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Opoku eric david sweet pepper
 

Opoku eric david sweet pepper

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    Opoku eric david sweet pepper Opoku eric david sweet pepper Presentation Transcript

    • VALLEY VIEW UNIVERSITY-TECHIMAN CAMPUS RESEARCH PROPOSAL ON: COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF SWEET PEPPER PRODUCTION UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZER REGIME “A CASE STUDY AT VVU TECHIMAN CAMPUS” BY OPOKU ERIC DAVID (AGRIBUSINESS DEPARTMENT)
    • OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND AND JUSTIIFICATION LITERATURE REVIEW PROBLEM STATEMENT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES METHODOLOGY EXPECTED OUTCOME CONCLUSION
    • SWEET PEPPER Capsicum annuum
    • Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum)
    • INTRODUCTION Sweet pepper ( solanum annum) as a crop; warm season crop Solanaceae family Peppers are a member of the solanaceae which include potato (solanum tuberosum), eggplant (solanum melongena) and cherry (solanum pseudocapsicum) (Wayneword.palormar.edu/ecoph21.htm)
    • INTRODUCTION Sweet peppers are sensitive to light frost and grow poorly when temperatures are in the 40-60F range. Extreme summer heat prevents fruit set in most sweet peppers. A well-drained, sandy loam soil is ideal for pepper production. http://osufacts.okstate.edu
    • INTRODUCTION Peppers may be "hot'' or "sweet''. The fruit size varies from 1 to 30 cm in length, from thin to thick fleshed, conical to blocky or flattened, both yellow and green, at an immature stage, and with, red, yellow and brown mature fruits. This plant is a perennial in warm climates but grows as an annual in northern climates. Garton, R.W., and J. Bodnar. 1991. Pepper Production. O.M.A.F. Factsheet 91-047. 4 pp.
    • BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION Efutu municipal is known to be one of the leading producers of sweet pepper with higher yields in Ghana (http://mofa.gov.gh/site/?page_id=1455) Sweet pepper has a high demand in Ghana and the western part of the world. Local production is unable to meet demand since most of the produce does not do well on poor soils as a result of poor soil amendment and poor soil fertility in the production area.
    • BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICATION A chemical fertilizer is defined as any inorganic material of wholly or partially synthetic origin that is added to the soil to sustain plant growth. Organic fertilizers are substances that are derived from the remains or by products of organisms which contain the essential nutrients for plant growth. (http://www.naturalmoms.com/organic_vs_chemical_fertilizer.html ) The main objective of the study is to improve upon the production of sweet pepper in Ghana by employing the right amendments (inorganic and organic fertilizer regimes ) to improve upon the soil organic matter and fertility to increase production.
    • NPK FERTILIZER
    • LITERATURE REWIEW Sweet pepper is one of the most varied and widely used foods in the world. It was originated in the Mexico and Central America regions and Christopher Columbus encountered it in 1493. Its fruit are harvested and consumed at different maturity stages; green, red and not fully ripe. (http://pubs.caes.uga.caespubs/pubs/PDF/B1309.pdf)
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Fields in the southern desert valleys are transplanted in January or February for harvest from late April through June. In Ventura country planting occurs in April and may for harvest from July through October (http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu)
    • LITERATURE REVIEW A phenolic compound called capsaicin is responsible for the pungency in peppers. Sweet pepper is actually a herbaceous perennial and will survive and yield for several years in tropical climates (http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/sustainable/peet/preface.ht ml)
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Conventional and organic agricultural practices represent dynamic systems that can vary greatly depending upon region, soil quality, prevalence of pests, crop, climate an farm philosophies and this makes comparisons very difficult. (Sander, J.F. and R. Heitefuss, 1988. Susceptibility to Erysiphegraminis f. sp. Tritici and Phenolic Acid Content of Pepper as Influenced by different level of Nitrogen Fertilization J. Phytopathol, 146: 495-507 )
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Fruit weight was ranged from 128-210 gm depending upon cultivars. Number of fruit and yield was significantly higher under integrated nutrient (INM) compared with organic nutrient supply. The yield reduction in the latter was 22.1% in 2005 and 21.7% in 2006 compared with the INM. (Jadczak, D., M. Grzeszuczuk and D. Kosecka, 2010. Quality Characteristics and Content of Mineral Compounds in Fruit of Some Cultivars of Sweet Pepper (capsicum annum L.). The Elemental Journal, 15(3): 509-515)
    • LITERATURE REVIEW A chemical fertilizer is defined as any inorganic material of wholly or partially synthetic origin that is added to the soil to sustain plant growth. Organic fertilizers are substances that are derived from the remains or by products of organisms which contain the essential nutrients for plant growth.
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Chemical fertilizers are rich in essential nutrients that are needed for crops and always ready for immediate supply of nutrients to plants if situation demands (ammonium sulfate, ammonium phosphate, urea) as well as the organic fertilizer adds natural nutrients to the soil, increase soil organic matter, improves soil structure and tilth, improves water holding capacity, reduces soil crusting problems, reduces erosion from wind and water and slow consistent release of nutrients ( cottonseed meal, blood meal, manure and sewage sludge). (http://www.naturalmoms.com/organic_vs_chemical_fertilizer.ht ml )
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Both fertilizer programs increased production, weight, and pepper size compared to the untreated check. Dry fertilizer was broadcast incorporated prior to planting. Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizers was placed in a band two inches to the side and two inches below transplant placement. Sidedress applications were applied in a band along the irrigation line and were made at vine run and fruit set.
    • LITERATURE REVIEW The Agro-Culture Liquid Fertilizers program increased the number of pepper per acre, average pepper size, and tons over the conventional fertilizer program. A grower’s profit can be greatly increased by producing more pepper per acre and larger pepper fruit along with reducing the number of applications required by the conventional program (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertilizer#Organic_fertilizers)
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Addition of manure increased sweet pepper plant size, number of flowers and number of marketable fruits compared to the unamend soil. Amending soils with composted materials has been reported to increase sweet pepper yields. However, combining compost and inorganic fertilizer has generally been more effective in producing a positive plant response than separate application of either material alone. (http://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu/resources/success_stories/T&Pguide/pdfs/Chapte r3/Compost_Manure.pdf)
    • LITERATURE REVIEW They are different varieties of sweet pepper stem ranging from 30 to 90 cm tall. Sweet pepper leaves are oval and taper to a point. They are usually bright to dark green, but can also be mottled (Vegetable Production Handbook. 1994. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University.)
    • SWEET PEPPER FRUIT
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Sweet pepper have straight, woody stem and single, starshaped, white flowers in the axils of the leaves. The flowers are followed by juiceless berries or pods, which vary in shape and size. When ripe, the fruit is red, yellow or brown but immature fruit of the large mild types are often picked while still green for use in salads. These generally species generally bear large fruit
    • LITERATURE REVIEW
    • LITERATURE REVIEW There are many varieties of garden peppers. They are divided into two groups; the sweet peppers or mildflavored varieties, which are used for stuffing, salads and garnishing; and the hot peppers, which are mainly used in sauces and flavoring. The Spanish word “Chili” describes peppers of all kinds, but in English, the name is usually only applied to the pungent varieties used for flavoring. C. frutescens grossum, the sweet or bell pepper, is a popular vegetable.
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Bell pepper cultivars differ in such horticultural traits as fruit size, shape (e.g. blocky versus elongated), number of lobes, flavor, and disease resistance. Standard green bell cultivars typically ripen to red; however, specialty bell peppers include cultivars that ripen to a color other than red. These specialty bells may be yellow, orange, brown, white, and even purple at maturity. (http://www.doa.agric.za/docs/Brochures/sweetpepper.pdf)
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Pepper is a warm-season crop, which performs well under an extended frost-free season, with the potential of producing high yields of outstanding quality. It is very vulnerable to frost and grows poorly at temperatures between 5 and 15 °C (Bosland & Votava, 1999). The optimum temperature range for sweet pepper growth is 20 to 25 °C (Anon., 2000).
    • LITERATURE REVIEW The germination of pepper seed is slow if sown too early when soil temperatures are still too low, but seedling emergence accelerates as temperatures increase to between 24 and 30 °C (Bosland & Votava, 1999). The optimum soil temperature for germination is 29 °C (Anon., 2000). Low temperatures also slow down seedling growth, which leads to prolonged seedling exposure to insects, diseases, salt or soil crusting, any of which can severely damage or kill off the seedlings (Bosland & Votava, 1999).
    • LITERATURE REVIEW In general, fresh sweet or bell peppers are treated like any other vegetables in the kitchen. Their firm, crunchy consistency and delicate, sweet flavour make them one of the most sought after vegetable items in cooking. • Fresh, raw bell peppers are being used as vegetables in cuisines. They can be eaten as salads or cooked in stir-fries.
    • LITERATURE REVIEW • In many parts of South Africa, they are mixed with other vegetables like potato, carrots, green beans, etc., along with tomato, garlic, onion, mustard seeds, cumin, and other spices in various mouthwatering stir-fries. • They can also be grilled and served with sauce, cheese and olive oil or with dips. • Sweet peppers are one of the popular ingredients in pizza and pasta Vegetable Production Handbook. 1994. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University.
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Sweet (bell) pepper contains minimal of health benefits and an alkaloid compound capsaicin. Early laboratory studies on experimental mammals suggest that capsaicin has anti-bacterial, anti-carcinogenic, analgesic and anti-diabetic properties. When used judiciously, it is also found to reduce triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels in obese individuals.
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Compared to green peppers, red peppers have more vitamins and nutrients and contain the antioxidant lycopene. The level of carotene, like lycopene, is nine times higher in red peppers. Red peppers have twice the vitamin C content of green peppers. Also, one large red bell pepper contains 209 mg of vitamin C, which is three times the 70 mg of an average orange. (HATUTALE, G 2010, ‘The Effect of Plant Population and Mulching on Green Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Production under Irrigation’, M.Sc. dissertation, University of the Free State, accessed 13 January 2013 from etd.uovs.ac.za/ETDdb/theses/available/etd.../ HatutaleG.pdf)
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Store sweet peppers at 7 to 12 °C and 90 to 95% relative humidity. Sweet or bell peppers are subject to cold damage at temperatures below 7 °C, and temperatures above 12 °C encourage ripening and spread of bacterial soft rot. Bell peppers should not be stored longer than 2 to 3 weeks even under the most favorable conditions. At 0 to 2 °C peppers usually develop pitting in a few days.
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Peppers held below 7 °C long enough to cause severe cold damage also develop numerous lesions of Alternaria rot, which causes mould and decay of the calyx at 4 °C and below and predisposes peppers to Botrytis rot. Senescence of sweet peppers is hastened by ethylene. Therefore, it is not a good practice to store peppers with apples, pears, tomatoes, or other ethylene-producing fruit types in the same room.
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Low-oxygen (3 to 5%) atmospheres retard ripening and respiration during transit and storage. High concentrations of carbon dioxide delay the loss of green color. However, high carbon dioxide also causes calyx discoloration http://www.doa.agric.za/docs/Brochures/sweetpepper.pdf
    • LITERATURE REVIEW Sweet pepper production should be encouraged because: • It is very low in calories and fats • It is found to reduce triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels in obese individuals • It is a rich source of vitamin C and the vitamin helps the human body against scurvy, develop resistance against infectious agents and harmful scavenge
    • LITERATURE REVIEW • It is a rich source of vitamin A and B-complex group of vitamins such as niacin, pyridoxine(vitamin B-6), riboflavin and thiamin (vitamin B-1) which facilitates cellular metabolism through various enzymatic functions. • Sweet pepper has adequate levels of essential minerals and the minerals are iron, copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese, potassium and selenium which essential for the development and the growth of the human body. (www.nutrition-and-you.com/bell-pepper)
    • PROBLEM STATEMENT Sweet pepper has the ability that can significantly contribute to the alleviation of food security in Ghana and West Africa as a whole. The problem of the study is to access the cost benefit analysis of sweet pepper under various fertilizer regimes.
    • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The main aim is to evaluate the performance of the various fertilizer regimes on sweet pepper production SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES To improve upon the soil conditions of sweet pepper production To increase sweet pepper production using the right fertilizer regime To access the cost and benefit on the right fertilizer regime on sweet pepper production.
    • METHODOLOGY MATERIALS AND METHOD MATERIALS NEEDED. For successful production of sweet pepper, the following materials will be obtained. Land for production Sweet pepper seeds namely (Yolo Wonder) and (California Wonder) Inorganic fertilizer Organic fertilizer Irrigation system Weedicides and pesticides Knapsack sprayer
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD The four treatments are as follows; T1 – no fertilizer T2 – chemical fertilizer T3 – organic fertilizer T4 –mixture of the chemical and organic fertilizer The two varieties to be used are as follows; V1 – Yolo Wonder V2 – California Wonder
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD TREATMENTS Two varieties (Yolo Wonder and California Wonder) will be used with 4 treatments and 4 replications under the Randomized Complete Block Design. The treatments will be V1T1, V1T2, V1T3, V1T4, V2T1, V2T2, V2T3, V2T4 because of the two varieties.
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD V1T1 – Yolo wonder with no fertilizer V1T2 – Yolo wonder with chemical fertilizer V1T3 – Yolo wonder with organic fertilizer V1T4 – Yolo wonder with mixture of the chemical and organic fertilizer V2T1 – California wonder with no fertilizer V2T2 – California wonder with chemical fertilizer V2T3 – California wonder with organic fertilizer V2T4 – California wonder with mixture of the chemical and organic fertilizer
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD NURSERY The seeds will be nursed until they are ready for transplanting on the soil when soil conditions are favourable for easy establishment of the seedlings SOIL PREPARATION Fields should be prepared thoroughly by plowing and harrowing and removing the different types of plant debris. It should also be pulverized and leveled; furrows are made 2 m apart whether meant for fertilizer application or not.
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD WEEDING The purpose of the weeding is to control weeds that compete with the crops and prevent the spread of diseases and pests. After 2 weeks, the first weeding is done and the second weeding is done from 3 weeks going.
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD FERTILIZATION The two forms that will be employed to amend the sweet pepper production are the organic and the inorganic fertilizers.  THE ORGANIC FERTILIZER Animal droppings will be used to amend the sweet pepper. The purpose of the application is to improve the physical properties of the soil and its chemical properties to enhance growth.
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD FERTILIZATION THE INORGANIC FERTILIZER NPK 15-15-15 or 23-1-5 will be used to fertilize the sweet pepper IRRIGATION The sweet pepper will be watered on 2 times daily (morning and evening Water holes or watering can will be used as a means of irrigation to the sweet pepper
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD THE FIELD LAY OUT UNDER RANDOMIZED COMPLETE BLOCK DESIGN BLOCK1 (R1) BLOCK2 (R2) BLOCK3 (R3) BLOCK4 (R4) V2T4 V2T1 V1T4 V2T4 V1T4 V2T3 V1T3 V2T2 V2T1 V1T2 V1T1 V1T4 V2T3 V2T4 V2T2 V1T2 V2T2 V1T1 V2T4 V1T1 V1T1 V1T4 V2T1 V2T3 V1T3 V1T3 V2T3 V1T3 V1T2 V2T2 V1T2 V2T1
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD DATA TO BE COLLECTED • • • • • • • Date of emergence Date of flowering The cost of seeds The cost of the various fertilizer regimes Number of leaves per plant Number of branches Number of flowers Color of the fruit Weight of the fruit
    • MATERIALS AND METHOD DATA ANALYSIS The data collected from the various plots will be analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) SOURCE OF VARIATION Total DEGREE OF FREEDOM (df) 31 Treatments 3 Replications 7 Error 21
    • ACTIVITIES TIME REQUIRED (MONTHS) MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE LITERATURE REVIEW LAND PREPARATION PLANTING DATA COLLECTION CULTURAL PRACTICES HARVESTING DATA SCREENING DATA ANALYSIS REPORT WRITING REPORT EDITING AND SUBMISSION RESEARCH SCHEDULE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCT
    • ITEMS UNIT PRICE (Gh¢) COST (Gh¢) SEED Yolo wonder California wonder 1 1 23 23 23 23 WEEDICIDE Pre-emergence 2 30 60 PESTICIDES 2 13 26 FERTILIZER NPK 15-15-15 2 50 100 SPRAYING MACHINE 1 25 25 1 (71 MAN DAYS) 7 497 1 acre 1 acre 45 45 45 45 ORGANIC MANURE LABOR LAND PREPARATION Plowing Harrowing TOTAL 844.00
    • EXPECTED OUTCOME It is expected that, sweet pepper that would be grown under the mixture of the organic and inorganic fertilizers will yield more than the organic and the inorganic fertilizer since the nutrients will be more readily available and adequate for the sweet pepper growth and yield.
    • CONCLUSION CONCLUSION The expected results from the project is foreseen to help improve the production of sweet pepper in Ghana.
    • REFERENCES http://www.doa.agric.za/docs/Brochures/sweetpepper.pdf HATUTALE, G 2010, ‘The Effect of Plant Population and Mulching on Green Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Production under Irrigation’, M.Sc. dissertation, University of the Free State, accessed 13 January 2013 from etd.uovs.ac.za/ETDdb/theses/available/etd.../HatutaleG.pdf Vegetable Production Handbook. 1994. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University.
    • REFERENCES www.wayneword.palomar.edu/ecoph21.htm www.nutrition-and-you.com/bell-pepper http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/Docum ent-1041/F-6030web.pdf http://www.caes.uga.edu/applications/publications/files/pdf/ B%201309_2.PDF
    • REFRENCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertilizer#Organic_fertiliz ers http://pods.dasnr.okstate.edu/docushare/dsweb/Get/ Document-1041/F-6030web.pdf