VALLEY VIEW UNIVERSITY-TECHIMAN CAMPUS
THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT INCLUSION LEVELS OF ALKALITREATED PITO MASH ON THE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSE
“A CASE STUDY AT VVU TECHIMAN CAMPUS”
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Poultry are domesticated birds that are kept by humans
for the purposes of obtaining meat, eggs and sometimes
feathers. Some examples includes; chicken, duck,
turkey, guinea fowl, among others.
Broilers are grown for their meat. These birds are the
ones we purchase at the farms, cold stores and fast food
joints for consumption.
Birds (wild and domesticated) belong to a family called
Domesticated birds also belongs to a sub family called
Galliformis and has a scientific name; (Gallus
We have two different types of poultry and they are;
local breeds and exotic breeds.
The breeds that are mostly raised here in Ghana are the
white Cornish and the white Plymouth rock.
Broilers originated from USA, South America and
Broilers can be produced through out the year but they
are mostly raised in the Christmas and other festive
Poultry meat and eggs are a good source of vitamins
Broiler has the ability that can significantly contribute
to the alleviation of malnutrition in Ghana, Africa and
the world at large (WHO).
Human directly consumes poultry meat and eggs.
examples, Meat as curry, meatball, roast, toast among
others or with other food products like chicken chips,
chicken rolls and the rest.
According to (Amisah et al., 2009), cost of feed has
been a major concern as this has always led to high cost
of production, and has not been a lucrative enterprise
because apart from the high cost and unavailability of
the conventional feedstuffs, there is also competition
with human beings, livestock and poultry.
To solve this problem, Animal nutritionist are searching
for non-conventional feedstuffs which are readily
available and cheaper in order to cut down on the feed
cost which constitute about 70% of the total cost of
production ( Reddy 1996)
One of the solutions to the problem of high cost of
feeding poultry (broilers) is the utilization of
unconventional feed resources, example; crop residues
and agro-industrial by-products.
Among the unconventional feed resources is the
sorghum spent grain (SSG) locally known as pito mash
(PM). This is a by-product from sorghum grains used
in the production of a local bear called pito in Ghana.
According to Fombad and Mafeni, pito mash has been
included in broilers diet and has some positive results
but further attested that inclusion level of pito mash in
broilers diet more than 10% resulted in having adverse
effect on both weight gain and growth performance as
well as their blood parameters, because it has a high
crude fiber content and because poultry is monogastric
and therefore cannot break the B-link of high crude
fiber(cellulose and semi-cellulose) of the pito mash.
As a result of these limitation feed manufactures are
looking forward to reducing the crude fibre content
before giving it to the birds.
Samuel Ndams (2008) observed that fermentation
reduced crude fibre content of pito mash and therefore
stated that it had a positive result when pito mash was
included up to 20%.
He attested that both growth performance and blood
parameters was affected positively.
Hence it does not have any negative effect on their
Some researchers treated the pito mash with alkali
obtained from plantain peels before giving it to the
broilers from 0% to 15% inclusion levels and recorded
no significant change in the growth with reference to
feed intake and the carcass analysis.
This study seeks to assess the hematological response of
the broilers fed with alkali-treated pito mash (SSG).
Estimate the effect of alkali-treated pito mash diet on intake
and growth parameters of the birds, e.g. feed intake, water
consumption and feed consumption efficiency in kilogram.
Cost-benefit analysis will be carried out to establish the
economic feasibility of the experimental diet.
Hematological analysis will be carried out on the birds.
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF PITO MASH
AVIAN BLOOD PARAMETERS
AVIAN BLOOD PARAMETERS AND MEAT QUALITY
THE USE OF SORGHUM SPENT GRAIN (SSG)
THE USES OF SSG IN POULTRY INDUSTRY
EEFECT OF SSG ON BROILER PERFORMANCE
THE EFFECT OF REFERMENTED SSG ON BROILER’S
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF PITO MASH
Accordingly the proximate of PM is as follows;
TYPE OF ANALYSIS
Dry matter (%)
Crude protein (%)
Ether extract (%)
Crude fibre (%)
Nitrogen-free extract (%)
International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Vol. 4(8), pp. 178185, September 2012
PM NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS
Dogari (1985)reported that PM contains; 91.0% DM,
22.01% CP, 4.6% EE, 8.40% CF, 0.13% ca, and 8.61%
Odiba (1987) Pito mash contains: 22% CP, 8.0% CF, and
1760 kcal/kg of ME.
Dairo (1999) also reported the proximate composition
of PM as; 24.67% CP, 12.64% CF, 4.50 EE, 83.0 DM
and 4890.7 kcal/kg of gross energy.
According to (T.N. Fredrickson) Work on avian
hematology begun at Maine University, with a view to
adapting and developing quick, accurate and simple
methods of blood examination.
Blood parameters of avian(poultry) consist of ;
Red blood cell (RBC)
White blood cell (WBC)
Packed volume cell (PVC)
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), etc.
Hemoglobin and myoglobin are important factors in
determining meat quality aspects; such as color.
( R.W.K Ranen1999)
The consumption of poultry meat and eggs have
increased in this decade and this has resulted in
increase in the demand for poultry product and hence
rise in feed ingredients cost.
Therefore there is great need for alternative feedstuffs,
which are not competed for by human and can be
successfully included in poultry diets to replace the
commonly used ingredients. ( Reddy 1996)
According to Nelson (1984) 50% replacement of maize
with PM and 5% palm oil supplementation in a broiler
starter diet supported satisfactory weight gain, feed
consumption and efficiency of feed conversion.
Lopez and Carmona (1981) evaluated PM at levels of
0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% in broiler diets and
reported insignificant differences in average weight
gains and feed conversion with up to 20% inclusion
level. Feed intake and dressing percentage of birds were
also not significantly affected up to this level.
According to Nelson (1984) the inclusion level of PM
at a rate more than 20% affected growth performance,
carcass quality and blood parameters negatively.
Lopez and Carmona (1981) also attested that the
inclusion level of PM more than 20% affect broiler
meat quality negatively.
As cited by Ndams, Samuel (2008) when SSG was
refermented at the inclusion level of 10%,20% and
30%, weight gain and carcass quality was not adversely
affected as well as the blood parameters.
The following materials will be needed for the for the project
Sorghum Spent Grains (SSG)
Plantain Peel Ash Extract (PPAE)
Broilers (day old chicks)
Broiler feed (starter diet)
Vaccines and drugs
Syringe and test tubes
Four (4) different inclusion levels of alkaline-treated
pito mash in broiler diet in a scattered arrangement with
3 replication will be used for the experiment
In all 240 birds would be used under deep litter system,
with 20 birds per replicate, given 60 birds per treatment.
Broiler starter diet will be used to feed the broiler
chicks in the first week.
The birds will be moved to different cages after one
week and be put under their various experimental diets.
The treatments will be represented as follows;
0% inclusion level will be represented as T1
10% will be represented as T2
20% will represented as T3
30% will be represented as T4
These treatments will be arranged as T1,T2,T3 and T4 as
shown in the next slide.
The experiment would be conducted using four
different types of diet which will be replicated three (3)
The treatments are as follows;
0% no inclusion of alkaline treated pito mash
10 % alkaline treated pito mash inclusion level
20 % alkaline treated pito mash inclusion level
30 % alkaline treated pito mash inclusion level
The following data will be collected;
The weight of the birds before giving them the
Weekly weight gain
Daily water intake
Daily feed intake
Live weight after the experiment
Before termination of the experiment 2 birds from each
replicate will be randomly selected for;
1. Blood sample test (hematology)
2. Dressing percentage
3. Heart ,liver and gizzard weight.
The amount of blood that will be taken from each
randomly selected bird will be at least 1.5ml.
Tools to be used;
The process or how;
How it will look like;
The data collected on these parameters will be subjected
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Test of significance(LSD test)
The results will report on the Hematological response
of the broilers fed with alkaline- treated Pito mash
inclusion diet and the control diet.
The following would be achieved after the research;
To get a broiler feed that is low in cost but not
detrimental to their growth.
To find alkali- treated pito mash inclusion levels in
diets with high intake level and high feed conversion
To obtain percentage of alkali- treated pito mash that
should be added to broiler feed for good performance.
The next slide is the budget for the propose project.
Estimation of returns;
200 birds will be sold out of 240
The least weight gain per bird after the 8 weeks is
expected to be 1.5kg
If 1kg= GHC 10
Then 1.5 10= GHC 15
Therefore 200 birds GHC15=GHC 3,000
Profit =income-cost production
GHC 3000 – GHC 2285= GHC 715.00