• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Memory: A brief introduction

Memory: A brief introduction



A talk on Memory given by Dr Hamid Sohrabi at the McCusker Alzheimer Research Foundation's public lecture in Perth, Western Australia on 4th May 2011

A talk on Memory given by Dr Hamid Sohrabi at the McCusker Alzheimer Research Foundation's public lecture in Perth, Western Australia on 4th May 2011



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



3 Embeds 341

http://www.alzheimers.com.au 254
http://alzheimers.com.au 73
http://mccusker.squarespace.com 14


Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Memory: A brief introduction Memory: A brief introduction Presentation Transcript

    • Memory:A brief introduction Dr Hamid R Sohrabi 4th May 2011
    • IntroductionMemory research questions:► How do memories form?► What are the bio-psychological processes involved?► How do we forget and what causes forgetfulness?► Can we improve our memory?
    • MemoryInformation processing conceives of memory as involving three stages:A: How sensory stimulus is acquired: ► EncodingB: How information is restored: ► StorageC: How information is retrieved: ► Retrieval
    • Memory Three types of memory:A) Sensory registration B) Short-term memory or working memory C) Long-term memory
    • Information-Processing Model of Memory Attention Rehearsal Sensory Short-term Long-termStimulus Registery memory memory Forgetting Forgetting Forgetting
    • George Sperling’s Sensory RegisterySperling, G. (1960). Psychological Monographs 74: 1-29.
    • Sensory Registery► Format: verbatim representation of stimulus;► Capacity: “Not very Large” (~12 items);► Duration: 25ms to 5 seconds.
    • Sensory Memory
    • How many letters can you remember?
    • Short- Term versus Long-Term MemoryShort-term memory:► Limited number of items = 7+/-2► Limited time span (~30 seconds)► Fragility of storage
    • Short term memoryTry to remember these numbers: 814923786327
    • Short term memoryChunking boosts our short term memory: 814923786327 814 923 786 327
    • Short term Memory►Short-term memory is too simplistic;►It is not a passive storage;►It actively processes the information! Baddeley & Hitch, 1974
    • Working Memory Baddeley & Hitch’s model Central Executive ‘Attentional-executive system’Articulatory Loop Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad ‘inner voice’ ‘inner eye’ Primary Acoustic Store ‘inner ear’
    • Long-term memory►Is also called Reference Memory►Extremely large capacity (you may recognise 50,000 words!)►Long time span (years, decades)
    • MemoryFactors influencing our memory:►Age►Health (physical injuries or diseases- e.g. Head injury, stroke, blood pressure etc.)►Psychological factors (attention, personality, negative attitudes, anxiety, depression, self- perceptions etc.)►Lifestyle (cognitive and physical exercise, diet, workload etc.)►Context : External and internal cues
    • Ageing and Memory► There is age-related decline in some cognitive functions!► No significant difference between young and older adults for immediate & delayed recall.► Older adults do not forget more quickly, they need more time to learn. (Albert, 2002, Ann Neurol., 51:p. 282)► Speed of information processing! (Salthouse, 1996, Psych. Rev.,403--28) Rev.,403► In normal ageing working memory declines faster than short or long term memory!► Individual differences.
    • American Psychological Association (APA)Causes of memory failures in normal aging: • Anxiety • Dehydration • Depression • Infections • Medication side effects • Poor nutrition • Psychological stress • Substance abuse http://www.apa.org/pi/aging/memory-and-aging.pdf • Thyroid imbalance
    • AttentionEmotion
    • APA Memory Aids• Keep “to do” lists http://www.apa.org/pi/aging/memory-and-aging.pdf• Establish a routine• Everything in its place• Use associations• Keep a calendar• Socialize• Get moving• Train your brain• Don’t buy into ageist stereotypes• Avoid distractions• Keep a sense of control and confidence in your memory
    • Thanks for Listening