Halderman ch026 lecture

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  • Figure 26-1 Blowby gases coming out of the crankcase vent hose. Excessive amounts of combustion gases flow past the piston rings and into the crankcase.
  • Figure 26-2 White steam is usually an indication of a blown (defective) cylinder head gasket that allows engine coolant to flow into the combustion chamber where it is turned to steam.
  • Figure 26-3 What looks like an oil pan gasket leak can be a rocker cover gasket leak. Always look up and look for the highest place you see oil leaking; that should be repaired first.
  • Figure 26-4 The transmission and flexplate (flywheel) were removed to check the exact location of this oil leak. The rear main seal and/or the oil pan gasket could be the cause of this leak.
  • Figure 26-5 Using a black light to spot leaks after adding dye to the oil.
  • Figure 26-6 An accessory belt tensioner. Most tensioners have a mark that indicates normal operating location. If the belt has stretched, this indicator mark will be outside of the normal range. Anything wrong with the belt or tensioner can cause noise.
  • Figure 26-7 A cracked exhaust manifold on a Ford V-8.
  • Figure 26-8 To measure engine oil pressure, remove the oil pressure sending (sender) unit usually located near the oil filter. Screw the pressure gauge into the oil pressure sending unit hole.
  • Figure 26-9 The paper test involves holding a piece of paper near the tailpipe of an idling engine. A good engine should produce even, outward puffs of exhaust. If the paper is sucked in toward the tailpipe, a burned valve is a possibility.
  • Figure 26-10 A two-piece compression gauge set. The threaded hose is screwed into the spark plug hole after removing the spark plug. The gauge part is then snapped onto the end of the hose.
  • Figure 26-11 Use a vacuum or fuel line hose over the spark plug to install it without danger of cross-threading the cylinder head.
  • Figure 26-12 Badly burned exhaust valve. A compression test could have detected a problem, and a cylinder leakage test ( leak-down test) could have been used to determine the exact problem.
  • Figure 26-13 A typical handheld cylinder leakage tester.
  • Figure 26-14 A whistle stop used to find top dead center. Remove the spark plug and install the whistle stop, then rotate the engine by hand. When the whistle stops making a sound, the piston is at the top.
  • Figure 26-15 Using a vacuum hose and a test light to ground one cylinder at a time on a distributorless ignition system. This works on all types of ignition systems and provides a method for grounding out one cylinder at a time without fear of damaging any component. To avoid possible damage to the catalytic converter, do not short out a cylinder for longer than five seconds.
  • Figure 26-16 An engine in good mechanical condition should produce 17 to 21 in. Hg of vacuum at idle at sea level.
  • Figure 26-17 A steady but low reading could indicate retarded valve or ignition timing.
  • Figure 26-18 A gauge reading with the needle fluctuating 3 to 9 in. Hg below normal often indicates a vacuum leak in the intake system.
  • Figure 26-19 A leaking head gasket can cause the needle to vibrate as it moves through a range from below to above normal.
  • Figure 26-20 An oscillating needle 1 or 2 in. Hg below normal could indicate an incorrect air-fuel mixture (either too rich or too lean).
  • Figure 26-21 A rapidly vibrating needle at idle that becomes steady as engine speed is increased indicates worn valve guides.
  • Figure 26-22 If the needle drops 1 or 2 in. Hg from the normal reading, one of the engine valves is burned or not seating properly.
  • Figure 26-23 Weak valve springs will produce a normal reading at idle, but as engine speed increases, the needle will fluctuate rapidly between 12 and 24 in. Hg.
  • Figure 26-24 A steady needle reading that drops 2 or 3 in. Hg when the engine speed is increased slightly above idle indicates that the ignition timing is retarded.
  • Figure 26-25 A steady needle reading that rises 2 or 3 in. Hg when the engine speed is increased slightly above idle indicates that the ignition timing is advanced.
  • Figure 26-26 A needle that drops to near zero when the engine is accelerated rapidly and then rises slightly to a reading below normal indicates an exhaust restriction.
  • Figure 26-27 A technician-made adapter used to test exhaust system back pressure.
  • Figure 26-28 A tester that uses a blue liquid to check for exhaust gases in the exhaust, which would indicate a head gasket leak problem.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 1 The tools and equipment needed to perform a compression test include a compression gauge, an air nozzle, and the socket ratchets and extensions that may be necessary to remove the spark plugs from the engine.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 2 To prevent ignition and fuel-injection operation while the engine is being cranked, remove both the fuelinjection fuse and the ignition fuse. If the fuses cannot be removed, disconnect the wiring connectors for the injectors and the ignition system.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 3 Block open the throttle (and choke, if the engine is equipped with a carburetor). Here a screwdriver is being used to wedge the throttle linkage open. Keeping the throttle open ensures that enough air will be drawn into the engine so that the compression test results will be accurate.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 4 Before removing the spark plugs, use an air nozzle to blow away any dirt that may be around the spark plug. This step helps prevent debris from getting into the engine when the spark plugs are removed.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 5 Remove all of the spark plugs. Be sure to mark the spark plug wires so that they can be reinstalled onto the correct spark plugs after the compression test has been performed.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 6 Select the proper adapter for the compression gauge. The threads on the adapter should match those on the spark plug.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 7 If necessary, connect a battery charger to the battery before starting the compression test. It is important that consistent cranking speed be available for each cylinder being tested.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 8 Make a note of the reading on the gauge after the first “puff,” which indicates the first compression stroke that occurred on that cylinder as the engine was being rotated. If the first puff reading is low and the reading gradually increases with each puff, weak or worn piston rings may be indicated.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 9 After the engine has been cranked for four “puffs,” stop cranking the engine and observe the compression gauge.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 10 Record the first puff and this final reading for each cylinder. The final readings should all be within 20% of each other.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 11 If a cylinder(s) is lower than most of the others, use an oil can and squirt two squirts of engine oil into the cylinder and repeat the compression test. This is called performing a wet compression test.
  • COMPRESSION TEST 12 If the gauge reading is now much higher than the first test results, then the cause of the low compression is due to worn or defective piston rings. The oil in the cylinder temporarily seals the rings which causes the higher reading.
  • Halderman ch026 lecture

    1. 1. ENGINE CONDITION DIAGNOSIS 26
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>The student should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for ASE Engine Performance (A8) certification test content area “A” (General Engine Diagnosis). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List the visual checks to determine engine condition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss engine noise and its relation to engine condition. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>The student should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how to perform a dry and a wet compression test. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how to perform a cylinder leakage test. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. TYPICAL ENGINE-RELATED COMPLAINTS
    5. 5. Typical-Engine Related Complaints <ul><li>Excessive oil consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Engine misfiring </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of power </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke from engine or exhaust </li></ul><ul><li>Engine noise </li></ul>
    6. 6. ENGINE SMOKE DIAGNOSIS
    7. 7. Engine Smoke Diagnosis <ul><li>Note: White smoke can also be created when automatic transmission fluid (ATF) is burned. A common source of ATF getting into the engine is through a defective vacuum modulator valve on older automatic transmissions. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Engine Smoke Diagnosis
    9. 9. Figure 26-1 Blowby gases coming out of the crankcase vent hose. Excessive amounts of combustion gases flow past the piston rings and into the crankcase.
    10. 10. Figure 26-2 White steam is usually an indication of a blown (defective) cylinder head gasket that allows engine coolant to flow into the combustion chamber where it is turned to steam.
    11. 11. THE DRIVER IS YOUR BEST RESOURCE
    12. 12. The Driver Is Your Best Resource <ul><li>Before diagnosis, always ask driver following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When did the problem first occur? </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The Driver Is Your Best Resource <ul><li>Before diagnosis, always ask driver following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under what conditions does it occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold or hot? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acceleration, cruise, or deceleration? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Driver Is Your Best Resource <ul><li>Before diagnosis, always ask driver following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under what conditions does it occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How far was it driven? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What recent repairs have been performed? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. VISUAL CHECKS
    16. 16. Visual Checks <ul><li>Oil Level and Condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline present in engine oil? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coolant (water) in oil? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil gritty? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Visual Checks <ul><li>Coolant Level and Condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level in recovery container within correct limits? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of antifreeze sufficient for proper protection? </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Visual Checks <ul><li>Coolant Level and Condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leakage in cooling system? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clogged sections of radiator? </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Visual Checks <ul><li>Coolant Level and Condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fan clutch, fan, and coolant pump drive belt working properly? </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Visual Checks <ul><li>Oil Leaks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find source of oil leaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clean engine or area around suspected leak </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Visual Checks <ul><li>Oil Leaks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find source of oil leaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If leak not visible, use white talcum powder </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Visual Checks <ul><li>Oil Leaks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find source of oil leaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add fluorescent dye to oil (works best with clean oil) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Figure 26-3 What looks like an oil pan gasket leak can be a rocker cover gasket leak. Always look up and look for the highest place you see oil leaking; that should be repaired first.
    24. 24. Figure 26-4 The transmission and flexplate (flywheel) were removed to check the exact location of this oil leak. The rear main seal and/or the oil pan gasket could be the cause of this leak.
    25. 25. Figure 26-5 Using a black light to spot leaks after adding dye to the oil.
    26. 26. ENGINE NOISE DIAGNOSIS
    27. 27. Engine Noise Diagnosis <ul><li>Causes of Deep Engine Knock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valves clicking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torque converter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cracked flex plate </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Engine Noise Diagnosis <ul><li>Causes of Deep Engine Knock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose or defective drive belts or tensioners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piston pin knock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piston slap </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Engine Noise Diagnosis <ul><li>Causes of Deep Engine Knock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing chain noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rod-bearing noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main-bearing knock </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Figure 26-6 An accessory belt tensioner. Most tensioners have a mark that indicates normal operating location. If the belt has stretched, this indicator mark will be outside of the normal range. Anything wrong with the belt or tensioner can cause noise.
    31. 31. Engine Noise Diagnosis
    32. 32. Engine Noise Diagnosis
    33. 33. Figure 26-7 A cracked exhaust manifold on a Ford V-8.
    34. 34. OIL PRESSURE TESTING
    35. 35. Oil Pressure Testing <ul><li>Operate engine until normal operating temperature achieved </li></ul><ul><li>With engine off, thread pressure gauge into oil pressure sending unit </li></ul>
    36. 36. Oil Pressure Testing <ul><li>Start engine and observe gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Compare test results with manufacturer’s recommended oil pressure </li></ul>
    37. 37. Figure 26-8 To measure engine oil pressure, remove the oil pressure sending (sender) unit usually located near the oil filter. Screw the pressure gauge into the oil pressure sending unit hole.
    38. 38. Figure 26-9 The paper test involves holding a piece of paper near the tailpipe of an idling engine. A good engine should produce even, outward puffs of exhaust. If the paper is sucked in toward the tailpipe, a burned valve is a possibility.
    39. 39. OIL PRESSURE WARNING LAMP
    40. 40. Oil Pressure Warning Lamp <ul><li>Usually lights when oil pressure less than 4 to 7 PSI </li></ul><ul><li>If lamp is on, stop engine immediately </li></ul>
    41. 41. COMPRESSION TEST
    42. 42. Compression Test <ul><li>Engine can lose compression by leakage through one or more of these routes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intake or exhaust valve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piston rings (or piston, if there is a hole) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cylinder head gasket </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Compression Test <ul><li>Performing Compression Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove all spark plugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block open the throttle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thread compression gauge into one spark plug hole </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Compression Test <ul><li>Performing Compression Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crank engine through four compression strokes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record highest readings and compare for each cylinder </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Figure 26-10 A two-piece compression gauge set. The threaded hose is screwed into the spark plug hole after removing the spark plug. The gauge part is then snapped onto the end of the hose.
    46. 46. Figure 26-11 Use a vacuum or fuel line hose over the spark plug to install it without danger of cross-threading the cylinder head.
    47. 47. WET COMPRESSION TEST
    48. 48. Wet Compression Test <ul><li>Use oil to help seal around piston rings </li></ul><ul><li>Perform compression test again </li></ul>
    49. 49. Figure 26-12 Badly burned exhaust valve. A compression test could have detected a problem, and a cylinder leakage test ( leak-down test) could have been used to determine the exact problem.
    50. 50. RUNNING (DYNAMIC) COMPRESSION TEST
    51. 51. Running (Dynamic) Compression Test <ul><li>Done with engine running rather than during engine cranking </li></ul><ul><li>Look for variations in running compression values among cylinders </li></ul>
    52. 52. Running (Dynamic) Compression Test <ul><li>Performing a Running Compression Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove just one spark plug at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use jumper wire to ground spark plug wire </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Running (Dynamic) Compression Test <ul><li>Performing a Running Compression Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start engine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push pressure release on gauge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read compression </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Running (Dynamic) Compression Test <ul><li>Performing a Running Compression Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase engine speed to 2,000 RPM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read compression again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat with other cylinders </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. CYLINDER LEAKAGE TEST
    56. 56. Cylinder Leakage Test <ul><li>Have engine at normal operating temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Have cylinder being tested at TDC of compression stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Calibrate cylinder leakage unit per manufacturer’s instructions </li></ul>
    57. 57. Cylinder Leakage Test <ul><li>Inject air into cylinders one at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 10% leakage: good </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Cylinder Leakage Test <ul><li>Evaluate results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 30% leakage: definite problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check source of air leakage </li></ul>
    59. 59. Figure 26-13 A typical handheld cylinder leakage tester.
    60. 60. Figure 26-14 A whistle stop used to find top dead center. Remove the spark plug and install the whistle stop, then rotate the engine by hand. When the whistle stops making a sound, the piston is at the top.
    61. 61. CYLINDER POWER BALANCE TEST
    62. 62. Cylinder Power Balance Test <ul><li>Determines if all cylinders are contributing power equally </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder with least RPM drop not producing its share of power </li></ul>
    63. 63. POWER BALANCE TEST PROCEDURE
    64. 64. Power Balance Test Procedure <ul><li>Acceptable method of canceling cylinders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground secondary current for each cylinder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will work on all types of ignition systems, including distributorless </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. Figure 26-15 Using a vacuum hose and a test light to ground one cylinder at a time on a distributorless ignition system. This works on all types of ignition systems and provides a method for grounding out one cylinder at a time without fear of damaging any component. To avoid possible damage to the catalytic converter, do not short out a cylinder for longer than five seconds.
    66. 66. VACUUM TESTS
    67. 67. Vacuum Tests <ul><li>Vacuum: pressure below atmospheric pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in inches (or millimeters) of mercury (Hg) </li></ul><ul><li>Engine in good mechanical condition will run with high manifold vacuum </li></ul>
    68. 68. Vacuum Tests <ul><li>Cranking Vacuum Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines if piston rings and valves properly sealing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disable the ignition or fuel injection </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Vacuum Tests <ul><li>Cranking Vacuum Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect vacuum gauge to manifold vacuum source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crank engine while observing vacuum gauge </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Vacuum Tests <ul><li>Cranking Vacuum Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of low cranking vacuum: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too slow a cranking speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worn piston rings </li></ul></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Vacuum Tests <ul><li>Cranking Vacuum Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of low cranking vacuum: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaking valves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive amounts of air bypassing throttle plate </li></ul></ul></ul>
    72. 72. Vacuum Tests <ul><li>Idle Vacuum Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly condition engine should idle with vacuum of 17–21 in. Hg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine vacuum readings vary with altitude </li></ul></ul>
    73. 73. Figure 26-16 An engine in good mechanical condition should produce 17 to 21 in. Hg of vacuum at idle at sea level.
    74. 74. Vacuum Tests <ul><li>Low and Steady Vacuum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retarded ignition timing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retarded cam timing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    75. 75. Figure 26-17 A steady but low reading could indicate retarded valve or ignition timing.
    76. 76. Vacuum Tests <ul><li>Fluctuating Vacuum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sticking valve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burned valves or weak valve springs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal fuel mixture </li></ul></ul></ul>
    77. 77. Figure 26-18 A gauge reading with the needle fluctuating 3 to 9 in. Hg below normal often indicates a vacuum leak in the intake system.
    78. 78. Figure 26-19 A leaking head gasket can cause the needle to vibrate as it moves through a range from below to above normal.
    79. 79. Figure 26-20 An oscillating needle 1 or 2 in. Hg below normal could indicate an incorrect air-fuel mixture (either too rich or too lean).
    80. 80. Figure 26-21 A rapidly vibrating needle at idle that becomes steady as engine speed is increased indicates worn valve guides.
    81. 81. Figure 26-22 If the needle drops 1 or 2 in. Hg from the normal reading, one of the engine valves is burned or not seating properly.
    82. 82. Figure 26-23 Weak valve springs will produce a normal reading at idle, but as engine speed increases, the needle will fluctuate rapidly between 12 and 24 in. Hg.
    83. 83. Figure 26-24 A steady needle reading that drops 2 or 3 in. Hg when the engine speed is increased slightly above idle indicates that the ignition timing is retarded.
    84. 84. Figure 26-25 A steady needle reading that rises 2 or 3 in. Hg when the engine speed is increased slightly above idle indicates that the ignition timing is advanced.
    85. 85. Figure 26-26 A needle that drops to near zero when the engine is accelerated rapidly and then rises slightly to a reading below normal indicates an exhaust restriction.
    86. 86. EXHAUST RESTRICTION TEST
    87. 87. Exhaust Restriction Test <ul><li>Common Causes of Restricted Exhaust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clogged catalytic converter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clogged or restricted muffler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged or defective piping </li></ul></ul>
    88. 88. TESTING BACK PRESSURE WITH A VACUUM GAUGE
    89. 89. Testing Back Pressure with a Vacuum Gauge <ul><li>Back pressure: increased pressure in exhaust system because of restriction </li></ul><ul><li>Results in gradual drop in manifold vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>Car becomes undriveable </li></ul>
    90. 90. TESTING BACK PRESSURE WITH A PRESSURE GAUGE
    91. 91. Testing Back Pressure with a Pressure Gauge <ul><li>With an oxygen sensor </li></ul><ul><li>With exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve </li></ul><ul><li>With air-injection reaction (AIR) check valve </li></ul>
    92. 92. Figure 26-27 A technician-made adapter used to test exhaust system back pressure.
    93. 93. DIAGNOSING HEAD GASKET FAILURE
    94. 94. Diagnosing Head Gasket Failure <ul><li>Ways of Diagnosing Head Gasket Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust gas analyzer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bubbles in coolant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive exhaust steam </li></ul></ul>
    95. 95. Diagnosing Head Gasket Failure <ul><li>If head gasket failure indicated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check head gasket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check sealing surfaces—for warpage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check castings—for cracks </li></ul></ul>
    96. 96. Figure 26-28 A tester that uses a blue liquid to check for exhaust gases in the exhaust, which would indicate a head gasket leak problem.
    97. 97. DASH WARNING LIGHTS
    98. 98. Dash Warning Lights <ul><li>Oil (Engine) Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When light comes on, shut off the engine immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check oil level and condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil level okay: possible serious engine problem </li></ul></ul>
    99. 99. Dash Warning Lights <ul><li>Coolant Temperature Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If light comes on while driving: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off air conditioning and turn on heater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raise engine speed in neutral to increase coolant circulation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    100. 100. Dash Warning Lights <ul><li>Coolant Temperature Light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If light comes on while driving: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn engine off and allow to cool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not continue driving with light on </li></ul></ul></ul>
    101. 101. COMPRESSION TEST 1 The tools and equipment needed to perform a compression test include a compression gauge, an air nozzle, and the socket ratchets and extensions that may be necessary to remove the spark plugs from the engine.
    102. 102. COMPRESSION TEST 2 To prevent ignition and fuel-injection operation while the engine is being cranked, remove both the fuelinjection fuse and the ignition fuse. If the fuses cannot be removed, disconnect the wiring connectors for the injectors and the ignition system.
    103. 103. COMPRESSION TEST 3 Block open the throttle (and choke, if the engine is equipped with a carburetor). Here a screwdriver is being used to wedge the throttle linkage open. Keeping the throttle open ensures that enough air will be drawn into the engine so that the compression test results will be accurate.
    104. 104. COMPRESSION TEST 4 Before removing the spark plugs, use an air nozzle to blow away any dirt that may be around the spark plug. This step helps prevent debris from getting into the engine when the spark plugs are removed.
    105. 105. COMPRESSION TEST 5 Remove all of the spark plugs. Be sure to mark the spark plug wires so that they can be reinstalled onto the correct spark plugs after the compression test has been performed.
    106. 106. COMPRESSION TEST 6 Select the proper adapter for the compression gauge. The threads on the adapter should match those on the spark plug.
    107. 107. COMPRESSION TEST 7 If necessary, connect a battery charger to the battery before starting the compression test. It is important that consistent cranking speed be available for each cylinder being tested.
    108. 108. COMPRESSION TEST 8 Make a note of the reading on the gauge after the first “puff,” which indicates the first compression stroke that occurred on that cylinder as the engine was being rotated. If the first puff reading is low and the reading gradually increases with each puff, weak or worn piston rings may be indicated.
    109. 109. COMPRESSION TEST 9 After the engine has been cranked for four “puffs,” stop cranking the engine and observe the compression gauge.
    110. 110. COMPRESSION TEST 10 Record the first puff and this final reading for each cylinder. The final readings should all be within 20% of each other.
    111. 111. COMPRESSION TEST 11 If a cylinder(s) is lower than most of the others, use an oil can and squirt two squirts of engine oil into the cylinder and repeat the compression test. This is called performing a wet compression test.
    112. 112. COMPRESSION TEST 12 If the gauge reading is now much higher than the first test results, then the cause of the low compression is due to worn or defective piston rings. The oil in the cylinder temporarily seals the rings which causes the higher reading.
    113. 113. TECH TIP <ul><li>Your Nose Knows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whenever diagnosing any vehicle try to use all senses including smell. Some smells and their cause include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline. If the exhaust smells like gasoline or unburned fuel, then a fault with the ignition system is a likely cause. Unburned fuel due to lean air-fuel mixture causing a lean misfire is also possible. </li></ul></ul></ul>BACK TO PRESENTATION <ul><li>Sweet smell. A coolant leak often gives off a sweet smell especially if the leaking coolant flows onto the hot exhaust. </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaust smell. Check for an exhaust leak including a possible cracked exhaust manifold which can be difficult to find because it often does not make noise. </li></ul>
    114. 114. TECH TIP <ul><li>What’s Leaking? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The color of the leaks observed under a vehicle can help the technician determine and correct the cause. Some leaks, such as condensate (water) from the air-conditioning system, are normal, whereas a brake fluid leak is very dangerous. The following are colors of common leaks. </li></ul></ul>BACK TO PRESENTATION
    115. 115. TECH TIP <ul><li>The Foot Powder Spray Trick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The source of an oil or other fluid leak is often difficult to determine. A quick and easy method that works is the following. First, clean the entire area. This can best be done by using a commercially available degreaser to spray the entire area. Let it soak to loosen all accumulated oil and greasy dirt. Clean off the degreaser with a water hose. </li></ul></ul>BACK TO PRESENTATION Let the area dry. Start the engine, and using spray foot powder or other aerosol powder product, spray the entire area. The leak will turn the white powder dark. The exact location of any leak can be quickly located. NOTE : Most oil leaks appear at the bottom of the engine due to gravity. Look for the highest, most forward location for the source of the leak.
    116. 116. TECH TIP <ul><li>Engine Noise and Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A light ticking noise often heard at one-half engine speed and associated with valve train noise is a less serious problem than many deep-sounding knocking noises. </li></ul></ul>BACK TO PRESENTATION Generally, the deeper the sound of the engine noise, the more the owner will have to pay for repairs. A light “tick tick tick,” though often not cheap, is usually far less expensive than a deep “knock knock knock” from the engine.
    117. 117. TECH TIP <ul><li>Use the KISS Test Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine testing is done to find the cause of an engine problem. All the simple things should be tested first. Just remember KISS—“keep it simple, stupid.” A loose alternator belt or loose bolts on a torque converter can sound just like a lifter or rod bearing. </li></ul></ul>BACK TO PRESENTATION A loose spark plug can make the engine perform as if it had a burned valve. Some simple items that can cause serious problems include the following: <ul><li>Oil Burning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low oil level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clogged PCV valve or system, causing blowby and oil to be blown into the air cleaner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clogged drainback passages in the cylinder head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirty oil that has not been changed for a long time (Change the oil and drive for about 1,000 miles, or 1,600 km, and change the oil and filter again.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon on top of the piston(s) can sound like a bad rod bearing (often called a carbon knock) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose torque-to-flex plate bolts (or nuts), causing a loud knocking noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE: Often this problem will cause noise only at idle; the noise tends to disappear during driving or when the engine is under load. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A loose and/or defective drive belt, which may cause a rod- or main-bearing knocking noise (A loose or broken mount for the generator [alternator], power steering pump, or air-conditioning compressor can also cause a knocking noise.) </li></ul></ul>
    118. 118. TECH TIP <ul><li>The Paper Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A soundly running engine should produce even and steady exhaust at the tailpipe. You can test this with the paper test. Hold a piece of paper or a 3˝ × 5˝ index card (even a dollar bill works) within 1 in. (25 mm) of the tailpipe with the engine running at idle. SEE FIGURE 26–9. </li></ul></ul>BACK TO PRESENTATION The paper should blow out evenly without “puffing.” If the paper is drawn toward the tailpipe at times, the exhaust valves in one or more cylinders could be burned. Other reasons why the paper might be sucked toward the tailpipe include the following: <ul><li>The engine could be misfiring because of a lean condition that could occur normally when the engine is cold. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulsing of the paper toward the tailpipe could also be caused by a hole in the exhaust system. If exhaust escapes through a hole in the exhaust system, air could be drawn in during the intervals between the exhaust puffs from the tailpipe to the hole in the exhaust, causing the paper to be drawn toward the tailpipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignition fault causing misfire. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure 26-9 The paper test involves holding a piece of paper near the tailpipe of an idling engine. A good engine should produce even, outward puffs of exhaust. If the paper is sucked in toward the tailpipe, a burned valve is a possibility. </li></ul></ul>
    119. 119. TECH TIP <ul><li>The Hose Trick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installing spark plugs can be made easier by using a rubber hose on the end of the spark plug. The hose can be a vacuum hose, fuel line, or even an old spark plug wire end. SEE FIGURE 26–11. </li></ul></ul>BACK TO PRESENTATION The hose makes it easy to start the threads of the spark plug into the cylinder head. After starting the threads, continue to thread the spark plug for several turns. Using the hose eliminates the chance of cross-threading the plug. This is especially important when installing spark plugs in aluminum cylinder heads. <ul><ul><li>Figure 26-11 Use a vacuum or fuel line hose over the spark plug to install it without danger of cross-threading the cylinder head. </li></ul></ul>
    120. 120. TECH TIP <ul><li>Misfire Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a misfire goes away with propane added to the air inlet, suspect a lean injector. </li></ul></ul>BACK TO PRESENTATION

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