING BRAKE OPERATION, DIAGNOSIS, AND SERVICE 103
    • 2. Objectives
      • The student should be able to:
        • Prepare for the Brakes (A5) ASE certification test content area “E” (Miscellaneous Systems Diagnosis and Repair).
        • Describe what is required of a parking brake.
        • Describe the parts and operation of the parking brake as used on a rear drum brake system.
    • 3. Objectives
      • The student should be able to:
        • Describe how a parking brake functions when the vehicle is equipped with rear disc brakes.
        • Explain how to adjust a parking brake properly.
    • 4. PARKING BRAKE STANDARDS
    • 5. Parking Brake Standards
      • Background
        • Before 1967, most vehicles had only single master cylinder operating all four brakes
        • If fluid leaked at just one wheel, operation of all brakes was lost
    • 6. Parking Brake Standards
      • Background
        • Required alternative mechanical method to stop vehicle using two wheel brakes
        • After 1967, federal regulations required use of dual master cylinders
    • 7. Parking Brake Standards
      • Background
        • In case one-half of system fails, other half keeps operating
        • Term parking brake has replaced emergency brake
    • 8. Parking Brake Standards
      • FMVSS 135
        • Parking brake must hold fully loaded vehicle stationary on slope of 20% up or down grade
        • Hand force required cannot exceed 80 lb (18 N) or foot force greater than 100 lb (22 N)
    • 9. Figure 103-1 Typical parking brake cable system showing the foot-operated parking brake lever and cable routing.
    • 10. PEDALS, LEVERS, AND HANDLES
    • 11. Pedals, Levers, and Handles
      • Parking brakes are applied by pedal, lever, or handle
      • Foot pedals and floor-mounted levers most common
      • All parking brake controls incorporate ratchet mechanism to lock brake in position
    • 12. Figure 103-2 A typical parking brake pedal assembly.
    • 13. Figure 103-3 Typical hand-operated parking brake. Note that the adjustment for the cable is underneath the vehicle at the equalizer.
    • 14. Figure 103-4 A ratchet mechanism is used to lock parking brakes in the applied position.
    • 15. Pedals, Levers, and Handles
      • Parking Brake Pedals
        • Applied by depressing with foot
        • Released by a pull or small T-handle or lever under dash
    • 16. Pedals, Levers, and Handles
      • Parking Brake Pedals
        • Some systems required driver to depress pedal to release parking brake once it was set
          • Rubber pad on parking brake pedal usually states “push to release”
    • 17. Figure 103-5 A remote-mounted parking brake release lever.
    • 18. Pedals, Levers, and Handles
      • Automatic Parking Brake Release
        • Some vehicles with pedal-operated parking brakes have automatic release mechanism
    • 19. Pedals, Levers, and Handles
      • Automatic Parking Brake Release
        • Disengages parking brake using vacuum servo controlled by electrical solenoid
        • Metal rod connects vacuum servo to upper end of brake release lever
    • 20. Pedal Levers and Handles
      • Automatic Parking Brake Release
        • When engine running (to provide vacuum) and shifter placed in gear, electrical contact closes to energize solenoid and route vacuum to servo
        • Servo diaphragm retracts rod, releasing parking brake
      Pedals, Levers, and Handles
    • 21. Figure 103-6 Automatic parking brake release mechanisms usually use a vacuum servo to operate the release lever.
    • 22. Figure 103-7 The two plastic vacuum tubes on the steering column are used to release the parking brake when the gear selector is moved from park into a drive gear.
    • 23. PARKING BRAKE WARNING LAMP
    • 24. Parking Brake Warning Lamp
      • Red brake warning lamp lights on dash
      • Same lamp that lights for hydraulic or brake fluid level problem
      • Warns driver that parking brake is applied or partially applied
    • 25. Parking Brake Warning Lamp
      • If light on, check that parking brake released
      • If light still on:
        • Parking brake switch may be defective or out of adjustment
        • May be hydraulic problem
    • 26. PARKING BRAKE LINKAGES
    • 27. Parking Brake Linkages
      • Transmit force from pedal, lever, or handle to brake friction assemblies
      • Linkage Rods
        • Rods made from solid steel commonly used with floor-mounted actuating levers to span short distance to intermediate lever or equalizer
    • 28. Parking Brake Linkages
      • Linkage Cables
        • Woven-steel wire encased in reinforced rubber or plastic housing
        • Housing fixed in position at both ends
    • 29. Parking Brake Linkages
      • Linkage Cables
        • Routed under vehicle through mounting brackets that allow small amount of movement
        • Cable slides back and forth inside housing to transmit application force
        • Subject to damage from water, dirt, other debris thrown up by tires
    • 30. Figure 103-8 The cable from the activating lever to the equalizer is commonly called the control cable. From the equalizer, the individual brake cables are often called application cables. These individual cables can usually be purchased separately.
    • 31. Parking Brake Linkages
      • Linkage Levers
        • Driver cannot apply enough physical force to engage parking brake
        • All parking brake linkages contain one or more levers that increase application force
    • 32. Figure 103-10 Intermediate levers in the parking brake linkage increase the application force.
    • 33. Parking Brake Linkages
      • Linkage Equalizers
        • Transmits equal force from parking brake control to each friction assembly
        • Simplest is cable guide attached to threaded rod
          • Pivots or allows inner cable to slide back and forth to even out force
    • 34. Parking Brake Linkages
      • Linkage Equalizers
        • Simplest is cable guide attached to threaded rod
          • Another type installs in long application cable from linkage at front of vehicle to one rear brake
    • 35. Figure 103-11 A cable guide is a common type of parking brake linkage equalizer.
    • 36. Figure 103-12 Some parking brake equalizers are installed in the brake cable.
    • 37. Parking Brake Linkages
      • Linkage Design
        • Most combine intermediate levers and equalizers in various ways
        • Most use from one to four cables to actuate friction assemblies
    • 38. Figure 103-13 Many parking brake linkages use both an intermediate lever and an equalizer.
    • 39. FRONT AND REAR ENTRY PARKING BRAKE CABLES
    • 40. Front and Rear Entry Parking Brake Cables
      • Many drum parking brake systems attach parking brake lever on secondary (rearward) shoe and push primary (forward facing) brake shoe against drum
      • Parking brake cable enters backing plate from front of vehicle (front entry)
    • 41. Front and Rear Entry Parking Brake Cables
      • Because primary shoe attached to secondary shoe on dual-servo brakes, forward motion of vehicle wedges primary shoe into brake drum and forces rear secondary lining against drum
    • 42. Front and Rear Entry Parking Brake Cables
      • Applying only forward brake shoe tends to hold vehicle best when on a hill with front pointing downward
      • To provide same holding power to keep vehicle from backing up, some vehicles reverse parking brake arrangement for right side
    • 43. Front and Rear Entry Parking Brake Cables
      • Cable is rear entry: brake has parking brake lever installed on primary shoe
      • Creates reverse servo action when vehicle parked with rear facing downward
    • 44. DRUM PARKING BRAKES
    • 45. Drum Parking Brakes
      • Most common types on vehicles and light trucks
      • Make excellent parking brakes because of high static coefficient of friction combined with self-energizing action
    • 46. Drum Parking Brakes
      • Integral Drum Parking Brakes
        • Mechanically apply rear drum service brakes to serve as parking brakes
        • Most common type
        • All such brakes operate in essentially same manner
    • 47. Figure 103-14 Notice the spring at the end of the parking brake strut. This antirattle spring keeps tension on the strut. The parking brake lever is usually attached with a pin and spring (wavy) washer and retained by a horseshoe clip.
    • 48. Figure 103-15 The parking brake cable pulls on the parking brake lever, which in turn forces the brake shoe against the drum.
    • 49. Drum Parking Brakes
      • Rear Disc Auxiliary Drum Parking Brakes
        • Rear disc service brakes with fixed calipers commonly have parking brake drum formed into hub of brake rotor
    • 50. Drum Parking Brakes
      • Rear Disc Auxiliary Drum Parking Brakes
        • Dual-servo parking brake friction assemblies operate in essentially same manner as service brakes except that wheel cylinder eliminated and friction assembly actuated mechanically
    • 51. Figure 103-16 The inside “hat” of the disc brake rotor is the friction surface for the parking brake shoes.
    • 52. Figure 103-17 A typical rear disc brake auxiliary drum brake friction assembly.
    • 53. CALIPER-ACTUATED DISC PARKING BRAKES
    • 54. Caliper-Actuated Disc Parking Brakes
      • Basic Operation
        • Used on vehicles whose rear disc brakes equipped with floating or sliding brake calipers
        • Single-piston construction makes them easier to mechanically actuate than multiple-piston fixed calipers
        • Special mechanism in caliper applies caliper piston mechanically
    • 55. Caliper-Actuated Disc Parking Brakes
      • Ball and Ramp Actuation
        • Found in Ford rear brake calipers
        • Has three steel balls located in ramp-shaped detents between two plates
    • 56. Caliper-Actuated Disc Parking Brakes
      • Ball and Ramp Actuation
        • As parking brake cable moves lever and rotates operating shaft, balls ride up ramps and force plates apart, applying brake
        • Adjustment within the caliper automatic, and takes place during service brake application
    • 57. Figure 103-18 A Ford rear brake caliper ball and ramp-type apply mechanism.
    • 58. Figure 103-19 Operation of a ball and ramp-type rear disc brake caliper parking brake.
    • 59. Figure 103-20 Automatic adjustment of a ball and ramp-type rear disc brake parking brake occurs when the service brakes are applied.
    • 60. Caliper-Actuated Disc Parking Brakes
      • Screw, Nut, and Cone Actuation
        • General Motors’ rear disc parking brake design
    • 61. Figure 103-21 A typical General Motors rear disc brake with an integral parking brake. This type uses a screw, nut, and cone mechanism to apply the caliper piston.
    • 62. Figure 103-22 Parking brake application of a General Motors rear drive brake caliper.
    • 63. Figure 103-23 Automatic adjustment of a General Motors rear disc brake caliper.
    • 64. REAR DISC BRAKE SERVICE
    • 65. Rear Disc Brake Service
      • Most rear disc brake calipers replaced as assembly
      • Calipers should also be replaced in pairs to provide equal braking force
      • Follow instructions in service information when rebuilding rear disc brake caliper assembly
    • 66. Figure 103-24 Removing the piston from a typical General Motors rear disc brake caliper.
    • 67. Figure 103-25 Installing the piston into a General Motors rear disc brake caliper.
    • 68. Figure 103-26 A piston installation tool is often needed to complete the installation of the piston in a General Motors rear disc brake.
    • 69. Figure 103-27 A spanner wrench (or needle-nose pliers) can be used to rotate the caliper piston prior to installing the disc brake pads. A notch on the piston must line up with a tab on the back of the brake pad to keep the piston from rotating when the parking brake is applied.
    • 70. Figure 103-28 After removing the parking brake lever and thrust bearing, remove the antirotation pin.
    • 71. Figure 103-29 Unscrew the thrust screw from the piston with an Allen (hex) wrench. After removing the thrust screw, push the piston out of the caliper bore.
    • 72. Figure 103-30 To test the piston adjuster, thread the thrust screw into the piston. Hold the piston and pull the thrust screw outward 1/4 in. (6 mm). The adjuster nut should not turn when the thrust screw retracts. Replace the piston assembly if not functioning correctly.
    • 73. Figure 103-31 To adjust the parking brake cable on a Ford vehicle equipped with rear disc brakes, start by loosening the cable adjustment until the cables to the calipers are slack. Tighten until the caliper lever moves. Position a 1/4-in. drill bit or dowel into the caliper alignment hole. Adjustment is correct if the parking brake lever does not hit the 1/4-in. dowel.
    • 74. PARKING BRAKE CABLE ADJUSTMENT
    • 75. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • Make certain that rear service brakes adjusted correctly and lining serviceable
      • With drums installed, apply parking brake 3 or 4 clicks
        • Should be slight drag on both rear wheels
    • 76. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • Adjust cable at equalizer until slight drag on both rear brakes
      • Release parking brake; both rear brakes should be free and not dragging
        • Repair or replace rusted cables or readjust as necessary
    • 77. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • NOTE: Rear parking brake adjustment should always be checked whenever replacing rear brake linings.
        • May be necessary to loosen parking brake cable adjustment to allow clearance to get drum over new linings
    • 78. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • NOTE: Rear parking brake adjustment should always be checked whenever replacing rear brake linings.
        • This could happen because someone may have adjusted parking brake cable during life of rear linings
    • 79. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • NOTE: Rear parking brake adjustment should always be checked whenever replacing rear brake linings.
        • With new thicker linings, parking brake adjustment can keep brake shoes pushed outward toward drum
    • 80. Figure 103-32 After checking that the rear brakes are okay and properly adjusted, the parking brake cable can be adjusted. Always follow the manufacturer’s recommended procedure.
    • 81. Figure 103-33 Many hand-operated parking brakes are adjusted inside the vehicle.
    • 82. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • NOTE: Rear parking brake adjustment should always be checked whenever replacing rear brake linings.
        • May be necessary to loosen parking brake cable adjustment to allow clearance to get drum over new linings
    • 83. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • NOTE: Rear parking brake adjustment should always be checked whenever replacing rear brake linings.
        • This could happen because someone may have adjusted parking brake cable during life of rear linings
    • 84. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • NOTE: Rear parking brake adjustment should always be checked whenever replacing rear brake linings.
        • With new thicker linings, parking brake adjustment can keep brake shoes pushed outward toward drum
    • 85. Figure 103-34 Always check that both brake shoes contact the anchor pin.
    • 86. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • To prevent possible parking brake cable adjustment problems when installing new rear brakes:
        • Both brake shoes should make contact with anchor pin at top
          • If not, check parking brake cable for improper adjustment or improper installation of brake shoes
    • 87. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • To prevent possible parking brake cable adjustment problems when installing new rear brakes:
        • Feel tension of parking brake cable underneath vehicle
          • Should be slightly loose (with parking brake “off”)
    • 88. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • To prevent possible parking brake cable adjustment problems when installing new rear brakes:
        • Lubricate parking brake cable to ensure that water or ice will not cause rust or freezing
          • Stuck parking brake cable could cause linings to remain out against drums
    • 89. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • To prevent possible parking brake cable adjustment problems when installing new rear brakes:
        • If parking brake needs to be adjusted, check and adjust rear brake adjustment before adjusting parking brake cable
    • 90. Parking Brake Cable Adjustment
      • To prevent possible parking brake cable adjustment problems when installing new rear brakes:
        • NOTE: Some vehicles are equipped with an automatic adjusting parking brake lever/cable. Simply cycling parking brake on/off/on three times is often all that is required to adjust parking brake cable.
        • Replace any stuck, corroded, or broken parking brake cable
    • 91. Figure 103-35 A 1/8-in. (3-mm) drill bit is placed through an access hole in the backing plate to adjust this General Motors leading-trailing rear parking brake. Adjust the parking brake cable until the drill can just fit between the shoe web and the parking brake lever.
    • 92. ELECTRIC PARKING BRAKE
    • 93. Electric Parking Brake
      • EPB systems available using two different designs:
        • Cable-pulling type that uses electric motor to pull parking brake cable
        • More advanced unit using computer-controlled motor attached to brake caliper
    • 94. Electric Parking Brake
      • Some vehicles already use EPB that can be activated when vehicle stops and goes off as soon as gas pedal pressed
    • 95. Figure 103-37 An electric parking brake button on the center console of a Jaguar.
    • 96. REAL WORLD FIX
      • Pump to Release?
        • A customer called and asked a dealer for help because the parking brake could not be released. The service technician discovered that the customer was attempting to release the parking brake by depressing the parking brake pedal, as was done on the customer’s previous vehicle.
      BACK TO PRESENTATION
      • The service technician simply pulled on the release lever and the parking brake was released.
    • 97. TECH TIP
      • Look for Swollen Parking Brake Cables
        • Always inspect parking brake cables for proper operation. A cable that is larger in diameter in one section indicates that it is rusting inside and has swollen.
      BACK TO PRESENTATION
      • A rusting parking brake cable can keep the rear brake applied even though the parking brake lever has been released. This can cause dragging brakes, reduced fuel economy, and possible vehicle damage due to overheated brakes.
        • Figure 103-9 Notice how rust inside the covering of this parking brake cable has caused the cable to swell.
    • 98. TECH TIP
      • The Parking Brake “Click” Test
        • When diagnosing any brake problem, apply the parking brake and count the “clicks.” This method works for both hand- and foot-operated parking brakes. Most vehicle manufacturers specify a maximum of 10 clicks. If the parking brake travel exceeds this amount, the rear brakes may be worn or out of adjustment.
      BACK TO PRESENTATION
      • Caution: Do not adjust the parking brake cable until the rear brakes have been thoroughly inspected and adjusted.
      • If the rear brake lining is usable, check for the proper operation of the self-adjustment mechanism. If the rear brakes are out of adjustment, the service brake pedal will also be low. This 10-click test is a fast and easy way to determine if the problem is due to rear brakes.
    • 99. TECH TIP
      • The Hose Clamp or Wrench Trick
        • It is often difficult to remove a parking brake cable from the backing plate due to the design of the retainer. The many fingers used to hold the cable to the backing plate can be squeezed all at once if a hose clamp is used to compress the fingers. A wrench can also be used.
      BACK TO PRESENTATION
        • Figure 103-36 Many parking brake cables can be removed easily from the backing plate using a 1/2-in. (13-mm) box-end wrench. The wrench fits over the retainer finger on the end of the parking brake cable.

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