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Halderman ch053 lecture
 

Halderman ch053 lecture

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  • Figure 53-1 A theft deterrent indicator lamp on the dash. A flashing lamp usually indicates a fault in the system, and the engine may not start.
  • Figure 53-2 Voltmeter hookups for voltage drop testing of a solenoid-type cranking circuit.
  • Figure 53-3 Voltmeter hookups for voltage drop testing of a Ford cranking circuit.
  • Figure 53-4 To test the voltage drop of the battery cable connection, place one voltmeter lead on the battery terminal and the other voltmeter lead on the cable end and crank the engine. The voltmeter will read the difference in voltage between the two leads, which should not exceed 0.20 volt (200 mV).
  • Figure 53-5 A starter amperage tester uses an amp probe around the positive or negative battery cables.
  • Figure 53-6 The starter is located under the intake manifold on this Cadillac Northstar engine.
  • Figure 53-7 An exploded view of a typical solenoid-operated starter.
  • Figure 53-8 GM solenoid ohmmeter check. The reading between 1 and 3 (S terminal and ground) should be 0.4 to 0.6 ohm (hold-in winding). The reading between 1 and 2 (S terminal and M terminal) should be 0.2 to 0.4 ohm (pull-in winding).
  • Figure 53-9 Measuring an armature shaft for runout using a dial indicator and V-blocks.
  • Figure 53-10 Replacement starter brushes should be installed so the beveled edge matches the rotation of the commutator.
  • Figure 53-11 A shim (or half shim) may be needed to provide the proper clearance between the flywheel teeth of the engine and the pinion teeth of the starter.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 1 This dirty and greasy starter can be restored to useful service.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 2 The connecting wire between the solenoid and the starter is removed.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 3 An old starter field housing is being used to support the drive-end housing of the starter as it is being disassembled. This rebuilder is using an electric impact wrench to remove the solenoid fasteners.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 4 A Torx driver is used to remove the solenoid attaching screws.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 5 After the retaining screws have been removed, the solenoid can be separated from the starter motor. This rebuilder always replaces the solenoid.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 6 The through-bolts are being removed.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 7 The brush end plate is removed.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 8 The armature assembly is removed from the field frame.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 9 Notice that the length of a direct-drive starter armature (top) is the same length as the overall length of a gearreduction armature except smaller in diameter.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 10 A light tap with a hammer dislodges the armature thrust ball (in the palm of the hand) from the center of the gear reduction assembly.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 11 This figure shows the planetary ring gear and pinion gears.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 12 A close-up of one of the planetary gears, which shows the small needle bearings on the inside.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 13 The clip is removed from the shaft so the planetary gear assembly can be separated and inspected.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 14 The shaft assembly is being separated from the stationary gear assembly.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 15 The commutator on the armature is discolored and the brushes may not have been making good contact with the segments.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 16 All of the starter components are placed in a tumbler with water-based cleaner. The armature is installed in a lathe and the commutator is resurfaced using emery cloth.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 17 The finished commutator looks like new.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 18 Starter reassembly begins by installing a new starter drive on the shaft assembly. The stop ring and stop ring retainer are then installed.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 19 The gear-reduction assembly is positioned along with the shift fork (drive lever) into the cleaned drive-end housing.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 20 After gear retainer has been installed over the gear reduction assembly, the armature is installed.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 21 New brushes are being installed into the brush holder assembly.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 22 The brush end plate and the through-bolts are installed, being sure that the ground connection for the brushes is clean and tight.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 23 This starter was restored to useful service by replacing the solenoid, the brushes, and the starter drive assembly plus a thorough cleaning and attention to detail in the reassembly.

Halderman ch053 lecture Halderman ch053 lecture Presentation Transcript

  • CRANKING SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS AND SERVICE 53
  • Objectives
    • The student should be able to:
      • Prepare for ASE Electrical/Electronic Systems (A6) certification test content area “C” (Starting System Diagnosis and Repair).
      • Explain how to disassemble and reassemble a starter motor and solenoid.
      • Discuss how to perform a voltage drop test on the cranking circuit.
  • Objectives
    • The student should be able to:
      • Describe how to perform cranking system repair procedures.
      • Describe testing and repair procedures of the cranking circuit and components.
  • STARTING SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE
  • Starting System Troubleshooting Procedure
    • Overview
      • Proper operation of starting system depends on:
        • Good battery.
        • Good cables and connections.
        • Good starter motor.
  • Starting System Troubleshooting Procedure
    • Steps Involved
      • STEP 1: Verify customer concern.
      • STEP 2: Visually inspect battery and battery connections.
      • STEP 3: Test battery condition.
  • Starting System Troubleshooting Procedure
    • Steps Involved
      • STEP 4: Check control circuit.
        • “ S” terminal of starter solenoid.
        • Neutral safety or clutch switch.
  • Starting System Troubleshooting Procedure
    • Steps Involved
      • STEP 4: Check control circuit.
        • Starter enable relay (if equipped).
        • Antitheft system fault.
  • Starting System Troubleshooting Procedure
    • Steps Involved
      • STEP 5: Check voltage drop of starter circuit.
  • Figure 53-1 A theft deterrent indicator lamp on the dash. A flashing lamp usually indicates a fault in the system, and the engine may not start.
  • VOLTAGE DROP TESTING
  • Voltage Drop Testing
    • Purpose
      • Drop in voltage that occurs when current is flowing through resistance.
      • Testing should be done on both power side and ground side.
  • Voltage Drop Testing
    • Purpose
      • High drop in cranking circuit wiring can cause slow engine cranking.
      • If voltage drop is high enough, starter may not operate.
        • Typical symptom: “clicking” of starter solenoid.
  • Voltage Drop Testing
    • Test Procedure
      • STEP 1: Disable ignition or fuel injection.
      • STEP 2: Connect one lead of voltmeter to starter motor battery terminal. Connect other end to positive battery terminal.
  • Voltage Drop Testing
    • Test Procedure
      • STEP 3: Crank engine and observe reading while cranking.
        • Reading should be less than 0.20 volt (200 mV).
  • Voltage Drop Testing
    • Test Procedure
      • STEP 4: Test voltage drop across “B” and “M” terminals of starter solenoid with engine cranking.
        • Reading should be less than 0.20 volt (200 mV).
  • Voltage Drop Testing
    • Test Procedure
      • STEP 5: Repeat the voltage drop on ground side. Connect one lead to negative battery terminal and other at starter housing.
        • Reading should be less than 0.20 volt (200 mV).
  • Figure 53-2 Voltmeter hookups for voltage drop testing of a solenoid-type cranking circuit.
  • Figure 53-3 Voltmeter hookups for voltage drop testing of a Ford cranking circuit.
  • Figure 53-4 To test the voltage drop of the battery cable connection, place one voltmeter lead on the battery terminal and the other voltmeter lead on the cable end and crank the engine. The voltmeter will read the difference in voltage between the two leads, which should not exceed 0.20 volt (200 mV).
  • CONTROL CIRCUIT TESTING
  • Control Circuit Testing
    • Parts Involved
      • Battery.
      • Ignition switch.
      • Neutral or clutch safety switch.
      • Theft deterrent system.
  • Control Circuit Testing
    • Parts Involved
      • Starter solenoid.
      • Starter Amperage Test.
      • If starter inoperative, check for voltage at “S” terminal of starter solenoid.
  • Control Circuit Testing
    • Parts Involved
      • Check faults in:
        • Neutral safety or clutch switch.
        • Blown crank fuse.
        • Open at the ignition switch in the crank position.
  • STARTER AMPERAGE TEST
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Reason for a Starter Amperage Test
      • To see if reason for slow or no cranking is fault with starter motor.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Test Preparation
      • Be certain that battery is sufficiently charged (75% or more).
      • Connect starter amperage tester following tester 's instructions.
  • Figure 53-5 A starter amperage tester uses an amp probe around the positive or negative battery cables.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • General maximum amperage draw for testing starter on vehicle.
        • 4-cylinder engines = 150 to 185 amperes.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • General maximum amperage draw for testing starter on vehicle.
        • 6-cylinder engines = 160 to 200 amperes.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • General maximum amperage draw for testing starter on vehicle.
        • 8-cylinder engines = 185 to 250 amperes.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • Excessive current draw may indicate:
        • Binding of starter armature as a result of worn bushings.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • Excessive current draw may indicate:
        • Oil too thick (viscosity too high) for weather conditions.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • Excessive current draw may indicate:
        • Shorted or grounded starter windings or cables.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • Excessive current draw may indicate:
        • Tight or seized engine.
        • Shorted starter motor.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • Lower amperage draw and slow or no cranking may indicate:
        • Dirty or corroded battery connections.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • Lower amperage draw and slow or no cranking may indicate:
        • High internal resistance in battery cable(s).
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • Lower amperage draw and slow or no cranking may indicate:
        • High internal starter motor resistance.
  • Starter Amperage Test
    • Specifications
      • Lower amperage draw and slow or no cranking may indicate:
        • Poor ground connection between starter motor and engine block.
  • STARTER REMOVAL
  • Starter Removal
    • Procedure
      • STEP 1: Disconnect negative battery cable.
      • STEP 2: Hoist vehicle safely.
  • Starter Removal
    • Procedure
      • STEP 3: Remove starter retaining bolts and lower starter.
      • STEP 4: Disconnect and label wire(s) from starter. Remove starter.
  • Starter Removal
    • Procedure
      • STEP 5: Inspect flywheel (flexplate) for ring gear damage.
  • Figure 53-6 The starter is located under the intake manifold on this Cadillac Northstar engine.
  • STARTER MOTOR SERVICE
  • Starter Motor Service
    • Purpose
      • Most starter motors are replaced as an assembly.
      • Some starters (classic muscle or collector vehicles) can be serviced.
  • Starter Motor Service
    • Disassembly Procedure
      • STEP 1: Remove starter solenoid assembly.
      • STEP 2: Mark location of through bolts on field housing.
      • STEP 3: Remove drive-end housing and then armature assembly.
  • Figure 53-7 An exploded view of a typical solenoid-operated starter.
  • Starter Motor Service
    • Inspection and Testing
      • Inspect and test components to see if can be reused.
      • Use ohmmeter to check resistance of solenoid winding.
  • Starter Motor Service
    • Inspection and Testing
      • Check armature shaft for runout using dial indicator and V-blocks.
      • Check armature with growler.
  • Starter Motor Service
    • Inspection and Testing
      • Test field coils for opens and grounds using powered test light or ohmmeter.
      • Replace starter brushes if brush length less than 0.5 in.
  • Figure 53-8 GM solenoid ohmmeter check. The reading between 1 and 3 (S terminal and ground) should be 0.4 to 0.6 ohm (hold-in winding). The reading between 1 and 2 (S terminal and M terminal) should be 0.2 to 0.4 ohm (pull-in winding).
  • Figure 53-9 Measuring an armature shaft for runout using a dial indicator and V-blocks.
  • Figure 53-10 Replacement starter brushes should be installed so the beveled edge matches the rotation of the commutator.
  • BENCH TESTING
  • Bench Testing
    • Clamp starter in a vise to prevent rotation during operation.
    • Connect heavy-gauge jumper wires to battery and starter.
    • Starter motor should rotate as fast as specifications indicate.
    • Should not draw more than free-spinning amperage permitted (60–100 amperes).
  • STARTER INSTALLATION
  • Starter Installation
    • STEP 1: Check service information for exact wiring connections.
    • STEP 2: Verify all electrical connections on starter motor and/or solenoid correct.
    • STEP 3: Attach power and control wires.
  • Starter Installation
    • STEP 4: Install starter; torque all fasteners to factory specifications.
    • STEP 5: Perform starter amperage draw test; check for proper engine cranking.
  • STARTER DRIVE-TO-FLYWHEEL CLEARANCE
  • Starter Drive-to-Flywheel Clearance
    • Need for Shims
      • Slight clearance between starter pinion and engine flywheel ring gear.
      • Metal shims give proper clearance.
  • Figure 53-11 A shim (or half shim) may be needed to provide the proper clearance between the flywheel teeth of the engine and the pinion teeth of the starter.
  • Starter Drive-to-Flywheel Clearance
    • Symptoms of Clearance Problems
      • Clearance too great: starter produces high-pitched whine during cranking.
  • Starter Drive-to-Flywheel Clearance
    • Symptoms of Clearance Problems
      • Clearance too small, starter may:
        • Bind.
        • Crank slowly.
        • Produce high-pitched whine.
  • Starter Drive-to-Flywheel Clearance
    • Procedure for Proper Clearance
      • Place starter in position; finger-tighten mounting bolts.
      • Insert gauge tool between armature shaft and a tooth of engine flywheel.
  • Starter Drive-to-Flywheel Clearance
    • Procedure for Proper Clearance
      • If gauge tool cannot be inserted, use full-length shim to move starter away from flywheel.
  • Starter Drive-to-Flywheel Clearance
    • Procedure for Proper Clearance
      • Remove shim(s) if gauge tool is loose.
      • If no shims used and gauge tool too loose, add half shim to outside pad only.
  • STARTING SYSTEM SYMPTOM GUIDE
  • The following list will assist technicians in troubleshooting starting systems.
  • The following list will assist technicians in troubleshooting starting systems.
  • The following list will assist technicians in troubleshooting starting systems.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 1 This dirty and greasy starter can be restored to useful service.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 2 The connecting wire between the solenoid and the starter is removed.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 3 An old starter field housing is being used to support the drive-end housing of the starter as it is being disassembled. This rebuilder is using an electric impact wrench to remove the solenoid fasteners.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 4 A Torx driver is used to remove the solenoid attaching screws.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 5 After the retaining screws have been removed, the solenoid can be separated from the starter motor. This rebuilder always replaces the solenoid.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 6 The through-bolts are being removed.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 7 The brush end plate is removed.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 8 The armature assembly is removed from the field frame.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 9 Notice that the length of a direct-drive starter armature (top) is the same length as the overall length of a gearreduction armature except smaller in diameter.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 10 A light tap with a hammer dislodges the armature thrust ball (in the palm of the hand) from the center of the gear reduction assembly.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 11 This figure shows the planetary ring gear and pinion gears.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 12 A close-up of one of the planetary gears, which shows the small needle bearings on the inside.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 13 The clip is removed from the shaft so the planetary gear assembly can be separated and inspected.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 14 The shaft assembly is being separated from the stationary gear assembly.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 15 The commutator on the armature is discolored and the brushes may not have been making good contact with the segments.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 16 All of the starter components are placed in a tumbler with water-based cleaner. The armature is installed in a lathe and the commutator is resurfaced using emery cloth.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 17 The finished commutator looks like new.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 18 Starter reassembly begins by installing a new starter drive on the shaft assembly. The stop ring and stop ring retainer are then installed.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 19 The gear-reduction assembly is positioned along with the shift fork (drive lever) into the cleaned drive-end housing.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 20 After gear retainer has been installed over the gear reduction assembly, the armature is installed.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 21 New brushes are being installed into the brush holder assembly.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 22 The brush end plate and the through-bolts are installed, being sure that the ground connection for the brushes is clean and tight.
  • STARTER OVERHAUL 23 This starter was restored to useful service by replacing the solenoid, the brushes, and the starter drive assembly plus a thorough cleaning and attention to detail in the reassembly.
  • TECH TIP
    • Voltage Drop Is Resistance
      • Many technicians have asked, “Why measure voltage drop when the resistance can be easily measured using an ohmmeter?” Think of a battery cable with all the strands of the cable broken, except for one strand. If an ohmmeter were used to measure the resistance of the cable, the reading would be very low, probably less than 1 ohm.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
    • However, the cable is not capable of conducting the amount of current necessary to crank the engine. In less severe cases, several strands can be broken, thereby affecting the operation of the starter motor. Although the resistance of the battery cable will not indicate an increase, the restriction to current flow will cause heat and a drop of voltage available at the starter.
    • Because resistance is not effective until current flows, measuring the voltage drop (differences in voltage between two points) is the most accurate method of determining the true resistance in a circuit.
    • How much is too much? According to Bosch Corporation, all electrical circuits should have a maximum of 3% loss of the circuit voltage to resistance.
    • Therefore, in a 12 volt circuit, the maximum loss of voltage in cables and connections should be 0.36 volt (12 x 0.03 = 0.36 volt). The remaining 97% of the circuit voltage (11.64 volts) is available to operate the electrical device (load). Just remember:
      • Low-voltage drop = Low resistance
      • High-voltage drop = High resistance
  • TECH TIP
    • A Warm Cable Equals High Resistance
      • If a cable or connection is warm to the touch, there is electrical resistance in the cable or connection. The resistance changes electrical energy into heat energy.
    Therefore, if a voltmeter is not available, touch the battery cables and connections while cranking the engine. If any cable or connection is hot to the touch, it should be cleaned or replaced. BACK TO PRESENTATION
  • TECH TIP
    • Watch the Dome Light
      • When diagnosing any starter-related problem, open the door of the vehicle and observe the brightness of the dome or interior light(s).
      • The brightness of any electrical lamp is proportional to the voltage of the battery.
      • Normal operation of the starter results in a slight dimming of the dome light.
    • If the light remains bright, the problem is usually an open in the control circuit.
    • If the light goes out or almost goes out, there could be a problem with the following:
    • A shorted or grounded armature of field coils inside the starter
    • Loose or corroded battery connections or cables
    • Weak or discharged battery
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
  • TECH TIP
    • Reuse Drive-End Housing to Be Sure
      • Most GM starter motors use a pad mount and attach to the engine with bolts through the drive-end (nose) housing. Many times when a starter is replaced on a GM vehicle, the starter makes noise because of improper starter pinion-to-engine flywheel ring gear clearance.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
    • Instead of spending a lot of time shimming the new starter, simply remove the drive-end housing from the original starter and install it on the replacement starter. Service the bushing in the drive-end housing if needed. Because the original starter did not produce excessive gear engagement noise, the replacement starter will also be okay.
    • Reuse any shims that were used with the original starter. This is preferable to removing and reinstalling the replacement starter several times until the proper clearance is determined.