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  • 1. RESEARCH PROPOSAL VALLEY VIEW UNIVERSITY-TECHIMAN CAMPUS RESEARCH TOPIC; THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT INCLUSION LEVELS OF ALKALITREATED PITO MASH ON THE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BROILERS “A CASE STUDY AT VVU TECHIMAN CAMPUS” BY GYARKO EMMANUEL 211AB01000013 (AGRIBUSINESS DEPARTMENT)
  • 2. 1. INTRODUCTION 2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 3. LITERATURE REVIEW 4. MATERIALS AND METHODS 5. PROJECT WORKPLAN 6. PROJECT BUDGET 7. EXPECTED RETURNS
  • 3.  Poultry are domesticated birds that are kept by humans for the purposes of obtaining meat, eggs and sometimes feathers. Some examples includes; chicken, duck, turkey, guinea fowl, among others.  Broilers are grown for their meat. These birds are the ones we purchase at the farms, cold stores and fast food joints for consumption.
  • 4. Dr. Frank Flanders and Taylor Ginn April 2006
  • 5.  Birds (wild and domesticated) belong to a family called Phasianidae.  Domesticated birds also belongs to a sub family called Galliformis and has a scientific name; (Gallus domesticus.)  We have two different types of poultry and they are; local breeds and exotic breeds.
  • 6.  The breeds that are mostly raised here in Ghana are the white Cornish and the white Plymouth rock.  Broilers originated from USA, South America and Australia  Broilers can be produced through out the year but they are mostly raised in the Christmas and other festive seasons.
  • 7.  Poultry meat and eggs are a good source of vitamins and minerals.  Broiler has the ability that can significantly contribute to the alleviation of malnutrition in Ghana, Africa and the world at large (WHO).  Human directly consumes poultry meat and eggs. examples, Meat as curry, meatball, roast, toast among others or with other food products like chicken chips, chicken rolls and the rest.
  • 8.  According to (Amisah et al., 2009), cost of feed has been a major concern as this has always led to high cost of production, and has not been a lucrative enterprise because apart from the high cost and unavailability of the conventional feedstuffs, there is also competition with human beings, livestock and poultry.  To solve this problem, Animal nutritionist are searching for non-conventional feedstuffs which are readily available and cheaper in order to cut down on the feed cost which constitute about 70% of the total cost of production ( Reddy 1996)
  • 9.  One of the solutions to the problem of high cost of feeding poultry (broilers) is the utilization of unconventional feed resources, example; crop residues and agro-industrial by-products.  Among the unconventional feed resources is the sorghum spent grain (SSG) locally known as pito mash (PM). This is a by-product from sorghum grains used in the production of a local bear called pito in Ghana.
  • 10.  According to Fombad and Mafeni, pito mash has been included in broilers diet and has some positive results but further attested that inclusion level of pito mash in broilers diet more than 10% resulted in having adverse effect on both weight gain and growth performance as well as their blood parameters, because it has a high crude fiber content and because poultry is monogastric and therefore cannot break the B-link of high crude fiber(cellulose and semi-cellulose) of the pito mash.
  • 11.  As a result of these limitation feed manufactures are looking forward to reducing the crude fibre content before giving it to the birds.  Samuel Ndams (2008) observed that fermentation reduced crude fibre content of pito mash and therefore stated that it had a positive result when pito mash was included up to 20%.
  • 12.  He attested that both growth performance and blood parameters was affected positively.  Hence it does not have any negative effect on their blood parameters.
  • 13.  Some researchers treated the pito mash with alkali obtained from plantain peels before giving it to the broilers from 0% to 15% inclusion levels and recorded no significant change in the growth with reference to feed intake and the carcass analysis.
  • 14.  GENERAL OBJECTIVES  This study seeks to assess the hematological response of the broilers fed with alkali-treated pito mash (SSG).
  • 15.  SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES  Estimate the effect of alkali-treated pito mash diet on intake and growth parameters of the birds, e.g. feed intake, water consumption and feed consumption efficiency in kilogram.  Cost-benefit analysis will be carried out to establish the economic feasibility of the experimental diet.  Hematological analysis will be carried out on the birds.
  • 16.  PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF PITO MASH  AVIAN BLOOD PARAMETERS  AVIAN BLOOD PARAMETERS AND MEAT QUALITY  THE USE OF SORGHUM SPENT GRAIN (SSG)  THE USES OF SSG IN POULTRY INDUSTRY  EEFECT OF SSG ON BROILER PERFORMANCE  THE EFFECT OF REFERMENTED SSG ON BROILER’S PERFORMANCE
  • 17. LITERATURE REVIEW PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF PITO MASH  Accordingly the proximate of PM is as follows; TYPE OF ANALYSIS PITO MASH Dry matter (%) 92.93 Crude protein (%) 28.77 Ether extract (%) 7.81 Crude fibre (%) 12.77 Ash (%) 4.42 Nitrogen-free extract (%) 46.23 PFV-GE 17.82 International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Vol. 4(8), pp. 178185, September 2012
  • 18. PM NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS Dogari (1985)reported that PM contains; 91.0% DM, 22.01% CP, 4.6% EE, 8.40% CF, 0.13% ca, and 8.61% ash. Odiba (1987) Pito mash contains: 22% CP, 8.0% CF, and 1760 kcal/kg of ME.  Dairo (1999) also reported the proximate composition of PM as; 24.67% CP, 12.64% CF, 4.50 EE, 83.0 DM and 4890.7 kcal/kg of gross energy.
  • 19.  According to (T.N. Fredrickson) Work on avian hematology begun at Maine University, with a view to adapting and developing quick, accurate and simple methods of blood examination. Blood parameters of avian(poultry) consist of ;  Hemoglobin (HB)  Red blood cell (RBC)  White blood cell (WBC)  Packed volume cell (PVC)  Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)  Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), etc. 
  • 20.  Hemoglobin and myoglobin are important factors in determining meat quality aspects; such as color. ( R.W.K Ranen1999)
  • 21.  The consumption of poultry meat and eggs have increased in this decade and this has resulted in increase in the demand for poultry product and hence rise in feed ingredients cost.  Therefore there is great need for alternative feedstuffs, which are not competed for by human and can be successfully included in poultry diets to replace the commonly used ingredients. ( Reddy 1996)
  • 22.  According to Nelson (1984) 50% replacement of maize with PM and 5% palm oil supplementation in a broiler starter diet supported satisfactory weight gain, feed consumption and efficiency of feed conversion.
  • 23.  Lopez and Carmona (1981) evaluated PM at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% in broiler diets and reported insignificant differences in average weight gains and feed conversion with up to 20% inclusion level. Feed intake and dressing percentage of birds were also not significantly affected up to this level.
  • 24.  According to Nelson (1984) the inclusion level of PM at a rate more than 20% affected growth performance, carcass quality and blood parameters negatively.  Lopez and Carmona (1981) also attested that the inclusion level of PM more than 20% affect broiler meat quality negatively.
  • 25.  As cited by Ndams, Samuel (2008) when SSG was refermented at the inclusion level of 10%,20% and 30%, weight gain and carcass quality was not adversely affected as well as the blood parameters.
  • 26.  The following materials will be needed for the for the project  Sorghum Spent Grains (SSG)  Plantain Peel Ash Extract (PPAE)  Broilers (day old chicks)  Broiler feed (starter diet)  Vaccines and drugs  Poultry house  Feeding trough  Water trough  Weighing scale  Syringe and test tubes  Disinfectant (quincide)
  • 27.  Four (4) different inclusion levels of alkaline-treated pito mash in broiler diet in a scattered arrangement with 3 replication will be used for the experiment  In all 240 birds would be used under deep litter system, with 20 birds per replicate, given 60 birds per treatment.  Broiler starter diet will be used to feed the broiler chicks in the first week.  The birds will be moved to different cages after one week and be put under their various experimental diets.
  • 28. The treatments will be represented as follows; 1. 0% inclusion level will be represented as T1 2. 10% will be represented as T2 3. 20% will represented as T3 4. 30% will be represented as T4 NB: These treatments will be arranged as T1,T2,T3 and T4 as shown in the next slide.
  • 29. 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 T1 T2 T3 T4 T3 T4 T1 T2 T4 T3 T1 T2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 T1 T2 T3 T4 T3 T4 T1 T2 T4 T3 T1 T2
  • 30.  The experiment would be conducted using four different types of diet which will be replicated three (3) times.  The treatments are as follows; 0% no inclusion of alkaline treated pito mash  10 % alkaline treated pito mash inclusion level  20 % alkaline treated pito mash inclusion level  30 % alkaline treated pito mash inclusion level 
  • 31.  The following data will be collected;  The weight of the birds before giving them the experimental diet.  Weekly weight gain  Daily water intake  Daily feed intake  Mortality rate  Live weight after the experiment  Before termination of the experiment 2 birds from each replicate will be randomly selected for; 1. Blood sample test (hematology) 2. Dressing percentage 3. Heart ,liver and gizzard weight.
  • 32.   The amount of blood that will be taken from each randomly selected bird will be at least 1.5ml. Tools to be used;  The process or how;  How it will look like;
  • 33. The data collected on these parameters will be subjected to;  Analysis of variance (ANOVA)  Test of significance(LSD test)
  • 34.  The results will report on the Hematological response of the broilers fed with alkaline- treated Pito mash inclusion diet and the control diet.
  • 35. The following would be achieved after the research; A. To get a broiler feed that is low in cost but not detrimental to their growth. B. To find alkali- treated pito mash inclusion levels in diets with high intake level and high feed conversion efficiency C. To obtain percentage of alkali- treated pito mash that should be added to broiler feed for good performance.
  • 36. ACTIVITIES LITERATURE. REVIEW BIRDS REARING DATA COLLECTION DATA SCREENING DATA ANALYSIS REPORT WRITING REPORT EDITING REPORT SUBMISSION OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR.
  • 37.  The next slide is the budget for the propose project.
  • 38. ITEMS Birds (D.O.C) QUANTITY UNIT PRICE ESTIMATE 240 2.50 600.00 Soya bean meal 3 105.00 315.00 Maize 3 70.00 210.00 Fish meal 2 165.00 330.00 20 1.00 20.00 Methionine lysine 5 14.00 70.00 Oyster shells 2 12.00 24.00 Broiler premix 5 9.00 45.00 Pito mash 5 20.00 100.00 Coccidiostat 1&2 2 110.00 220.00 Antibiotics 1 50.00 50.00 Broiler vitamins 5 40.00 200.00 Wheat bran 5 13.00 65.00 36 1.00 36.00 Salt Syringe and test tubes GRAND TOTAL 2285.00
  • 39. Estimation of returns;  200 birds will be sold out of 240  The least weight gain per bird after the 8 weeks is expected to be 1.5kg  If 1kg= GHC 10  Then 1.5 10= GHC 15  Therefore 200 birds GHC15=GHC 3,000  Profit =income-cost production GHC 3000 – GHC 2285= GHC 715.00
  • 40. THE END THANK YOU !!!
  • 41. (en.wikipedia.org /wiki /broiler). Origin of broilers  http/ask question.com. Poultry def. 

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