Ch05 Hand Toolsand Shop Equipment Rev

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  • 1. Chapter Five Hand Tools and Shop Equipment
  • 2. Objectives
    • List the basic units of measure for length, volume, and mass in the two measuring systems.
    • Describe the different types of fasteners used in the automotive industry.
    • List the various mechanical measuring tools used in the automotive shop.
    • Describe the proper procedure for measuring with a micrometer.
  • 3. Objectives (Cont’d)
    • List some of the hand tools used in auto repair.
    • List the common types of shop equipment and state their purpose.
    • Describe the use of common pneumatic, electrical, and hydraulic power tools found in an automotive service department.
    • Describe the different sources for service information that are available to technicians.
  • 4. Units of Measure
    • United States Customary (USC)
      • Linear examples : inch, foot, yard, mile
      • Weight examples : ounce, pound, ton
      • Temperature example : Fahrenheit
      • Pressure examples : pounds per square inch
      • Torque example : foot pounds
  • 5. Units of Measure (Cont’d)
    • Metric
      • Linear examples: meter, centimeter, kilometer
      • Weight examples : grams, kilograms
      • Temperature example : Celsius
      • Pressure examples : kilogram per square centimeter, bar
      • Torque example : Newton meters
  • 6. Bolt Identification
    • Diameter
      • Measured across the threaded area
    • Thread pitch (English system)
      • The number of threads per inch
    • Thread pitch (Metric system)
      • The distance in millimeters between two adjacent threads
  • 7. Bolt Identification (Cont’d)
  • 8. Bolt Grade Markings
    • Customary (inch) bolts
      • Identification marks correspond to bolt strength.
      • Increasing numbers represent increasing strength.
    • Metric bolts
      • Identification class numbers correspond to bolt strength.
      • Increasing numbers represent increasing strength.
  • 9. Grade Markings
  • 10. Imperial Size Bolt Identification Example
    • An Imperial size bolt that is identified as 3/8" x 2" x 24:
      • Has a shank diameter of 3/8 inch.
      • Is 2 inches long from the bottom of the head to the end of the shank.
      • Has 24 threads per inch.
  • 11. Metric Size Bolt Identification Example
    • A metric size bolt that is identified as
    • 6mm x 30mm x 1.25mm:
      • Has a shank diameter of 6 millimeters.
      • Is 30 millimeters long from the bottom of the head to the end of the shank.
      • Has a distance of 1.25 millimeters between its threads.
  • 12. Measuring Devices
    • Machinist’s rule
      • Is usually used to measure items that don’t require extremely close tolerances, such as bolt lengths.
    • Vernier caliper
      • Is usually used to measure items that require a closer degree of accuracy, such as shim thickness.
  • 13. Measuring Devices (Cont’d)
    • Dial caliper
      • Is a version of a vernier caliper that is easier to read.
    • Micrometer
      • Is used for measuring items that require very close tolerances, such as shaft thickness and bearing diameter.
  • 14. Reading a Metric Micrometer
  • 15. Measuring Devices (Cont’d)
    • Dial indicator
      • Is used to measure radial or axial movement, such as a shaft’s runout or end play.
    • Telescoping gauge
      • Is commonly used to measure larger bore diameters, such as an engine cylinder.
  • 16. Measuring Devices (Cont’d)
    • Small hole gauge
      • Is used for measuring small bores, such as an engine valve guide.
    • Feeler gauge
      • Is used to measure clearances, such as a spark plug gap.
    • Screw pitch gauge
      • Is used to determine thread pitch of a bolt or screw.
  • 17. A Typical Set of Hand Tools
  • 18. Hand Tools
    • Wrenches
      • Open-end
      • Box-end
      • Flare nut or line
      • Metric or USCS
      • Allen
  • 19. Hand Tools (Cont’d)
    • Ratchets and Sockets
      • Six, eight, or twelve point
      • Deep and shallow
      • Metric or USCS
      • Impact or chrome
      • Torx
      • Swivel sockets
  • 20. Hand Tools (Cont’d)
    • Screwdrivers
    • Pliers
    • Hammers and mallets
    • Punches and chisels
    • Files
    • Taps and dies
  • 21. Types of Torque Wrenches
    • Beam
      • Is not very accurate.
    • “ Click”
      • When the handle reaches the preset torque, the wrench clicks.
    • Dial
      • A dial indicates the amount of torque exerted.
    • Digital read out
      • Is usually the most accurate design.
  • 22. Hand Tool Safety
    • Use the proper tool for the job.
    • Use the correct size wrench or socket.
    • Use box-end wrench or socket whenever possible.
    • Always pull on a wrench.
  • 23. Power Tools
    • Impact wrenches
    • Air ratchets
    • Drills
    • Blow guns
    • Grinders
    • Cutting tools
  • 24. Power Tools (Cont’d)
    • Drill press
    • Bench grinders
      • Grinding wheel
      • Wire wheel
      • Buffing wheel
  • 25. Power Tools (Cont’d)
    • Presses
    • Trouble lights
      • Incandescent or fluorescent
  • 26. Service Information Sources
    • Manufacturers’ service information
    • Computer-based information systems
    • Flat-rate manuals
    • Owner’s manuals
    • Lubrication guides
    • Aftermarket suppliers’ guides and catalogs
    • Hotline services
    • International Automotive Technicians Network
  • 27. Steps for Using a Service Manual
    • Select the appropriate manual for the vehicle being serviced.
    • Use the table of contents to locate the applicable section.
    • Use the index at the front of the section to locate the required information.
  • 28. Steps for Using a Service Manual (Cont’d)
    • Carefully read the information and study the illustrations and diagrams.
    • Follow the required steps and procedures.
    • Adhere to all of the given specifications and safety precautions.
  • 29. Lifting Tools
    • Hydraulic floor jack
      • Is used to raise vehicle off the ground.
      • Is used with safety stands.
    • Pneumatic jack
      • Uses air to raise vehicle.
      • Is used with safety stands.
  • 30. Lifting Tools (Cont’d)
    • Safety stand
      • Is used to support a vehicle when raised.
    • Hydraulic lift
      • Is safest lifting tool.
      • Is also called a hoist.
  • 31. Lifting Tools (Cont’d)
    • Engine hoist
      • Is sometimes called a cherry picker.
      • Uses hydraulic pressure to lift an engine from a vehicle.
  • 32. Summary
    • Repairing the modern automobile requires the use of many different hand and power tools.
    • It is crucial to use the proper amount of torque when tightening fasteners on any part of a vehicle, particularly the engine.
  • 33. Summary (Cont’d)
    • Metric and SAE size wrenches are not interchangeable.
    • Carelessness or mishandling of power tools can cause serious injury.
    • The primary source of repair and specification information for any vehicle is the manufacturer’s service manual.