THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CITRUS JUICE INDUSTRY
IN GHANA: A SUCCESS STORY OF LINKAGE
BETWEEN RESEARCH, EXTENSION, PEASANT
FARME...
The Early Attempts to Establish Citrus
Juice Industry in Ghana
• British Sailors developed Vitamin C
deficiencies on long ...
The Early Attempts to Establish Citrus
Juice Industry in Ghana cont’d
• The British government made attempts to grow
lime ...
The Collapse of the Mexican Lime
Industry at Asebu
• Because of the lack of research information, the
Mexican lime was gro...
Attempts to Re-Establish the Industry
by the Colonial Government
• Other citrus varieties including sweet
oranges, lemons,...
Attempts to Re-Establish the Industry
by the Colonial Government cont’d
• However, farmers never grew citrus on large
scal...
Contribution from University Research
• In 1957, Dr Kwame Nkrumah, granted funds to the
University of Ghana to establish t...
Contribution from University Research
cont’d
• 1. Budding citrus spp on rough lemon, Cleopatra
mandarin, Lake Tangelo, or ...
Contribution from University Research
cont’d
• 3. Good quality fruits were obtained when
Rangphur lime was used as rootsto...
The yield and maturity period of Citrus
Cultivars in Ghana
Cultivar

Origin

Harvesting
season

Late Valencia

Spain

Febr...
Re-Establishment of the Citrus Juice
Industry in Ghana
• A solid foundation was laid for reestablishment of citrus juice i...
The Late Valencia Sweet Orange
• In 1970, researchers at ARC-Kade decided to test the
suitability of the Late Valencia Swe...
The Late Valencia Sweet Orange cont’d
– Late Valencia sweet orange on rough lemon
established very well in a maize/cassava...
The extension of the cultivation of late
valencia sweet oranges to farmers in
Ghana

• The methods used to extend the cult...
Interventions by ADRA- Ghana
• On 5th May, 1996, ARS, Kade and the Adventist
Development and Relief Agency (ADRA)-Ghana, a...
Interventions by ADRA- Ghana
• From may 1996 to June 1998, 1,600 small
scale peasant farmers in Ghana were supplied
each w...
Interventions by ADRA- Ghana
• Ten years after the project, fresh oranges are available
in large quantities for fresh frui...
Lessons Learnt
• For successful agribusiness venture in Ghana, there
must be a sustained demand for the agricultural
produ...
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The establishment of citrus juice industry in ghana

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The establishment of citrus juice industry in ghana

  1. 1. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CITRUS JUICE INDUSTRY IN GHANA: A SUCCESS STORY OF LINKAGE BETWEEN RESEARCH, EXTENSION, PEASANT FARMERS, NGO AND USAID, AND INDUSTRY. By: Prof J. K. Osei
  2. 2. The Early Attempts to Establish Citrus Juice Industry in Ghana • British Sailors developed Vitamin C deficiencies on long voyages. There was the need to find cure for British soldiers who developed Vitamin C deficiencies on long voyages in the early part of the 20th century. • It was discovered at that time that by drinking lime juice, the disorder could be cured.
  3. 3. The Early Attempts to Establish Citrus Juice Industry in Ghana cont’d • The British government made attempts to grow lime in its colonies to supply lime juice to the sailors. • This led to the introduction of the Mexican lime Citrus aurantifolia to Ghana specifically in the Asebu area in the Central Region around 1900. • By 1928, lime production had reached its peak in the Central Region and as a result, the Emil El Rose Citrus Factory was established at Asuansi to process lime juice for the sailors.
  4. 4. The Collapse of the Mexican Lime Industry at Asebu • Because of the lack of research information, the Mexican lime was grown from seeds. The resulting seedlings were very sensitive to the tristeza virus disease. The symptoms of the disease were stunted growth, loss of yield and premature death of the lime trees. • Eventually, by 1948 the disease had wiped out the lime trees planted by farmers and the industry collapsed for lack of lime fruits to process.
  5. 5. Attempts to Re-Establish the Industry by the Colonial Government • Other citrus varieties including sweet oranges, lemons, tangerines and grape fruits were introduced from other parts of the world by the colonial government and established in a museum at Asuansi. • From the Asuansi museum, citrus particularly sweet oranges spread to other parts in Ghana especially the cocoa growing areas where the soil and climatic conditions are conducive to the growth of citrus.
  6. 6. Attempts to Re-Establish the Industry by the Colonial Government cont’d • However, farmers never grew citrus on large scale as cocoa because they realised that when grown from seeds, the sweet oranges grew tall, became thorny and the fruits were susceptible to fruit flies and the trees died prematurely from gummosis disease.
  7. 7. Contribution from University Research • In 1957, Dr Kwame Nkrumah, granted funds to the University of Ghana to establish the Agriculture Research Centre, Kade to investigate among other things, the successful cultivation of plantation crops and fruit tree crops including citrus. • From 1960 onwards, research was initiated at the Agricultural Research Centre Kade (ARC-Kade) to select suitable rootstocks which conferred vigour, earliness and tolerance to tristeza virus and the gummosis diseases. Results summarized in ARC-Kade annual reports from 1968 to 1970 (Opoku, 1971) showed that:
  8. 8. Contribution from University Research cont’d • 1. Budding citrus spp on rough lemon, Cleopatra mandarin, Lake Tangelo, or rangphur lime rootstocks resulted in early fruiting within three years as compared to the seven years required for trees raised from seeds. • 2. Fruits of the Washington navel sweet orange on rough lemon rootstock granulated during the dry season from December to February, but were juicy when Cleopatra mandarin was used as rootstock. However, the yield of Washington navel sweet orange on Cleopatra rootstock was low.
  9. 9. Contribution from University Research cont’d • 3. Good quality fruits were obtained when Rangphur lime was used as rootstock, but the growth of most citrus cultivars on Rangphur lime was stunted, due to the exocortis virus disease which had been transmitted through budding. • 4. From 1973 onwards, certified bud woods of important citrus cultivars were imported By ARC, Kade, from leading citrus producing countries for compatibility and yield studies on rough lemon and Cleopatra rootstocks. The table below shows some of the results obtained.
  10. 10. The yield and maturity period of Citrus Cultivars in Ghana Cultivar Origin Harvesting season Late Valencia Spain February/March Average Yield per tree * 100 fruits 9 Satsuna (Mandarin) Ponkan (Mandarin) Lake Tangelo Japan March/April 10 China May/June 5 Florida July 10 Washington Brazil (Navel Street) Ovelleto Sicily Sweet Orange Local Sweet Local Orange August/September 4 August/September 6 October/January 7
  11. 11. Re-Establishment of the Citrus Juice Industry in Ghana • A solid foundation was laid for reestablishment of citrus juice industry with the various citrus cultivars which made all yearround production of citrus possible.
  12. 12. The Late Valencia Sweet Orange • In 1970, researchers at ARC-Kade decided to test the suitability of the Late Valencia Sweet Orange as an offseason citrus variety. • The results showed that: – When harvested from November to January, the fruits of the Late Valencia sweet orange cultivar were not as palatable as the other sweet orange cultivars which were fully mature at this time. Late Valencia sweet orange cultivar was therefore not released to farmers, until it was shown in 1987 to be the most profitable sweet orange cultivar when grown as off-season cultivar, because the fruits reached full maturity after mid-February when no other citrus cultivar was in season (Osei, 1989).
  13. 13. The Late Valencia Sweet Orange cont’d – Late Valencia sweet orange on rough lemon established very well in a maize/cassava intercropping system. By intercropping these food crops with this sweet orange on rough lemon rootstock, the traditional shifting cultivation in the forest zone of the country could be converted to a permanent cropping system
  14. 14. The extension of the cultivation of late valencia sweet oranges to farmers in Ghana • The methods used to extend the cultivation of the Late Valencia Sweet orange to the Ghanaian farmer included the print and electronic media, Public Lectures at Farmers’ Fora, Training Courses for Senior Extension Officers of the Ministry of Agriculture, Training of Unemployed Middle School Leavers in Budding of Late Valencia on Rough Lemon and Invitation to Government.
  15. 15. Interventions by ADRA- Ghana • On 5th May, 1996, ARS, Kade and the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA)-Ghana, a non-governmental organization, signed an agreement to execute a project on the integration of the food farming system of some peasant farmers in the Eastern Region of Ghana with the Late Valencia sweet orange on rough lemon rootstock. Under the agreement, ADRA-Ghana contracted ARC-Kade to produce one hundred and sixty thousand Late Valencia sweet orange on rough lemon rootstock for distribution to small holder farmers in Ghana.
  16. 16. Interventions by ADRA- Ghana • From may 1996 to June 1998, 1,600 small scale peasant farmers in Ghana were supplied each with 100 seedlings under the project. Funding for the project was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
  17. 17. Interventions by ADRA- Ghana • Ten years after the project, fresh oranges are available in large quantities for fresh fruit consumption and for processing. Several new citrus processing factories have been established in the country. Notable among the factories is “Pinora” at Asamankese about 20 kilometres from the research centre. • Thus a result of collaboration and linkages between research, extension, and NGO and USAID, the citrus industry in Ghana has been revived. The socioeconomic benefit of these linkages is tremendous.
  18. 18. Lessons Learnt • For successful agribusiness venture in Ghana, there must be a sustained demand for the agricultural product. • There must be adequate information for the sustainable economic production of the commodity in large volumes. • This information should be made availabal to growers. • Credit facilities be made available for the cultivation of the commodity. • Factories then can be established to process the raw materials into the finished products.

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