Halderman ch028 lecture
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  • Figure 28-1 A worn timing sprocket that resulted in a retarded valve timing and reduced engine performance.
  • Figure 28-2 A crate engine from Chrysler to be used in a restored muscle car. Using a complete new engine costs more than rebuilding an existing engine, but it has a warranty and uses all new parts.
  • Figure 28-3 An engine must be tipped as it is pulled from the chassis.
  • Figure 28-4 When removing just the engine from a front-wheeldrive vehicle, the transaxle must be supported. Shown here is a typical fixture that can be used to hold the engine if the transaxle is removed or to hold the transaxle if the engine is removed.
  • Figure 28-5 The entire cradle, which included the engine, transaxle, and steering gear, was removed and placed onto a stand. The rear cylinder head has been removed to check for the root cause of a coolant leak.
  • Figure 28-6 Always use graded bolts—either grade 5 or 8 bolts—whenever mounting an engine to a stand.
  • Figure 28-7 Keeping the pushrods and the lifters sorted by cylinder, including the spark plugs, is a wise way to proceed when disassembling the cylinder heads.
  • Figure 28-8 Sometimes after the cylinder head has been removed, the engine condition is discovered to be so major that the entire engine may need to be replaced rather than overhauled.
  • Figure 28-9 These connecting rods were numbered from the factory. If they are not, then they should be marked.
  • Figure 28-10 Most of the cylinder wear is on the top inch just below the cylinder ridge. This wear is due to the heat and combustion pressures that occur when the piston is near the top of the cylinder.
  • Figure 28-11 This ridge is being removed with one type of ridge reamer before the piston assemblies are removed from the engine.
  • Figure 28-12 Puller being used to pull the vibration damper from the crankshaft.
  • Figure 28-13 When the timing chain cover was removed, the broken timing gear explained why this GM 4.3 liter V-6 engine stopped running.
  • Figure 28-14 Most engines such as this Chevrolet V-8 with four-bolt main bearing caps have arrows marked on the bearing caps which should point to the front of the engine.
  • Figure 28-15 This small block Chevrolet V-8 had water standing in the cylinders, causing a lot of rust, which was discovered as soon as the head was removed.
  • Figure 28-16 A torch is used to heat gallery plugs. Paraffin wax is then applied and allowed to flow around the threads. This procedure results in easier removal of the plugs and other threaded fasteners that cannot otherwise be loosened.
  • Figure 28-17 A valve spring compressor is used to compress the valve spring before removing the keepers (locks).
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 1 Before beginning work on removing the engine, mark and remove the hood and place it in a safe location.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 2 For safety, remove the negative battery cable to avoid any possible electrical problems from occurring.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 3 Drain the coolant and dispose of properly.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 4 Disconnect all cooling system and heater hoses and remove the radiator.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 5 Remove the accessory drive belt(s) and set the alternator, power steering pump, and air conditioning compressor aside.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 6 Remove the air intake system including the air filter housing as needed.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 7 Remove the electrical connector from all sensors and label.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 8 Disconnect the engine wiring harness connector at the bulkhead.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 9 Safely hoist the vehicle and disconnect the exhaust system from the exhaust manifolds.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 10 Mark and then remove the fasteners connecting the flex plate to the torque converter.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 11 Lower the vehicle and remove the engine mount bolts and transaxle bell housing fasteners.
  • ENGINE REMOVAL 12 Secure the lifting chain to the engine hooks and carefully remove the engine from the vehicle.

Transcript

  • 1. ENGINE REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY 28
  • 2. Objectives
    • The student should be able to:
      • Prepare for ASE Engine Repair (A1) certification test content areas “B” (Cylinder Head and Valve Train Diagnosis and Repair) and “C” (Engine Block Diagnosis and Repair).
      • Explain the differences between a long block and a short block assembly.
      • Describe how to remove an engine from a vehicle.
  • 3. Objectives
    • The student should be able to:
      • Explain how to remove engine accessory components, such as the covers and valve train components.
      • Discuss how to remove cylinder heads without causing warpage.
      • List the steps necessary to remove a piston from a cylinder.
      • Explain how to remove a valve from a cylinder head.
  • 4. ENGINE REPAIR OPTIONS
  • 5. Engine Repair Options
    • Technician and Owner Decision
      • Engine might not be worth repairing
      • Customer must make decision based on technician’s recommendation
  • 6. Engine Repair Options
    • Repair Options
      • Types of component repairs
        • Component replacement
        • Valve job
        • Minor overhaul
  • 7. Engine Repair Options
    • Repair Options
      • Types of component repairs
        • Major overhaul
        • Short block
        • Long block
  • 8. Engine Repair Options
    • Repair Options
      • Types of component repairs
        • Crate engines
        • Remanufactured engines
  • 9. Figure 28-1 A worn timing sprocket that resulted in a retarded valve timing and reduced engine performance.
  • 10. Figure 28-2 A crate engine from Chrysler to be used in a restored muscle car. Using a complete new engine costs more than rebuilding an existing engine, but it has a warranty and uses all new parts.
  • 11. ENGINE REMOVAL
  • 12. Engine Removal
    • Check Service Information
      • Print out specified procedure as published in service information
  • 13. Engine Removal
    • Usual Engine Removal Procedures
      • Remove hood
      • Clean engine area
      • Disconnect negative (−) battery cable, and remove battery
  • 14. Engine Removal
    • Usual Engine Removal Procedures
      • Remove air cleaner assembly
      • Remove all accessories
      • Drain coolant
      • Remove radiator
  • 15. Engine Removal
    • Usual Engine Removal Procedures
      • Disconnect exhaust system
      • Recover air-conditioning refrigerant
      • Remove power steering pump
  • 16. Engine Removal
    • Usual Engine Removal Procedures
      • Drain engine oil
      • Disconnect fuel lines
      • Disconnect wiring and vacuum hoses
  • 17. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Two ways to remove engine
        • Lifted out of chassis with transmission/transaxle attached
  • 18. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Two ways to remove engine
        • Transmission/transaxle separated from engine and left in chassis
  • 19. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most rear-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Under vehicle, remove driveshaft and disconnect exhaust pipes
  • 20. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most rear-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Remove the engine mounts
  • 21. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most rear-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Disconnect transmission controls and wiring at connectors
  • 22. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most rear-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Disconnect and label clutch linkages
  • 23. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most rear-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Attach sling to lifting hooks, intake manifold, or cylinder head bolts
  • 24. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most rear-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Remove rear cross-member and lower transmission
  • 25. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most rear-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Tip front of engine
  • 26. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most rear-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Hoist engine and transmission
  • 27. Figure 28-3 An engine must be tipped as it is pulled from the chassis.
  • 28. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most front-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Swing clear and place on floor
  • 29. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most front-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Can be removed from top or from underneath
  • 30. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most front-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Disconnect units that might interfere with engine removal
          • Steering unit, engine electrical harness, radiator
  • 31. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most front-wheel-drive vehicles
        • If removing from underneath, remove upper strut and lower engine cradle fasteners
  • 32. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most front-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Disconnect torque converter, bell housing bolts, clutch linkage
  • 33. Engine Removal
    • Procedure for Engine Removal
      • Removal procedure for most front-wheel-drive vehicles
        • Use holding fixtures to hold transaxle in place during removal
  • 34. Figure 28-4 When removing just the engine from a front-wheeldrive vehicle, the transaxle must be supported. Shown here is a typical fixture that can be used to hold the engine if the transaxle is removed or to hold the transaxle if the engine is removed.
  • 35. Figure 28-5 The entire cradle, which included the engine, transaxle, and steering gear, was removed and placed onto a stand. The rear cylinder head has been removed to check for the root cause of a coolant leak.
  • 36. ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
  • 37. Engine Disassembly
    • Mounting the Engine on a Stand
      • Use at least four grade 8 bolts when mounting engine to stand
      • Ensure that proper threads of bolts being used
  • 38. Engine Disassembly
    • Mounting the Engine on a Stand
      • Bolts must have at least 1/2 in. (13 mm) of thread engaged in engine
      • Engine properly balanced on stand
  • 39. Figure 28-6 Always use graded bolts—either grade 5 or 8 bolts—whenever mounting an engine to a stand.
  • 40. Engine Disassembly
    • Disassembling a Cam-in-Block (OHV) Engine
      • Should be cold before disassembly
      • Remove rocker arm covers; inspect rocker arms, valve springs, valve tips
  • 41. Engine Disassembly
    • Disassembling a Cam-in-Block (OHV) Engine
      • Remove rocker arms and pushrods
      • Remove intake manifold bolts and lift off manifold
  • 42. Engine Disassembly
    • Disassembling a Cam-in-Block (OHV) Engine
      • Remove lifters
      • Remove cylinder head bolts
      • Carefully lift head from block deck
  • 43. Engine Disassembly
    • Disassembling a Cam-in-Block (OHV) Engine
      • Inspect combustion chamber in head and top of piston
      • Check cylinder head and head gasket for signs of leakage
  • 44. Figure 28-7 Keeping the pushrods and the lifters sorted by cylinder, including the spark plugs, is a wise way to proceed when disassembling the cylinder heads.
  • 45. Figure 28-8 Sometimes after the cylinder head has been removed, the engine condition is discovered to be so major that the entire engine may need to be replaced rather than overhauled.
  • 46. Engine Disassembly
    • Overhead Cam Shaft (OHC) Engine Disassembly
      • Remove intake and exhaust manifolds
      • Remove crankshaft harmonic balancer pulley
  • 47. Engine Disassembly
    • Overhead Cam Shaft (OHC) Engine Disassembly
      • Remove timing belt cover and timing belt
      • Remove camshaft(s) before removing cylinder head
  • 48. Engine Disassembly
    • Overhead Cam Shaft (OHC) Engine Disassembly
      • Remove cylinder head by removing cylinder head bolts
      • Carefully lift cylinder head from block
  • 49. DISASSEMBLY OF THE SHORT BLOCK
  • 50. Disassembly of the Short Block
    • Removing the Oil Pan
      • Turn engine upside down to remove
      • Inspect pan and oil pump pickup screen
  • 51. Disassembly of the Short Block
    • Marking Connecting Rods and Caps
      • Number so can be reassembled in exact same position
      • Mark with number stamp, electric pencil, or permanent marker
  • 52. Figure 28-9 These connecting rods were numbered from the factory. If they are not, then they should be marked.
  • 53. Disassembly of the Short Block
    • Removing the Cylinder Ridge
      • Remove cylinder ridge before pistons can be removed from block
      • Necessary to avoid catching ring on ridge and breaking piston
      • Use cutting tool with guide to prevent accidental cutting below ridge
  • 54. Figure 28-10 Most of the cylinder wear is on the top inch just below the cylinder ridge. This wear is due to the heat and combustion pressures that occur when the piston is near the top of the cylinder.
  • 55. Figure 28-11 This ridge is being removed with one type of ridge reamer before the piston assemblies are removed from the engine.
  • 56. Disassembly of the Short Block
    • Piston Removal
      • Rotate engine until piston to be removed at bottom dead center (BDC)
      • Remove connecting rod nuts from rod so rod cap can be removed
  • 57. Disassembly of the Short Block
    • Piston Removal
      • Fit rod bolts with protectors, then remove piston and rod assemblies
      • After removal of each piston, replace rod cap and nuts
  • 58. ROTATING ENGINE ASSEMBLIES REMOVAL
  • 59. Rotating Engines Assembly Removal
    • Harmonic Balancer Removal
      • Remove crankshaft vibration damper (also called harmonic balancer)
      • Remove bolt and washer that hold damper
  • 60. Rotating Engines Assembly Removal
    • Harmonic Balancer Removal
      • Remove damper only with a threaded puller
      • Remove timing cover, exposing timing gear (or chain)
  • 61. Rotating Engines Assembly Removal
    • Harmonic Balancer Removal
      • Inspect parts for excessive wear or looseness
      • Remove bolted cam sprockets to free timing chain
  • 62. Rotating Engines Assembly Removal
    • Harmonic Balancer Removal
      • May require removal of crankshaft gear at same time
      • Gears and sprockets removed from shaft only if faulty
  • 63. Figure 28-12 Puller being used to pull the vibration damper from the crankshaft.
  • 64. Figure 28-13 When the timing chain cover was removed, the broken timing gear explained why this GM 4.3 liter V-6 engine stopped running.
  • 65. Rotating Engines Assembly Removal
    • Camshaft Removal
      • Insert long bolt into a camshaft threaded hole as handle for removing
      • Carefully ease camshaft from engine with front of engine pointing up
  • 66. Rotating Engines Assembly Removal
    • Crankshaft and Main Bearing Removal
      • Check main bearing caps for position markings, or mark them
      • Remove caps; then remove crankshaft
      • Reinstall caps and bearings on block to reduce chance of damage
  • 67. Figure 28-14 Most engines such as this Chevrolet V-8 with four-bolt main bearing caps have arrows marked on the bearing caps which should point to the front of the engine.
  • 68. Rotating Engines Assembly Removal
    • Block Inspection
      • After pistons and crankshaft removed, remove cups and plugs
      • Inspect block for faults that could affect whether engine can be rebuilt
  • 69. Figure 28-15 This small block Chevrolet V-8 had water standing in the cylinders, causing a lot of rust, which was discovered as soon as the head was removed.
  • 70. CYLINDER HEAD DISASSEMBLY
  • 71. Cylinder Head Disassembly
    • OHV Engine Cylinder Heads
      • Tap valve spring retainer with brass hammer on an angle
      • Compress valve spring far enough to expose keepers
  • 72. Cylinder Head Disassembly
    • OHV Engine Cylinder Heads
      • Use magnet to remove keepers
      • Slowly release valve spring compressor and remove
  • 73. Cylinder Head Disassembly
    • OHV Engine Cylinder Heads
      • Lightly file valve tip edge and keeper area to remove burrs before sliding valve from head
  • 74. Cylinder Head Disassembly
    • OHV Engine Cylinder Heads
      • Remove valve stem seals and metal spring seats used on aluminum heads
      • Carefully inspect valve springs, retainers, keepers, guides, seats
  • 75. Figure 28-16 A torch is used to heat gallery plugs. Paraffin wax is then applied and allowed to flow around the threads. This procedure results in easier removal of the plugs and other threaded fasteners that cannot otherwise be loosened.
  • 76. Figure 28-17 A valve spring compressor is used to compress the valve spring before removing the keepers (locks).
  • 77. Cylinder Head Disassembly
    • OHC Engine Cylinder Heads
      • After heads removed, remove camshaft and then valves
      • Special valve spring compressor may be needed to reach valve retainers
  • 78. ENGINE REMOVAL 1 Before beginning work on removing the engine, mark and remove the hood and place it in a safe location.
  • 79. ENGINE REMOVAL 2 For safety, remove the negative battery cable to avoid any possible electrical problems from occurring.
  • 80. ENGINE REMOVAL 3 Drain the coolant and dispose of properly.
  • 81. ENGINE REMOVAL 4 Disconnect all cooling system and heater hoses and remove the radiator.
  • 82. ENGINE REMOVAL 5 Remove the accessory drive belt(s) and set the alternator, power steering pump, and air conditioning compressor aside.
  • 83. ENGINE REMOVAL 6 Remove the air intake system including the air filter housing as needed.
  • 84. ENGINE REMOVAL 7 Remove the electrical connector from all sensors and label.
  • 85. ENGINE REMOVAL 8 Disconnect the engine wiring harness connector at the bulkhead.
  • 86. ENGINE REMOVAL 9 Safely hoist the vehicle and disconnect the exhaust system from the exhaust manifolds.
  • 87. ENGINE REMOVAL 10 Mark and then remove the fasteners connecting the flex plate to the torque converter.
  • 88. ENGINE REMOVAL 11 Lower the vehicle and remove the engine mount bolts and transaxle bell housing fasteners.
  • 89. ENGINE REMOVAL 12 Secure the lifting chain to the engine hooks and carefully remove the engine from the vehicle.
  • 90. TECH TIP
    • A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words
      • Take pictures with a cell phone camera, digital camera, or a video camcorder of the engine being serviced. These pictures will be worth their weight in gold when it comes time to reassemble or reinstall the engine.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION It is very difficult for anyone to remember the exact location of every bracket, wire, and hose. Referring back to the photos of the engine before work was started will help you restore the vehicle to like-new condition.
  • 91. TECH TIP
    • Tag and Bag
      • All components and fasteners should be marked for future reference. Large components should be marked or a tag installed that identifies the part. Smaller parts and fasteners should be placed in plastic bags and labeled as to what they are used for, such as the water pump bolts.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
  • 92. TECH TIP
    • Disassembly Is the Reverse Order of Assembly
      • Cylinder heads often warp upward in the center. Loosening the center head bolts first will tend to increase the warpage, especially if the head is being removed to replace a head gasket because of overheating.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION Always follow the torque table backwards, starting with the highest-number bolt and working toward the lowest number. In other words, always loosen fasteners starting at the end or outside of the component and work toward the inside or center of the component.
  • 93. TECH TIP
    • Measure the Cylinder Bore Before Further Disassembly
      • As soon as the cylinder head has been removed from the engine, take a measurement of the cylinder bore. This is done for the following reasons.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION
    • To verify that the engine size is the same as specified by the vehicle identification number (VIN)
    • To measure the bore and compare it to factory specifications, to help the technician determine if the cylinder(s) are too worn to use or cannot be restored
  • 94. TECH TIP
    • The Wax Trick
      • Before the engine block can be thoroughly cleaned, all oil gallery plugs must be removed. A popular trick of the trade for plug removal involves heating the plug (not the surrounding metal) with an oxyacetylene torch. The heat tends to expand the plug and make it tighter in the block. Do not overheat.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION As the plug is cooling, touch the plug with paraffin wax (beeswax or candle wax may be used). The wax will be drawn down around the threads of the plug by capillary attraction as the plug cools and contracts. After being allowed to cool, the plug is easily removed.
      • Figure 28-16 A torch is used to heat gallery plugs. Paraffin wax is then applied and allowed to flow around the threads. This procedure results in easier removal of the plugs and other threaded fasteners that cannot otherwise be loosened.
  • 95. TECH TIP
    • Mark It to Be Safe
      • Whenever you disassemble anything, it is always wise to mark the location of parts, bolts, hoses, and other items that could be incorrectly assembled. Remember, the first part removed will be the last part that is assembled. If you think you will remember where everything goes—forget it! It just does not happen in the real world.
    BACK TO PRESENTATION One popular trick is to use correction fluid to mark the location of parts before they are removed. Most of these products are alcohol or water based, dry quickly, and usually contain a brush in the cap for easy use.