7 Multimedia Principles


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7 Multimedia Principles

  1. 1. Multimedia Principles
  2. 2. <ul><li>Let’s look at 7 research-based principles for the design of multimedia messages </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Multimedia Principle <ul><li>Students learn better from words and pictures than from words alone. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The next slide is a description in words of how a tire pump works: </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>When the handle is pulled up, the piston moves up, the inlet valve opens, the outlet valve closes and air enters the lower part of the cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>When the handle is pushed down, the piston moves down, the inlet valve closes, the outlet valve opens, and air moves out through the hose. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The next slide is a description using both words and pictures of how a tire pump works: </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Is the message clearer when pictures and words are used well together? </li></ul>
  8. 9. 2. Spatial Contiguity Principle <ul><li>Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Let’s look at a diagram of a tire pump where the words are a bit too far from the parts: </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Now let’s look at a slide that shows the words and pictures closer to one another: </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Is the second diagram easier to understand? </li></ul>
  12. 15. 3. Temporal Contiguity Principle <ul><li>Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>The next slide will present a textual description about rainfall. Please read it. </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Cool moist air moves over a warmer surface and becomes heated </li></ul><ul><li>Warmed moist air near the earth’s surface rises rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>As the air in this updraft cools, water vapor condenses into water droplets and forms a cloud. </li></ul><ul><li>The cloud’s top extends above the freezing level, so the upper portion of the cloud is composed of tiny ice crystals. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, the water droplets and ice crystals become too large to be suspended by the updrafts. </li></ul><ul><li>As raindrops and ice crystals fall through the cloud, they drag some of the air in the cloud downward, producing downdrafts. </li></ul><ul><li>When downdrafts strike the ground, they spread out in all directions, producing the gust of wind people feel before the start of rain. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the cloud, the rising and falling air currents cause electrical charges to build. </li></ul>
  15. 18. The next slide will present a pictorial description about rainfall. Please look at it:
  16. 20. The next slide will be present both a pictorial and textual version:
  17. 22. Does the combination of words and pictures enable you to construct a better mental image?
  18. 23. 4. Coherence Principle <ul><li>Students learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at some examples: </li></ul>
  19. 25. 5. Modality Principle <ul><li>Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation and on-screen text. </li></ul>
  20. 26. 6. Redundancy Principle <ul><li>Better transfer occurs when animation and narration are not combined with printed text. When pictures and words are both presented visually, it can overload visual working memory capacity. </li></ul>
  21. 27. 7. Individual Differences Principle <ul><li>Design effects are stronger for low-knowledge learners than from high-knowledge learners and for high-spatial learners than for low-spatial learners. </li></ul>