With thanks to Margie Schwartz and the   committee for excellent guidance
Essential QuestionsWhat does current brain research tell usabout effective strategies for teaching?How can curiosity and p...
R = REACH ATTENTION  Essential Questions•! How does the brain !pay attention"?•! What gets through the brain#s!attention f...
Attention & Memory!!    Learning begins with     sensory information!! Input   not attended to,     can#t become memory
REACHING ATTENTIONPrefrontal Cortex
Millions of bits of sensorydata available every second          a basil gimlet Ray of LightOnly
Reticular Activating System: RAS                   A primitive low                   brain structure                   !Pr...
What#s New?
Can it hurt me?
Where’d youcome from?
!         !Students are always  paying attention         !         !
They are payingattention tosensory input,just not always to thesensory input! teacherswant them to! select             !
Millions of bits of sensory information are available each secondThe RAS, an involuntary filter, gives priority to novelty...
!!!
For CURIOSITY!! Sound     (voice volume, pitch, cadence)!! Color!! Movement!! Placement of objects!! Your appearance (hat,...
Walk backwardsbefore teachingnegative numbers,past tense, or going!back"inhistory
!         Student DistressStudents distressed bychange or the unexpected?Plan and partner with them!
ADVERTISEto promote CURIOSITY!Promos" for a coming unit
AdvertisingVideosFor Curiosity &Relevance
Animoto.comSign up as educator-you’ll get codeAccess to their video clips, photos,music, or your ownYour students can use ...
Draw Attention  With Cues
RAS Intake  Strategy    Curiosity +   Prediction =Sustained Attention
PredictionDoes your brain!need to know" if aprediction it makesis correct?
Why Did You Need to Know?Your brain seeks the pleasure ofaccurate predictions so it:"! wants to predict"! needs to know if...
When the brain predicts   (selects & !bets")•! Increases curiosity•! Sustains attention•! Promotes memory
!                  !A song related to the day#s lesson
!                    !•! Visual images related to lesson• Unusual objects Through novelty, curiosity, and prediction, chil...
Use the power of *prediction*    to promote and sustain curiosity:Predict with individual response tools:white boards, mag...
To change passiveinattention to sustainedattention andparticipation       Novelty and Curiosity promote       intake by at...
Essential       Questions•! How can input be propelled through thebrain#s !emotional filter" to reach the thinkingbrain?!•...
PREFRONTAL  CORTEX
Stress blocks flow through Amygdala                                         PFC                          Reflective       ...
Teachers ! React         !to Stress Also!
Images ofGroup B   faces seen          before          memory taskGroup A
Scans During Memory Task A                          B     AMYGDALAA: Positive emotional state: PFC passage& better memoryB...
Stress State     Lower reactive brain in control"    Fight!              Flight                         Freeze
Stress State Behavior OutputsFight: DisruptiveFlight: Create own brain stimulationFreeze: Zone out
82
Causes of Stress in School•! Unprepared     for class•! Peer   relationships•! No   personal relevance•! Boredom    from m...
Fixed Mindset Beliefs•! One’s intelligence and skills are    predetermined, limited,    unchangeable•! Effort is fruitless...
Fixed Mindset      & SurvivalRepeatedly expending effortwhen there is a lowprobability of successpromotes: "•! Survival in...
The amygdala is an !emotional filter"$High or sustained stress blocks PFC flow         Failure to reach PFC:    Informatio...
The PULL of the VideoGames Model to Promote PFCPassage of Information:
Characteristics of     Video Gamers"! buy-in to goal"! 80% of the time failure"! persevere with challenge"! use immediate ...
Correlations fromNeuroscience to Classroom"! goal buy-in"! achievable challenge"! timely & frequent feedback"! acknowledgm...
!Intrinsic reinforcement from making correct predictions
Dopamine Promotes"! pleasure"! decreased stress"! curiosity          perseverance"! attention          &"! motivation     ...
BOOSTERSMovingEnjoying musicBeing read toInteracting well with peersExperiencing humorChoiceOptimism                   !
ScientificAm Mind 8/2010 !
Dopamine-Reward SystemMemory PredictingNetworkDopamine-RewardCenter(Nucleus Accumbens)
Prefrontal Cortex Where Prior Knowledge is pulled to make a prediction  Steady state of dopamine to PFCexcept when a predi...
!!!!!     Correct predictions increase     dopamine pleasure     The prefrontal cortex really loves     its dopamine pleas...
!!!!!     Less dopamine is released     when a a prediction is incorrect     The prefrontal cortex wants to     avoid the ...
+ Corrective feedback= Revised networks (neuroplastic changes)+ Practice (fire together)
Video Game Model forMotivation and Memory "!   Buy-in to goal "!   Achievable challenge "!   Frequent feedback "!   Increm...
Growth MindsetGrowth mindset beliefs:One’s intelligence and skill have the potential to grow Effort and practice can   inc...
Relevance: YouTube and!   other downloads to!   show relevance…!
Achievable ChallengePreassessmentDifferentiation (individualization) i.e.scaffolding, flexible groups!!!!
"              Awareness of        Incremental Goal Progress"    !
Rubrics Help Students     Analytic RubricsReveal multiple criteria to be used inassessment                      grStudents...
Incremental ProgressNumber ofsuccessfulattempts                    Effort to goal                   progress graphs       ...
Video Game ModelGoal “buy-in”Achievable Challenge: e.g. pre-assessment, scaffolding,enrichmentAwareness of Incremental Goa...
Participation and Mistakes  The Keys to Long-term          Memory
The neuroplasticity of strongaccurate memory is fueled byDOPAMINE-PLEASURE"!Intrinsic satisfaction frommaking correct pred...
MAKING A MISTAKE  IN WHOLECLASS SETTING
How canwe increaseactiveparticipationwhenstudentsare worried about makingmistakes in front of classmates?
!Reduce !Mistake !Fear!!Decrease the fear of participation!!!!
Reduce Participation FearPoint out your own mistakesExample and non-example columnRepeat correct part of their answer
ReduceParticipation FearUse questions withno wrong answers(see optical illusionwebsite)
Mystery storyRiddlesEstimation!
Neuro-logical Success Cycle1.! Meaningful goals2.! Achievable Challenge(scaffolding, enrichment)3.! Help students acknowle...
!    Effort to Progress ExperiencesGrowth of self-confidence/competence (growth mindset)                3    Motivated to ...
Short-term (working)      Memory             Pattern             Matching
Two Big Ideas of Neuroscience             PatternsThebrainseeks             Pleasure
Essential Questions!!Where is memory made?What makes something stick inworking memory?                !                !
Pattern MatchingFor Working Memory          The brain          interprets new          information          based on exist...
If there is nopattern waiting…              new input is              misinterpreted,              rejected, or           ...
When there is a successful   pattern match…           The hippocampus           encodes sensory input           into worki...
Patterning is the basis for      literacy & numeracy!!
Patterns are Passageways for Memories to FollowPatterning is the brain’s processfor linking new learning toexisting knowle...
Activate Prior Knowledge for     Successful Pattern MatchActivatedPriorKnowledge        The hippocampus                 en...
Pattern Activation    With PriorKnowledge Bridges!Bulletin boards that preview!Pre-unit assessments!Show videos or images ...
Activation of Prior Knowledge         Predict/KWL
Graphic OrganizersVennDiagram  Activate prior knowledge  Relate new to existing memory
New information must link (encode) with existing memory to become working memory Frequently activated patterns promote aut...
Judy Willis’ Books & Website                         ! www.RADTeach.com
Judy Willis MCDS Faculty Presentation
Judy Willis MCDS Faculty Presentation
Judy Willis MCDS Faculty Presentation
Judy Willis MCDS Faculty Presentation
Judy Willis MCDS Faculty Presentation
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Judy Willis MCDS Faculty Presentation

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Judy Willis MCDS Faculty Presentation

  1. 1. With thanks to Margie Schwartz and the committee for excellent guidance
  2. 2. Essential QuestionsWhat does current brain research tell usabout effective strategies for teaching?How can curiosity and prediction promoteand sustain attention so students want toknow what they have to learn?How can prepare the brain to optimizememory acquisition?
  3. 3. R = REACH ATTENTION Essential Questions•! How does the brain !pay attention"?•! What gets through the brain#s!attention filter"• How can sustain attentive focus?
  4. 4. Attention & Memory!! Learning begins with sensory information!! Input not attended to, can#t become memory
  5. 5. REACHING ATTENTIONPrefrontal Cortex
  6. 6. Millions of bits of sensorydata available every second a basil gimlet Ray of LightOnly
  7. 7. Reticular Activating System: RAS A primitive low brain structure !Programmed" to select intake based on survival value
  8. 8. What#s New?
  9. 9. Can it hurt me?
  10. 10. Where’d youcome from?
  11. 11. ! !Students are always paying attention ! !
  12. 12. They are payingattention tosensory input,just not always to thesensory input! teacherswant them to! select !
  13. 13. Millions of bits of sensory information are available each secondThe RAS, an involuntary filter, gives priority to noveltyPerceived threat before curiosity !
  14. 14. !!!
  15. 15. For CURIOSITY!! Sound (voice volume, pitch, cadence)!! Color!! Movement!! Placement of objects!! Your appearance (hat, clothing)!! Curious Items
  16. 16. Walk backwardsbefore teachingnegative numbers,past tense, or going!back"inhistory
  17. 17. ! Student DistressStudents distressed bychange or the unexpected?Plan and partner with them!
  18. 18. ADVERTISEto promote CURIOSITY!Promos" for a coming unit
  19. 19. AdvertisingVideosFor Curiosity &Relevance
  20. 20. Animoto.comSign up as educator-you’ll get codeAccess to their video clips, photos,music, or your ownYour students can use your code andmake animotos to summarizeunderstanding
  21. 21. Draw Attention With Cues
  22. 22. RAS Intake Strategy Curiosity + Prediction =Sustained Attention
  23. 23. PredictionDoes your brain!need to know" if aprediction it makesis correct?
  24. 24. Why Did You Need to Know?Your brain seeks the pleasure ofaccurate predictions so it:"! wants to predict"! needs to know if predictions are correct"! learns from feedback
  25. 25. When the brain predicts (selects & !bets")•! Increases curiosity•! Sustains attention•! Promotes memory
  26. 26. ! !A song related to the day#s lesson
  27. 27. ! !•! Visual images related to lesson• Unusual objects Through novelty, curiosity, and prediction, children are motivated to want to know what they have to learn.
  28. 28. Use the power of *prediction* to promote and sustain curiosity:Predict with individual response tools:white boards, magic pads, clickersAccountabilityWait timeLower mistake and participation fearYou get feedback on mastery or needs All Students Respond to All Questions
  29. 29. To change passiveinattention to sustainedattention andparticipation Novelty and Curiosity promote intake by attention intake (RAS) Prediction sustains focus ! !
  30. 30. Essential Questions•! How can input be propelled through thebrain#s !emotional filter" to reach the thinkingbrain?!• What strategies reduce stress & negativity
  31. 31. PREFRONTAL CORTEX
  32. 32. Stress blocks flow through Amygdala PFC Reflective brain Reactive! brain AmygdalaWang, Jiongjiong et al. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 102, 17804-17809.
  33. 33. Teachers ! React !to Stress Also!
  34. 34. Images ofGroup B faces seen before memory taskGroup A
  35. 35. Scans During Memory Task A B AMYGDALAA: Positive emotional state: PFC passage& better memoryB: Stressed state: no PFC passage = lowmemory Hamman, et al., Cog NS 2007Neuroscience 2007
  36. 36. Stress State Lower reactive brain in control" Fight! Flight Freeze
  37. 37. Stress State Behavior OutputsFight: DisruptiveFlight: Create own brain stimulationFreeze: Zone out
  38. 38. 82
  39. 39. Causes of Stress in School•! Unprepared for class•! Peer relationships•! No personal relevance•! Boredom from material already mastered•! Frustration due to previous failure•! Test-taking anxiety and oral presentations•! Physical, clothing, language differences
  40. 40. Fixed Mindset Beliefs•! One’s intelligence and skills are predetermined, limited, unchangeable•! Effort is fruitless after repeated failure Carol Dwerk’s research
  41. 41. Fixed Mindset & SurvivalRepeatedly expending effortwhen there is a lowprobability of successpromotes: "•! Survival in animals" •! !Drop out"$emotional/ physical in students
  42. 42. The amygdala is an !emotional filter"$High or sustained stress blocks PFC flow Failure to reach PFC: Information cannot become long-term memory Behavioral outputs from lowerbrain: reactions to stress: fight/flight/freeze
  43. 43. The PULL of the VideoGames Model to Promote PFCPassage of Information:
  44. 44. Characteristics of Video Gamers"! buy-in to goal"! 80% of the time failure"! persevere with challenge"! use immediate feedback to improve
  45. 45. Correlations fromNeuroscience to Classroom"! goal buy-in"! achievable challenge"! timely & frequent feedback"! acknowledgment of incrementalgoal progressThe Pull is powered by Dopamine
  46. 46. !Intrinsic reinforcement from making correct predictions
  47. 47. Dopamine Promotes"! pleasure"! decreased stress"! curiosity perseverance"! attention &"! motivation memory!!
  48. 48. BOOSTERSMovingEnjoying musicBeing read toInteracting well with peersExperiencing humorChoiceOptimism !
  49. 49. ScientificAm Mind 8/2010 !
  50. 50. Dopamine-Reward SystemMemory PredictingNetworkDopamine-RewardCenter(Nucleus Accumbens)
  51. 51. Prefrontal Cortex Where Prior Knowledge is pulled to make a prediction Steady state of dopamine to PFCexcept when a prediction (choice,decision, answer) is made
  52. 52. !!!!! Correct predictions increase dopamine pleasure The prefrontal cortex really loves its dopamine pleasure, so the networks used to make the correct prediction are reinforced
  53. 53. !!!!! Less dopamine is released when a a prediction is incorrect The prefrontal cortex wants to avoid the drop in dopamine
  54. 54. + Corrective feedback= Revised networks (neuroplastic changes)+ Practice (fire together)
  55. 55. Video Game Model forMotivation and Memory "! Buy-in to goal "! Achievable challenge "! Frequent feedback "! Incremental progress
  56. 56. Growth MindsetGrowth mindset beliefs:One’s intelligence and skill have the potential to grow Effort and practice can increase ability
  57. 57. Relevance: YouTube and! other downloads to! show relevance…!
  58. 58. Achievable ChallengePreassessmentDifferentiation (individualization) i.e.scaffolding, flexible groups!!!!
  59. 59. " Awareness of Incremental Goal Progress" !
  60. 60. Rubrics Help Students Analytic RubricsReveal multiple criteria to be used inassessment grStudents can select from a range of qualitylevelsProvide informative feedback about theirincremental progressRubicon.com.
  61. 61. Incremental ProgressNumber ofsuccessfulattempts Effort to goal progress graphs TOTAL TIME PRACTICED
  62. 62. Video Game ModelGoal “buy-in”Achievable Challenge: e.g. pre-assessment, scaffolding,enrichmentAwareness of Incremental GoalProgress
  63. 63. Participation and Mistakes The Keys to Long-term Memory
  64. 64. The neuroplasticity of strongaccurate memory is fueled byDOPAMINE-PLEASURE"!Intrinsic satisfaction frommaking correct predictions
  65. 65. MAKING A MISTAKE IN WHOLECLASS SETTING
  66. 66. How canwe increaseactiveparticipationwhenstudentsare worried about makingmistakes in front of classmates?
  67. 67. !Reduce !Mistake !Fear!!Decrease the fear of participation!!!!
  68. 68. Reduce Participation FearPoint out your own mistakesExample and non-example columnRepeat correct part of their answer
  69. 69. ReduceParticipation FearUse questions withno wrong answers(see optical illusionwebsite)
  70. 70. Mystery storyRiddlesEstimation!
  71. 71. Neuro-logical Success Cycle1.! Meaningful goals2.! Achievable Challenge(scaffolding, enrichment)3.! Help students acknowledgeincremental goal progress(frequent assessment & feedback)
  72. 72. ! Effort to Progress ExperiencesGrowth of self-confidence/competence (growth mindset) 3 Motivated to persevere through challenge and setbacks Increase “risks” of participation and creative innovation
  73. 73. Short-term (working) Memory Pattern Matching
  74. 74. Two Big Ideas of Neuroscience PatternsThebrainseeks Pleasure
  75. 75. Essential Questions!!Where is memory made?What makes something stick inworking memory? ! !
  76. 76. Pattern MatchingFor Working Memory The brain interprets new information based on existing patterns.
  77. 77. If there is nopattern waiting… new input is misinterpreted, rejected, or disappears!
  78. 78. When there is a successful pattern match… The hippocampus encodes sensory input into working memory
  79. 79. Patterning is the basis for literacy & numeracy!!
  80. 80. Patterns are Passageways for Memories to FollowPatterning is the brain’s processfor linking new learning toexisting knowledge!
  81. 81. Activate Prior Knowledge for Successful Pattern MatchActivatedPriorKnowledge The hippocampus encodes sensory input into working memory
  82. 82. Pattern Activation With PriorKnowledge Bridges!Bulletin boards that preview!Pre-unit assessments!Show videos or images that remindstudents of prior knowledgeRemind students about previousexposures(cross-curricular, spiraled curriculum)
  83. 83. Activation of Prior Knowledge Predict/KWL
  84. 84. Graphic OrganizersVennDiagram Activate prior knowledge Relate new to existing memory
  85. 85. New information must link (encode) with existing memory to become working memory Frequently activated patterns promote automatic responses (milk, cow, white)Patterning strength promotes automaticity for literacy and numeracy Prior knowledge activation and graphic organizers increase pattern matching for memory encoding
  86. 86. Judy Willis’ Books & Website ! www.RADTeach.com

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