VALLEY VIEW UNIVERSITY-TECHIMAN CAMPUS
ASSESSING INCOME LEVELS AND EXPENDITURE PATTERNS OF MANGO
“ A CASE STUDY AT EJURA SEKYE DUMASI MUNICIPALITY”
OUTLINE FOR PRESENTATION
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Research Objectives
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Origin and Distribution of Mango
2.2 Varieties of Mango
2.3 Diseases and Pests Control in Mango
3.1 The Study Area
3.2 Target Group and Sample Size
3.4 Instruments for data collection
3.6 Questionnaire Administration
3.7 Data Analysis
3.8 Expected Outcome
4. WORK PLAN FOR PROJECT
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Mango became one of the fruit crops for the food canneries. This resulted in the
establishment of mango plantations in Ghana to increase the production of mango,
It was first introduced to Africa in the middle of 19th Century during the European
penetration into Africa. Further introduction was made by the United States Agency
for International Development (USAID).
The ripe fruit contains 84% water, 10 to 20% sugars and small amount of fruit acid,
minerals, fats and protein. The fruit is also important source of vitamin B and C.
The kernel inside the stone of mango is roasted and powdered; it is then cooked and
used in several parts of India as human food in times of scarcity. Mango can also be
fermented to vinegar, wine and brandy.
Spacing used for mango varies from 9m x 9m to 10.5 x 10.5m depending on the
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Establishment of mango plantation in Ejura-Sekye Dumasi Municipal has increased
considerably in recent years as a result of improving climate potentials to support
Farmers in the study area are putting up buildings, their children are in school as well
as improved standard of living.
The problem of the farmers in the area is that most farmers do not document or
estimate the income and expenditure from their mango produce.
This study seeks to estimate the income and the expenditure of farmers in order to
determine whether farmers are making profit and loss.
Others who want to go into mango production will have a comprehensive information
on mango production and this information can be utilized by farmers in the study area,
investors, government and non-governmental organizations.
1.3 MAIN OBJECTIVE
The main objective of the study is to assess the income levels and expenditure patterns
of mango growers in Ejura-Sekye Dumasi Municipality.
1. Estimate the cost of land acquisition
2. Estimate the cost of planting materials and agronomic practices
3. Estimate labour cost
4. Demand for and market accessibility of mango
Like any other research the study shall finally come out with conclusions and
recommendations which may serve as the basis for other future research.
Such recommendations if adopted could go a long way to boost mango production in
the study area. The study would come out with sufficient and reliable information on
mango production such as cost of land acquisition, cost of planting materials, cost of
agronomic practices, demand for mango and accessibility of market.
Findings would help to increase export of mangoes which will generate foreign
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION OF MANGO
Mango (Mangifera indica), from the family Anacardeacea. The name indica suggests
an Indian origin, but it is more likely that the origin lies in the Burma-Malaysian
region (Samson, 1986). India is the largest single producer of mango. However the
fruit is found throughout the tropics.
Raemaekers (2001) also reported that mango is one of the oldest cultivated fruit tree
and originated in India or the Malaysian archipelago.
Mango was first taken to South Africa from Goa near Bombay by the Portuguese in
the 17th Century, and had spread throughout West Africa by the middle of the 19th
The major producing countries in Africa are Kenya, Mali, Senegal, Burkina Faso,
Congo, La Coted`ivoire and Ghana (Rice etal 1987)
2.2 VARIETIES OF MANGO
There are several varieties of mangoes in India (Rao, 2000). The first West African
mango is fibrous with a strong flavor but improved Indian and West Indian mangoes
as well as varieties from Sri Lanka and Australia have been introduced. These
varieties are large, sweeter and less fibrous than local varieties.
In Africa, the cultivars are apple, dodo, keith, palmer, harries, batawi, kene, julie,
kensigton and hardden.
According to Tweneboa (2001), the United State Agency for International
Development (USAID) has established a bud-wood garden at Somanya in the Eastern
Region of Ghana with varieties such as alphonse, sunset, rud early gold, kent, jaffna,
sunrise, keitt and springfield. However, varieties mainly produced in Ghana include;
keitt, kent, jaffna and palmer.
2.3 DISEASES AND PESTS CONTROL IN MANGO
The major disease of mango is anthracnose caused by the fungus Gloesporium
mangifera. It affects the plants by shedding off the flower and young fruits by spotting
the ripe fruits.
According to Morton (1987), Erwina mangifera and pseudomomonas mangifera
indicae are sources of bacteria black spots.
All these diseases affect the leaves, fruits and flowers. A sequential spraying with
Dithane m-45, Kocide and benlate, control the disease of mango.
2.3 DISEASES AND PESTS CONTROL IN MANGO cont.
The major pest of mango include mealybug (Planococcus citril), fruit piercing moths,
thrips (sclenothrips), scale insects (Appidiostus destructor) and seed weevil. These
pests affect the stem, leaves, flowers and fruits. The best control is spray with
dimethoate and dieldrin.
Post harvest diseases are diplodia nantalensis and Botryodiplodia theobrome. Toxicity
tests show that a mixture of benomyl and quazantine or imazalil is effective for
controlling post harvest diseases (Huang-Liu, 1995)
3.1 THE STUDY AREA
Ejura-Sekye Dumasi Municipal is located in the Ashanti region of Ghana. The district
capital is Ejura which is located at about 92km from Kumasi the Ashanti Regional
Capital. The District covers an area of 1,782.2km square and is about 7.3% of the total
area of Ashanti Region.
The District has a population of 101,826, out of which 51.77% are males whiles
48.23% are females (2010 Population and Housing Census). The major occupation of
the people is farming, and it constitutes about 70% of the human activities in the area.
Food crops grown in the area are; cereals, legumes, and the common tree crops and
mango and cashew.
3.2 TARGET GROUP AND SAMPLE SIZE
The research will target mango farmers in the study area.
A random sample method will be used to select ten (10) villages among the mango
In each village, ten (10) farmers will be randomly selected given a total sample
population of 100 farmers as the total sample size for the study.
3.3 RESEARCH DESIGN
The research will be conducted on the sample population using a set of questionnaires
The data will involve;
Primary data (questionnaires) and secondary data (documented information)
3.4 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
The main instrument for data collection will be questionnaires designed to suit the
study. Some of the issues in the questionnaire include cost of land acquisition, cost of
planting materials, cost of agronomic practices, cost of labour, demand for mango and
Key informants; papaya and mango growers and exporters association of Ghana.
The questionnaire will be pre-tested in one of the selected villages to ascertain the
bottlenecks that can hinder the smooth administration of the questionnaire.
3.6 QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION
To ensure independent expression of opinions and ideas on the part of the respondents,
the questionnaire will be administered on individual basis and the responses will be
3.7 DATA ANALYSIS
Every response will be subjected to analysis; tallies will be formed to determine the
frequencies of responses. The percentage values will be calculated from the absolute
3.8 EXPECTED OUTCOME
At the end of the study others who want to go into mango production will have a
comprehensive information on mango production and this information can be utilized
by farmers in the study area, investors, government and non-governmental
VISIT TO SELECTED
1. Boadu D.Q.(1998) plantation crops production,Accra,Ghana ,st. mary
2. Huang,s, and liu, x.(1995 )”control of post- harvest stem and rot and mango”
Tropical science: volume 354,pp231-235
3. Morton,J (1987) fruits of warm
4. Raemarkers,RH(2001).crop production in Tropical Africa,Brussels.Geokint
Graphic. Pp 596-609.
5. Tweneboah,C.K(2001)Modern Agriculture in the tropics.Accra,Ghana:co-wood