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  • Figure 66-1 The crude oil refining process showing most of the major steps and processes.
  • Figure 66-2 A gasoline testing kit, including an insulated container where water at 100°F is used to heat a container holding a small sample of gasoline. The reading on the pressure gauge is the Reid vapor pressure (RVP).
  • Figure 66-3 A typical distillation curve. Heavier molecules evaporate at higher temperatures and contain more heat energy for power, whereas the lighter molecules evaporate easier for starting.
  • Figure 66-4 An engine will not run if the air-fuel mixture is either too rich or too lean.
  • Figure 66-5 With a three-way catalytic converter, emission control is most efficient with an air-fuel ratio between 14.65 to 1 and 14.75 to 1.
  • Figure 66-6 Normal combustion is a smooth, controlled burning of the air-fuel mixture.
  • Figure 66-7 Detonation is a secondary ignition of the air-fuel mixture. It is also called spark knock or pinging.
  • Figure 66-8 A pump showing regular with a pump octane of 87, plus rated at 89, and premium rated at 93. These ratings can vary with brand as well as in different parts of the country.
  • Figure 66-9 The posted octane rating in most high-altitude areas shows regular at 85 instead of the usual 87.
  • Figure 66-10 This refueling pump indicates that the gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and can be used in any gasoline vehicle. E85 contains 85% ethanol and can be used only in vehicles specifically designed to use it.
  • Figure 66-11 A container with gasoline containing alcohol. Notice the separation line where the alcohol–water mixture separated from the gasoline and sank to the bottom.
  • Figure 66-12 In-line blending is the most accurate method for blending ethanol with gasoline because computers are used to calculate the correct ratio.
  • Figure 66-13 Sequential blending uses a computer to calculate the correct ratio as well as the prescribed order in which the products are loaded.
  • Figure 66-14 Splash blending occurs when the ethanol is added to a tanker with gasoline and is mixed as the truck travels to the retail outlet.
  • Figure 66-15 Checking gasoline for alcohol involves using a graduated cylinder and adding water to check if the alcohol absorbs the water.
  • Figure 66-17 Many gasoline service stations have signs posted warning customers to place plastic fuel containers on the ground while filling. If placed in a trunk or pickup truck bed equipped with a plastic liner, static electricity could build up during fueling and discharge from the container to the metal nozzle, creating a spark and possible explosion. Some service stations have warning signs not to use cell phones while fueling to help avoid the possibility of an accidental spark creating a fire hazard.
  • TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 1 A fuel composition tester (SPX Kent-Moore J-44175) is the recommended tool, by General Motors, to use to test the alcohol content of gasoline.
  • TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 2 This battery-powered tester uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs), meter lead terminals, and two small openings for the fuel sample.
  • TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 3 The first step is to verify the proper operation of the tester by measuring the air frequency by selecting AC hertz on the meter. The air frequency should be between 35 and 48 Hz.
  • TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 4 After verifying that the tester is capable of correctly reading the air frequency, gasoline is poured into the testing cell of the tool.
  • TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 5 Record the AC frequency as shown on the meter and subtract 50 from the reading. (e.g., 60.50 − 50.00 = 10.5). This number (10.5) is the percentage of alcohol in the gasoline sample.
  • TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 6 Adding additional amounts of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) increases the frequency reading.

Transcript

  • 1. GASOLINE 66
  • 2. Objectives
    • The student should be able to:
      • Describe how the proper grade of gasoline affects engine performance.
      • List gasoline purchasing hints.
      • Discuss how volatility affects driveability.
      • Explain how oxygenated fuels can reduce CO exhaust emissions.
      • Discuss safety precautions when working with gasoline.
  • 3. GASOLINE
  • 4. Gasoline
    • Definition
      • Complex mixture of hydrocarbons refined from crude petroleum for use as fuel
      • Gasoline and air burn in the engine cylinder, producing heat and pressure
  • 5. Gasoline
    • Definition
      • Converted to rotary motion inside engine
      • Eventually powers drive wheels of vehicle
  • 6. Gasoline
    • Chemical Composition
      • Combination of hydrocarbon molecules having between 5–12 carbon atoms
      • Names based on number of carbon atoms
        • Methane—one carbon atom
  • 7. Gasoline
    • Chemical Composition
      • Names based on number of carbon atoms
        • Ethane—two carbon atoms
        • Propane—three carbon atoms
  • 8. Gasoline
    • Chemical Composition
      • Names based on number of carbon atoms
        • Butane—four carbon atoms
        • Pentane—five carbon atoms
  • 9. Gasoline
    • Chemical Composition
      • Names based on number of carbon atoms
        • Hexane—six carbon atoms
        • Heptane—seven carbon atoms
        • Octane—eight carbon atoms
  • 10. REFINING
  • 11. Refining
    • Types of Crude Oil
      • Thin crude oil: high API gravity, called high-gravity crude
        • Contains more natural gasoline
        • Lower sulfur and nitrogen content makes it easier to refine
  • 12. Refining
    • Types of Crude Oil
      • Thick crude oil: called low-gravity crude
      • Low-sulfur crude oil: also called “sweet” crude
      • High-sulfur crude oil: also called “sour” crude
  • 13. Refining
    • Distillation
      • Late 1800s, crude separated into different products by boiling (distillation)
      • Worked because crude oil composed of hydrocarbons with many boiling points
      • Distillation column: products with different boiling points drawn off at different heights
  • 14. Refining
    • Cracking
      • Hydrocarbons with higher boiling points broken down (cracked) into lower-boiling hydrocarbons
        • Very high temperature process (thermal cracking)
  • 15. Refining
    • Cracking
      • Today, cracking performed using catalyst (catalytic cracking)
        • Produces higher-quality gasoline than thermal cracking
  • 16. Refining
    • Cracking
      • Hydrocracking similar to catalytic cracking — uses a catalyst
        • Catalyst is in a hydrogen atmosphere
  • 17. Refining
    • Cracking
      • Can break down hydrocarbons resistant to catalytic cracking alone
      • Used to produce diesel fuel rather than gasoline
  • 18. Refining
    • Cracking
      • Other types of refining processes:
        • Reforming
        • Alkylation
  • 19. Refining
    • Cracking
      • Other types of refining processes:
        • Isomerization
        • Hydrotreating
        • Desulfurization
  • 20. Figure 66-1 The crude oil refining process showing most of the major steps and processes.
  • 21. Refining
    • Shipping
      • Transported to regional storage facilities by railway tank car or by pipeline
  • 22. VOLATILITY
  • 23. Volatility
    • Definition of Volatility
      • Describes how easily the gasoline evaporates (forms a vapor)
      • Assumes vapors remain in fuel tank or line and cause certain pressure
  • 24. Volatility
    • Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP)
      • Pressure of vapor above fuel when fuel is at 100°F (38°C)
      • Increased vapor pressure permits engine to start in cold weather
  • 25. Figure 66-2 A gasoline testing kit, including an insulated container where water at 100°F is used to heat a container holding a small sample of gasoline. The reading on the pressure gauge is the Reid vapor pressure (RVP).
  • 26. Volatility
    • Seasonal Blending
      • Cold temperatures reduce normal vaporization of gasoline
      • Winter-blended gasoline vaporizes at lower temperatures for proper starting and driveability at low temperatures
  • 27. Volatility
    • Seasonal Blending
      • ASTM standards for winter-blend gasoline allow volatility of up to 15 pounds per square inch (PSI) RVP
      • At warm temperatures, gasoline vaporizes easily
  • 28. Volatility
    • Seasonal Blending
      • However, fuel system designed to operate with liquid gasoline
      • Thus volatility of summer-grade gasoline should be about 7.0 PSI RVP
  • 29. Volatility
    • Distillation Curve
      • Another method of classifying gasoline volatility
      • Graph created by plotting temperature at which various percentage of fuel evaporates
  • 30. Figure 66-3 A typical distillation curve. Heavier molecules evaporate at higher temperatures and contain more heat energy for power, whereas the lighter molecules evaporate easier for starting.
  • 31. Volatility
    • Driveability Index
      • Index created to predict cold-weather driveability (abbreviated DI)
      • Developed using temperature for evaporated percentage of 10% (T10), 50% (T50), and 90% (T90)
  • 32. Volatility
    • Driveability Index
      • DI = 1.5 × T10 + 3 × T50 + T90
      • Total DI is temperature; usually ranges from 1,000°F to 1,200°F
  • 33. Volatility
    • Driveability Index
      • Lower values of DI generally result in good cold-start and warm-up performance
      • High DI number less volatile than low DI number
  • 34. Volatility
    • Volatility-Related Problems
      • At higher temperatures, gasoline can easily vaporize, causing vapor lock
      • Lean condition: engine not supplied with enough fuel
      • Warm weather and alcohol-blended fuels tend to increase vapor lock
  • 35. Volatility
    • Volatility-Related Problems
      • If winter-blend gasoline (or high-RVP fuel) used in engine during warm weather, following problems may occur:
        • Rough idle
        • Stalling
  • 36. Volatility
    • Volatility-Related Problems
      • If winter-blend gasoline (or high-RVP fuel) used in engine during warm weather, following problems may occur:
        • Hesitation on acceleration
        • Surging
    ?
  • 37. GASOLINE COMBUSTION PROCESS
  • 38. Gasoline Combustion Process
    • Chemical Reactions
      • Chemical combination of oxygen (O 2 ) from air with hydrogen and carbon from fuel
      • Spark starts process; takes about 3 ms (0.003 sec) to complete
  • 39. Gasoline Combustion Process
    • Heat Energy
      • Heat produced by combustion measured in British thermal units (BTUs)
      • One BTU is amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one Fahrenheit degree
      • Gasoline—About 130,000 BTUs per gallon
  • 40. Gasoline Combustion Process
    • Air-Fuel Ratios
      • Fuel burns best when turned into a fine spray and mixed with air
      • Direct relationship between engine airflow and fuel requirements (air-fuel ratio)
  • 41. Gasoline Combustion Process
    • Air-Fuel Ratios
      • Proportion by weight of air and gasoline mixed as needed for engine combustion
      • Mixtures, with which engine can operate without stalling, range from 8 to 1 to 18.5 to 1
  • 42. Figure 66-4 An engine will not run if the air-fuel mixture is either too rich or too lean.
  • 43. Gasoline Combustion Process
    • Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio
      • Ideal mixture at which all fuel combines with all oxygen and burns completely
      • In theory, ratio for gasoline is air-fuel mixture of 14.7 to 1
  • 44. Figure 66-5 With a three-way catalytic converter, emission control is most efficient with an air-fuel ratio between 14.65 to 1 and 14.75 to 1.
  • 45. NORMAL AND ABNORMAL COMBUSTION
  • 46. Normal and Abnormal Combustion
    • Gasoline Grades and Octane Number
      • Octane rating of gasoline is measure of its antiknock properties
      • Engine knock is metallic noise resulting from abnormal or uncontrolled combustion
  • 47. Normal and Abnormal Combustion
    • Gasoline Grades and Octane Number
      • Normal combustion occurs smoothly
      • Progresses across combustion chamber from point of ignition at about 45–90 mph (72–145 km/h)
  • 48. Normal and Abnormal Combustion
    • Gasoline Grades and Octane Number
      • During periods of spark knock (detonation), combustion speed increases by up to 10 times
      • Increased speed causes increased temperatures and pressures
      • Can damage pistons, gaskets, and cylinder heads
    ?
  • 49. Figure 66-6 Normal combustion is a smooth, controlled burning of the air-fuel mixture.
  • 50. Figure 66-7 Detonation is a secondary ignition of the air-fuel mixture. It is also called spark knock or pinging.
  • 51. OCTANE RATING
  • 52. Octane Rating
    • Antiknock standard or is knock-resistant hydrocarbon isooctane
    • If a gasoline had same antiknock characteristics as isooctane, rated 100 octane
    • If only 85% of antiknock properties, rated 85 octane
  • 53. Octane Rating
    • Two methods used to rate gasoline for antiknock properties: research method and motor method
    • Octane rating posted on pumps in U.S. is average of the two methods
    • Pump octane called antiknock index (AKI)
  • 54. Figure 66-8 A pump showing regular with a pump octane of 87, plus rated at 89, and premium rated at 93. These ratings can vary with brand as well as in different parts of the country.
  • 55. HIGH-ALTITUDE OCTANE REQUIREMENTS
  • 56. High-Altitude Octane Requirements
    • As altitude increases, atmospheric pressure drops
    • Octane rating does not need to be as high because engine cannot take in as much air
    • Some problems may occur when driving out of high-altitude areas into lower-altitude areas
  • 57. High-Altitude Octane Requirements
    • Most computerized engine control systems compensate for changes in altitude
    • Because burn rate slows at high altitude, ignition (spark) timing can be advanced to improve power
    • Vapor lock becomes problem as vehicle goes from lower to higher altitudes
    ?
  • 58. Figure 66-9 The posted octane rating in most high-altitude areas shows regular at 85 instead of the usual 87.
  • 59. GASOLINE ADDITIVES
  • 60. Gasoline Additives
    • Dye
      • Usually added to help identify grade and/or brand of fuel
  • 61. Gasoline Additives
    • Octane Improver Additives
      • Aromatic hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons containing benzene ring) such as xylene and toluene
  • 62. Gasoline Additives
    • Octane Improver Additives
      • Alcohols such as ethanol (ethyl alcohol), methanol (methyl alcohol), and tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA)
      • Metallic compounds such as methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT)
  • 63. Gasoline Additives
    • Oxygenated Fuel Additives
      • Oxygenated fuels contain oxygen in molecule of fuel itself
      • Used in high-altitude areas to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions
      • Helps ensure enough oxygen to convert all CO into CO2 during combustion
  • 64. Gasoline Additives
    • Oxygenated Fuel Additives
      • Additives include:
        • Methanol
        • Ethanol
  • 65. Gasoline Additives
    • Oxygenated Fuel Additives
      • Additives include:
        • Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE)
        • Tertiary-amyl methyl ether (TAME)
        • Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE)
    ?
  • 66. Figure 66-10 This refueling pump indicates that the gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and can be used in any gasoline vehicle. E85 contains 85% ethanol and can be used only in vehicles specifically designed to use it.
  • 67. Figure 66-11 A container with gasoline containing alcohol. Notice the separation line where the alcohol–water mixture separated from the gasoline and sank to the bottom.
  • 68. GASOLINE BLENDING
  • 69. Gasoline Blending
    • Three methods to blend ethanol with gasoline to create E10 (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline)
      • In-line blending
        • Most likely to produce a well-mixed blend of ethanol and gasoline
  • 70. Gasoline Blending
    • Three methods to blend ethanol with gasoline to create E10 (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline)
      • Sequential blending
      • Splash blending
        • Least accurate blending
    ?
  • 71. Figure 66-12 In-line blending is the most accurate method for blending ethanol with gasoline because computers are used to calculate the correct ratio.
  • 72. Figure 66-13 Sequential blending uses a computer to calculate the correct ratio as well as the prescribed order in which the products are loaded.
  • 73. Figure 66-14 Splash blending occurs when the ethanol is added to a tanker with gasoline and is mixed as the truck travels to the retail outlet.
  • 74. REFORMULATED GASOLINE
  • 75. Reformulated Gasoline
    • RFG manufactured to help reduce emissions
    • Use additives containing at least 2% oxygen by weight; reducing additive benzene to maximum 1% by volume
  • 76. Reformulated Gasoline
    • Reduce light compounds
    • Reduce heavy compounds
  • 77. TESTING GASOLINE FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT
  • 78. Testing Gasoline for Alcohol Content
    • Pour suspect gasoline into graduated cylinder
    • Carefully fill graduated cylinder to 90-mL mark
    • Add 10 mL water to graduated cylinder by counting number of drops from an eyedropper
  • 79. Testing Gasoline for Alcohol Content
    • Put stopper in cylinder and shake vigorously 1 minute
      • Relieve built-up pressure by occasionally removing stopper
      • Alcohol dissolves in water and will drop to bottom of cylinder
  • 80. Testing Gasoline for Alcohol Content
    • Place cylinder on flat surface and let stand 2 minutes
    • Take reading near bottom of cylinder at boundary between two liquids
  • 81. Testing Gasoline for Alcohol Content
    • For percent of alcohol subtract 10 from reading
    • If increase in volume is 0.2% or less, assume test gasoline contains no alcohol
    ? ? ?
  • 82. Figure 66-15 Checking gasoline for alcohol involves using a graduated cylinder and adding water to check if the alcohol absorbs the water.
  • 83. GENERAL GASOLINE RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 84. General Gasoline Recommendations
    • Purchase fuel from a busy station to help ensure that it is fresh
    • Keep the fuel tank above one-quarter full
    • Do not purchase fuel with a higher octane rating than is necessary
  • 85. General Gasoline Recommendations
    • Avoid using gasoline with alcohol in warm weather
    • Do not purchase fuel from retail outlet when tanker filling underground tanks
    • Do not overfill the gas tank
    • Be careful when filling gasoline containers
    ?
  • 86. Figure 66-17 Many gasoline service stations have signs posted warning customers to place plastic fuel containers on the ground while filling. If placed in a trunk or pickup truck bed equipped with a plastic liner, static electricity could build up during fueling and discharge from the container to the metal nozzle, creating a spark and possible explosion. Some service stations have warning signs not to use cell phones while fueling to help avoid the possibility of an accidental spark creating a fire hazard.
  • 87. TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 1 A fuel composition tester (SPX Kent-Moore J-44175) is the recommended tool, by General Motors, to use to test the alcohol content of gasoline.
  • 88. TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 2 This battery-powered tester uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs), meter lead terminals, and two small openings for the fuel sample.
  • 89. TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 3 The first step is to verify the proper operation of the tester by measuring the air frequency by selecting AC hertz on the meter. The air frequency should be between 35 and 48 Hz.
  • 90. TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 4 After verifying that the tester is capable of correctly reading the air frequency, gasoline is poured into the testing cell of the tool.
  • 91. TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 5 Record the AC frequency as shown on the meter and subtract 50 from the reading. (e.g., 60.50 − 50.00 = 10.5). This number (10.5) is the percentage of alcohol in the gasoline sample.
  • 92. TESTING FOR ALCOHOL CONTENT IN GASOLINE 6 Adding additional amounts of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) increases the frequency reading.
  • 93. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION
    • Why Do I Get Lower Gas Mileage in the Winter?
      • Several factors cause the engine to use more fuel in the winter than in the summer, including:
    ? BACK TO PRESENTATION
    • Gasoline that is blended for use in cold climates is designed for ease of starting and contains fewer heavy molecules, which contribute to fuel economy. The heat content of winter gasoline is lower than summer-blended gasoline.
    • In cold temperatures, all lubricants are stiff, causing more resistance. These lubricants include the engine oil, as well as the transmission and differential gear lubricants.
    • Heat from the engine is radiated into the outside air more rapidly when the temperature is cold, resulting in longer run time until the engine has reached normal operating temperature.
    • Road conditions, such as ice and snow, can cause tire slippage or additional drag on the vehicle.
  • 94. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION
    • What Grade of Gasoline Does the EPA Use When Testing Engines?
      • Due to the various grades and additives used in commercial fuel, the government (EPA) uses a liquid called indolene. Indolene has a research octane number of 96.5 and a motor method octane rating of 88, which results in an R + M = 2 rating of 92.25.
    ? BACK TO PRESENTATION
  • 95. TECH TIP
    • Horsepower and Fuel Flow
      • To produce 1 hp, the engine must be supplied with 0.50 lb of fuel per hour (lb/hr). Fuel injectors are rated in pounds per hour. For example, a V-8 engine equipped with 25 lb/hr fuel injectors could produce 50 hp per cylinder (per injector) or 400 hp.
    • Even if the cylinder head or block is modified to produce more horsepower, the limiting factor may be the injector flow rate.
    • The following are flow rates and resulting horsepower for a V-8 engine:
      • 30 lb/hr: 60 hp per cylinder or 480 hp
      • 35 lb/hr: 70 hp per cylinder or 560 hp
      • 40 lb/hr: 80 hp per cylinder or 640 hp
    • Of course, injector flow rate is only one of many variables that affect power output. Installing larger injectors without other major engine modification could decrease engine output and drastically increase exhaust emissions.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
  • 96. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION
    • Can Regular-Grade Gasoline Be Used If Premium Is the Recommended Grade?
      • Maybe. It is usually possible to use regular-grade or midgrade (plus) gasoline in most newer vehicles without danger of damage to the engine. Most vehicles built since the 1990s are equipped with at least one knock sensor.
    ? BACK TO PRESENTATION
    • If a lower octane gasoline than specified is used, the engine ignition timing setting will usually cause the engine to spark knock, also called detonation or ping. This spark knock is detected by the knock sensor(s), which sends a signal to the computer. The computer then retards the ignition timing until the spark knock stops.
    • NOTE: Some scan tools will show the “estimated octane rating” of the fuel being used, which is based on knock sensor activity.
    • As a result of this spark timing retardation, the engine torque is reduced. While this reduction in power is seldom noticed, it will reduce fuel economy, often by 4 to 5 miles per gallon. If premium gasoline is then used, the PCM will gradually permit the engine to operate at the more advanced ignition timing setting.
    • Therefore, it may take several tanks of premium gasoline to restore normal fuel economy. For best overall performance, use the grade of gasoline recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.
  • 97. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION
    • What Is Meant by “Phase Separation”?
      • All alcohols absorb water, and the alcohol–water mixture can separate from the gasoline and sink to the bottom of the fuel tank. This process is called phase separation.
    ? BACK TO PRESENTATION
    • To help avoid engine performance problems, try to keep at least a quarter tank of fuel at all times, especially during seasons when there is a wide temperature span between daytime highs and nighttime lows. These conditions can cause moisture to accumulate in the fuel tank as a result of condensation of the moisture in the air.
  • 98. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION
    • Is Water Heavier Than Gasoline?
      • Yes. Water weighs about 8.3 pounds per gallon, whereas gasoline weighs about 6 pounds per gallon. The density as measured by specific gravity includes:
        • Water = 1.000 (the baseline for specific gravity)
        • Gasoline = 0.730 to 0.760
    ? BACK TO PRESENTATION
    • This means that any water that gets into the fuel tank will sink to the bottom.
  • 99. WARNING
    • Do not smoke or run the test around sources of ignition!
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
  • 100. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION
    • How Does Alcohol Content in the Gasoline Affect Engine Operation?
      • In most cases, the use of gasoline containing 10% or less of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) has little or no effect on engine operation. However, because the addition of 10% ethanol raises the volatility of the fuel slightly, occasional rough idle or stalling may be noticed, especially during warm weather.
    ?
    • The rough idle and stalling may also be noticeable after the engine is started, driven, then stopped for a short time. Engine heat can vaporize the alcohol-enhanced fuel causing bubbles to form in the fuel system.
    • These bubbles in the fuel prevent the proper operation of the fuel injection system and result in a hesitation during acceleration, rough idle, or in severe cases repeated stalling until all the bubbles have been forced through the fuel system, replaced by cooler fuel from the fuel tank.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
  • 101. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION
    • What Is “Top-Tier” Gasoline?
      • Top-tier gasoline is gasoline that has specific standards for quality, including enough detergent to keep all intake valves clean. Four automobile manufacturers, including BMW, General Motors, Honda, and Toyota, developed the standards.
    ?
    • Top-tier gasoline exceeds the quality standards developed by the World Wide Fuel Charter (WWFC) that was established in 2002 by vehicle and engine manufacturers. The gasoline companies that agreed to make fuel that matches or exceeds the standards as a top-tier fuel include Shell, ChevronTexaco and ConocoPhillips. Ford has specified that BP fuel, sold in many parts of the country, is the recommended fuel to use in Ford vehicles.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
      • Figure 66-16 The gas cap on a Ford vehicle notes that BP fuel is recommended.
  • 102. TECH TIP
    • The Sniff Test
      • Problems can occur with stale gasoline from which the lighter parts of the gasoline have evaporated. Stale gasoline usually results in a no-start situation. If stale gasoline is suspected, sniff it. If it smells rancid, replace it with fresh gasoline.
    • NOTE: If storing a vehicle, boat, or lawnmower over the winter, put some gasoline stabilizer into the gasoline to reduce the evaporation and separation that can occur during storage. Gasoline stabilizer is frequently available at lawnmower repair shops or marinas.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
  • 103. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION
    • Why Should I Keep the Fuel Gauge Above One-Quarter Tank?
      • The fuel pickup inside the fuel tank can help keep water from being drawn into the fuel system unless water is all that is left at the bottom of the tank.
    ?
    • Over time, moisture in the air inside the fuel tank can condense, causing liquid water to drop to the bottom of the fuel tank (water is heavier than gasoline–about 8 lb per gallon for water and about 6 lb per gallon for gasoline). If alcohol-blended gasoline is used, the alcohol can absorb the water and the alcohol–water combination can be burned inside the engine.
    • However, when water combines with alcohol, a separation layer occurs between the gasoline at the top of the tank and the alcohol–water combination at the bottom. When the fuel level is low, the fuel pump will draw from this concentrated level of alcohol and water. Because alcohol and water do not burn as well as pure gasoline, severe driveability problems can occur such as stalling, rough idle, hard starting, and missing.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
  • 104. TECH TIP
    • Do Not Overfill the Fuel Tank
      • Gasoline fuel tanks have an expansion volume area at the top. The volume of this expansion area is equal to 10% to 15% of the volume of the tank. This area is normally not filled with gasoline, but rather is designed to provide a place for the gasoline to expand into, if the vehicle is parked in the hot sun and the gasoline expands.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
    • This prevents raw gasoline from escaping from the fuel system. A small restriction is usually present to control the amount of air and vapors that can escape the tank and flow to the charcoal canister.
    • This volume area could be filled with gasoline if the fuel is slowly pumped into the tank. Since it can hold an extra 10% (2 gallons in a 20-gallon tank), some people deliberately try to fill the tank completely. When this expansion volume is filled, liquid fuel (rather than vapors) can be drawn into the charcoal canister. When the purge valve opens, liquid fuel can be drawn into the engine, causing an excessively rich air-fuel mixture.
    • Not only can this liquid fuel harm vapor recovery parts, but overfilling the gas tank could also cause the vehicle to fail an exhaust emission test, particularly during an enhanced test when the tank could be purged while on the rollers.
  • 105. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION
    • What Are the Pump Nozzle Sizes?
      • Unleaded gasoline nozzles are smaller than those used for diesel fuel to help prevent fueling errors. However, it is still possible to fuel a diesel vehicle with gasoline. Chart 66–1 shows the sizes and colors used for fuel pump nozzles.
    ? BACK TO PRESENTATION
      • CHART 66-1 Fuel pump nozzle size is standardized except for use by over-the-road truck stops where high fuel volumes and speedy refills require larger nozzle sizes compared to passenger vehicle filling station nozzles.