Ambeth R. Ocampo
• Multi-awarded Filipino historian,
academic, journalist, and author
best known for his writings
about Philippines' national hero
José Rizal and for "Looking Back",
his bi-weekly editorial page
column in the Philippine Daily
• Chair of the Philippines' National
Historical Institute in 2002 and of
the National Commission for
Culture and the Arts in 2005.
• Dr. Jose P. Rizal’s unfinished 3rd novel.
• After Mass
• An anonymous librarian mislabelled the Spanish borrador
of the Noli me Tangere.
• Cover Title: Borrador incompleto del Noli me Tangere
• Measures 21x34 centimeters, comprising 20 folios, with
writing on one side only, making 20 pages.
• Written in black ink with some erasures and is very brittle.
• Written by Rizal while he was on the ship Melbourne en route to
Hong Kong from Marseilles on October 1981, or in Hong Kong itself
in early 1892.
• Makamisa is not the title of the unfinished novel; rather, it is the
title of a chapter from a larger work. –Mariano Ponce
• 3 expository parts:
• What goes on in church.
• What goes on in the town hall.
• What goes on in the gobernadorcillo’s residence.
• One of the funniest manuscripts Rizal left us, next to this..
• Napagkakamalang “Tagalog Nobility.”
• Written partly because of Marcelo del Pilar’s honest opinion of El
• Took 3 years of collation, research and scholarly sleuthing before
the manuscript took shape and formed the body of this book.
Letter to Marcelo H. del Pilar
“I thank you for what you say about my work and I do appreciate
your frank opinion on my Filibusterismo, that it is inferior to the
Noli. Frankly, without irony or words with a double meaning, I share
your honest opinion of my work. For me the Fili as a novel is inferior
to the Noli, this is why I receive cum grano salis (with a grain of salt)
the opinion of those who tell me that the Fili is superior to Noli.
Blumentritt, all the others in Paris and Barcelona, say the Fili is
superior simply because they are being kind to me. You are the first
one to tell me the truth which coincides with my manner of
thinking. This flatters me since it proves I can still judge myself
Why not Tagalog Nobility?
• Tagalog Nobility is set in Malate in 1635.
• It deals with the early Filipinos and their customs.
• This does not fit with Rizal’s description because of the absence
of the lone priest and the Guardia Civil
• Tagalog Nobility is not humours.
• Style and characters are not the only evidence we have against
Tagalog Nobility; more important is the language in which the
third novel was written – Tagalog.
• Tagalog Nobility does not fit the description simply in Rizal’s
letter simply because it is in Spanish.
From Tagalog to Spanish. Why?
Letter to Blumentritt, 20 April 1892:
“The translation of the Noli continues but I have already
given up the idea of writing the 3rd part in Tagalog, for it
would not be appropriate to write a work in two languages
as they would be like the sermon of the friars. So I am
writing it now in Spanish.”
• In the October 1981 letter, Rizal informed Blumetritt that
he would complete his 3rd novel during the trip, which
meant that he was already writing by that time.
• A month earlier, Rizal was thinking of writing what he
described as the “third part” of his work because of his
frustration with El Filibusterismo.
Thank You Letter to Blumentritt
“But this time politics will not occupy much space in it. Ethics
will play the principal role. It will deal only with the mores
and customs of the Filipinos; there will be only two Spaniards
– the curate and the Teniente de la Guardia Civil. I want to be
witty, satirical and candid; I want to cudgel and laugh, laugh
amid tears, that is to say, to cry bitterly.”
Makamisa fits Rizal’s description perfectly
1st: It is written in Tagalog.
2nd: It deals with the customs of the Filipinos.
3rd: Describes a certain Padre Agaton who lords it over the small
town of Pili.
Rizal’s 3rd novel cannot be other than Makamisa
1. In letters to Ferdinand Blumentritt, Rizal began his 3rd novel on
the ship en route from Marseilles to Hong Kong circa in 1891.
Both Makamisa and the Spanish borrador can be dated to his
2. Rizal’s 3rd novel, as he stated, was not in Spanish byt in Tagalog.
3. Its storyline touches on the customs of the Tagalogs.
4. Satirical and humorous.
5. Rizal changed his mind and shifted from Tagalog to Spanish, thus
ending with two manuscripts with the same story and plot.
• Capitana Barang
• Capitan Panchong’s wife, Cecilia &
• Gave Cecilia to Dona Orang
• Mana Sebia
• w/ black teeth, short, & fat
• Padre Agaton
• Curate of Pili
• Feared by the whole province, from the
townspeople to the gobernadorcillo
• Capitan Panchong
• Gobernadorcillio of Pili
• In danger of losing his position if he fails
to impress Padre Agaton in the upcoming
• Aling Anday
• Barrio fixture
• Rustic, old man who used to beat the
images of the saints when he was in a
• Attends church once a year only out of
• Dr. Lopez
• Anti-clerical, anti-friar
• Physician who had lived in Europe &
became a free thinker
• Cecilia’s love interest
• More concerned about the causes of
the parish priest’s ill-humour
• Capitan Tanukang
• Don Paquito
• Justice of Peace; la justicia de la paz
• Star of Pili
• The Pearl of Pili
• Dona Orang’s sole heir
• Don Fermin
• Warehouse keeper of Pili; maniac
• Capitan Panchong’s rival
• Doña Orang
• Cecilia’s aunt
• Treated Cecilia as her own daughter
• Capitan Tanukang’s son
• Capitan Panchong’s son
• Ang Makamisa ay isang nobelang tinangkang isulat at
tapusin sa wikang Tagalog ni Dr. Jose Rizal. Ang kuwento ay
umiinog sa bayan ng Pili, at nagsimula sa isang eksena ng
misa na ibinigay ni Padre Agaton sa mga mamamayang
sakop niya. Kabilang sa mga tauhan ng nobela sina Capitan
Panchong, Cecilia, Capitan Tanukang, Don Paquito,
Teniente Tato, at Aleng Anday. Taliwas sa Noli Me Tangere
at El Filibusterismo, ang Makamisa ay isinulat sa higit na
nakakaaliw na paraan.
• Dalawang manuskrito ang natagpuan, una ay nasa wikang
Tagalog, at ang ikalawa naman ay nasa wikang Espanyol.
Ang nasa wikang Espanyol na bersyon ay napagkamalang
manuskrito ng unang nobela ni Rizal na Noli Me Tangere
kaya't tinaguriang Borrador de Noli Me Tangere (Balangkas
ng Noli Me Tangere) ng Pambansang Aklatan ng Pilipinas.
Taong 1987 nang matuklasan ni Ambeth Ocampo, na noo'y
konsultant ng Pambansang Aklatan, na ang dalawang
manuskrito ay may iisang kuwento at walang kinalaman sa
nobelang Noli Me Tangere. Taliwas sa Noli Me Tangere at
El Filibusterismo, ang Makamisa ay isinulat sa higit na
nakakaaliw na paraan.