With thanks to Margie Schwartz and the committee for excellent guidance
Essential QuestionsWhat does current brain research tell usabout effective strategies for teaching?How can curiosity and prediction promoteand sustain attention so students want toknow what they have to learn?How can prepare the brain to optimizememory acquisition?
R = REACH ATTENTION Essential Questions•! How does the brain !pay attention"?•! What gets through the brain#s!attention filter"• How can sustain attentive focus?
Attention & Memory!! Learning begins with sensory information!! Input not attended to, can#t become memory
! !•! Visual images related to lesson• Unusual objects Through novelty, curiosity, and prediction, children are motivated to want to know what they have to learn.
Use the power of *prediction* to promote and sustain curiosity:Predict with individual response tools:white boards, magic pads, clickersAccountabilityWait timeLower mistake and participation fearYou get feedback on mastery or needs All Students Respond to All Questions
To change passiveinattention to sustainedattention andparticipation Novelty and Curiosity promote intake by attention intake (RAS) Prediction sustains focus ! !
Essential Questions•! How can input be propelled through thebrain#s !emotional filter" to reach the thinkingbrain?!• What strategies reduce stress & negativity
Causes of Stress in School•! Unprepared for class•! Peer relationships•! No personal relevance•! Boredom from material already mastered•! Frustration due to previous failure•! Test-taking anxiety and oral presentations•! Physical, clothing, language differences
Fixed Mindset Beliefs•! One’s intelligence and skills are predetermined, limited, unchangeable•! Effort is fruitless after repeated failure Carol Dwerk’s research
Fixed Mindset & SurvivalRepeatedly expending effortwhen there is a lowprobability of successpromotes: "•! Survival in animals" •! !Drop out"$emotional/ physical in students
The amygdala is an !emotional filter"$High or sustained stress blocks PFC flow Failure to reach PFC: Information cannot become long-term memory Behavioral outputs from lowerbrain: reactions to stress: fight/flight/freeze
The PULL of the VideoGames Model to Promote PFCPassage of Information:
Characteristics of Video Gamers"! buy-in to goal"! 80% of the time failure"! persevere with challenge"! use immediate feedback to improve
Correlations fromNeuroscience to Classroom"! goal buy-in"! achievable challenge"! timely & frequent feedback"! acknowledgment of incrementalgoal progressThe Pull is powered by Dopamine
!Intrinsic reinforcement from making correct predictions
Rubrics Help Students Analytic RubricsReveal multiple criteria to be used inassessment grStudents can select from a range of qualitylevelsProvide informative feedback about theirincremental progressRubicon.com.
Incremental ProgressNumber ofsuccessfulattempts Effort to goal progress graphs TOTAL TIME PRACTICED
Video Game ModelGoal “buy-in”Achievable Challenge: e.g. pre-assessment, scaffolding,enrichmentAwareness of Incremental GoalProgress
Participation and Mistakes The Keys to Long-term Memory
The neuroplasticity of strongaccurate memory is fueled byDOPAMINE-PLEASURE"!Intrinsic satisfaction frommaking correct predictions
Neuro-logical Success Cycle1.! Meaningful goals2.! Achievable Challenge(scaffolding, enrichment)3.! Help students acknowledgeincremental goal progress(frequent assessment & feedback)
! Effort to Progress ExperiencesGrowth of self-confidence/competence (growth mindset) 3 Motivated to persevere through challenge and setbacks Increase “risks” of participation and creative innovation
Two Big Ideas of Neuroscience PatternsThebrainseeks Pleasure
Essential Questions!!Where is memory made?What makes something stick inworking memory? ! !
Pattern MatchingFor Working Memory The brain interprets new information based on existing patterns.
If there is nopattern waiting… new input is misinterpreted, rejected, or disappears!
When there is a successful pattern match… The hippocampus encodes sensory input into working memory
Patterning is the basis for literacy & numeracy!!
Patterns are Passageways for Memories to FollowPatterning is the brain’s processfor linking new learning toexisting knowledge!
Activate Prior Knowledge for Successful Pattern MatchActivatedPriorKnowledge The hippocampus encodes sensory input into working memory
Pattern Activation With PriorKnowledge Bridges!Bulletin boards that preview!Pre-unit assessments!Show videos or images that remindstudents of prior knowledgeRemind students about previousexposures(cross-curricular, spiraled curriculum)
Graphic OrganizersVennDiagram Activate prior knowledge Relate new to existing memory
New information must link (encode) with existing memory to become working memory Frequently activated patterns promote automatic responses (milk, cow, white)Patterning strength promotes automaticity for literacy and numeracy Prior knowledge activation and graphic organizers increase pattern matching for memory encoding