IS5540 Project Management & Quality Assurance Week 13 – Course Review Schwalbe: Managing Information Technology Projects, ...
Course Intended Learning Outcomes (CILO) No CILOs Weighting  1. Understand the  basics  of what project management is, the...
What Is a Project? <ul><li>A  project   is “a  temporary  endeavor undertaken to create a  unique product, service, or res...
Figure 1-1: The Triple Constraint of Project Management <ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li><...
What is Project Management? <ul><li>Project management   is   “the application of  knowledge, skills, tools   and techniqu...
Figure 1-2: Project Management Framework
Project Management Tools and Techniques <ul><li>Project management tools and techniques   assist project managers and thei...
Project Success <ul><li>There are several ways to define project success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The project met scope, time...
Success Factors <ul><li>Key ones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User involvement </li...
Ten Most Important Skills and Competencies for Project Managers 1. People skills 2. Leadership 3. Listening 4. Integrity, ...
Initial strategy Feasibility study Requirements analysis Systems analysis & Specification Systems Design Development Testi...
Project Management Process Groups <ul><li>A  process   is a  series of actions  directed toward a particular result </li><...
Figure 3-1: Level of Activity and Overlap of Process Groups Over Time
Relationships Among Process Groups and Knowledge Areas (PMBOK ®  Guide Fourth Edition)
Relationships Among Process Groups and Knowledge Areas (PMBOK ®  Guide Fourth Edition)  (Cont’d)
Before We Have a Project…. Project Selection Methods….
Strategic Planning and Project Selection <ul><li>Strategic planning  involves determining long-term objectives, predicting...
Methods for Selecting Projects <ul><li>There are usually more projects than available time and resources to implement them...
Project Management Plans <ul><li>A  project management plan  is your plan on  how  to manage the project, e.g. </li></ul><...
Figure 5-4: Intranet WBS and Gantt Chart in Microsoft Project
Figure 6-4: Sample PDM Network Diagram
Figure 6-8: Determining the Critical Path for Project X
Network Diagram using PDM A=5 0 5 5 10 B=10 0 10 0 10 C=7 10 17 10 17 D=2 17 19 18 20 E=3 17 20 17 20 Free Float Total Float
Earned Value Management (EVM) Planned Value (PV) How much work should have been done? Earned Value (EV) How much work has ...
Earned Value Management (EVM) Cost Variance (CV) Deviation from the original budget (in monetary terms)? Schedule Variance...
More on EVM Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earned_value_management
Relationships Among Process Groups and Knowledge Areas (PMBOK ®  Guide Fourth Edition)  (Cont’d)
Quality Planning <ul><li>Quality is planned, designed, and built-in.  </li></ul><ul><li>Quality is not inspected in. </li>...
The Cost of Quality <ul><li>Total cost to produce the product or service of the project according to the quality standards...
Plan Quality <ul><li>What quality standard? </li></ul><ul><li>How to achieve that? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></u...
How Do you Measure Quality of IT Systems? <ul><li>No. of bugs </li></ul><ul><li>Performance   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respon...
Basic Tools of Quality <ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect Diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Figure 11-4: Sample Risk Breakdown Structure
Risk Register <ul><li>The main output of various risk management processes </li></ul><ul><li>Can contain: </li></ul><ul><u...
Figure 11-6: Chart Showing High-, Medium-, and Low-Risk Technologies
Figure 11-7: Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Example
Responsibility Assignment Matrices <ul><li>A  responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)  is a matrix that maps the work of th...
Table 9-2: Sample RACI Chart R = responsibility, the performer A = accountability C = consultation I = informed
Develop the Project Team <ul><li>The main goal of team development is to help people  work together more effectively  to i...
Managing the Project Team <ul><li>This involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring  team members ’ performance – performance ...
Keys to Managing People <ul><li>Important areas related to project management include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation th...
Plan Communications <ul><li>C ommunications Management Plan  is a document that guides project communications. Possible co...
Performance Reporting <ul><li>Performance reporting keeps stakeholders informed about how resources are being used to achi...
About the Exam <ul><li>Date: 14 December, 2009 (Mon) </li></ul><ul><li>Time:  6:30 pm - 8:30 pm </li></ul><ul><li>Room:  M...
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Is5540 course review

  1. 1. IS5540 Project Management & Quality Assurance Week 13 – Course Review Schwalbe: Managing Information Technology Projects, Chapter 1 Adapted by Janet Yu , Frank Lo
  2. 2. Course Intended Learning Outcomes (CILO) No CILOs Weighting 1. Understand the basics of what project management is, the organization and technology context of information systems projects Moderately focused 2. Understand the tools and techniques used in various aspects of project management including management of project scope, time, cost, quality, risk and human resources More focused 3. Apply the project management knowledge, skills, tools and techniques learnt to project activities of an IT/IS-related project to meet project requirements More focused 4. Utilize a project management software (E.g. MS Project) to help plan and manage a small IT/IS project. Moderately focused
  3. 3. What Is a Project? <ul><li>A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result ” (PMBOK® Guide, Fourth Edition) </li></ul><ul><li>Other attributes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is developed using progressive elaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires resources , often from various areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operations is work done to sustain the business </li></ul>
  4. 4. Figure 1-1: The Triple Constraint of Project Management <ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>What else? </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Project Management? <ul><li>Project management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements” (PMBOK® Guide, Fourth Edition) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 1-2: Project Management Framework
  7. 7. Project Management Tools and Techniques <ul><li>Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management </li></ul><ul><li>Some specific ones include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project charter, scope statement, and WBS (scope) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis, and critical chain scheduling (time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost estimates and earned value management (cost) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Project Success <ul><li>There are several ways to define project success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The project met scope, time, and cost goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The project meets or exceeds stakeholders’ expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results of the project met its main objective, e.g., </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>making or saving a certain amount of money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>providing a good return on investment, or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simply delivering the product/services </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Success Factors <ul><li>Key ones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced project manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well defined scope and requirements </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Ten Most Important Skills and Competencies for Project Managers 1. People skills 2. Leadership 3. Listening 4. Integrity, ethical behavior, consistent 5. Strong at building trust 6. Verbal communication 7. Strong at building teams 8. Conflict resolution, conflict management 9. Critical thinking, problem solving 10. Understands, balances priorities
  11. 11. Initial strategy Feasibility study Requirements analysis Systems analysis & Specification Systems Design Development Testing Implementation Maintenance Review Systems Development Life Cycle
  12. 12. Project Management Process Groups <ul><li>A process is a series of actions directed toward a particular result </li></ul><ul><li>Project management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processes </li></ul><ul><li>The project management process groups include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executing processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and controlling processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing processes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Figure 3-1: Level of Activity and Overlap of Process Groups Over Time
  14. 14. Relationships Among Process Groups and Knowledge Areas (PMBOK ® Guide Fourth Edition)
  15. 15. Relationships Among Process Groups and Knowledge Areas (PMBOK ® Guide Fourth Edition) (Cont’d)
  16. 16. Before We Have a Project…. Project Selection Methods….
  17. 17. Strategic Planning and Project Selection <ul><li>Strategic planning involves determining long-term objectives, predicting future trends, and projecting the need for new products and services </li></ul><ul><li>As part of strategic planning, organizations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify potential projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use realistic methods to select which projects to work on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formalize project initiation by issuing a project charter </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Methods for Selecting Projects <ul><li>There are usually more projects than available time and resources to implement them </li></ul><ul><li>Methods for selecting projects include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing net present value (NPV) or other financial analyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a weighted scoring model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing a balanced scorecard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But for some projects, they may be selected because of a directive from management or Government </li></ul>
  19. 19. Project Management Plans <ul><li>A project management plan is your plan on how to manage the project, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you define the scope? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to deal with changes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to do estimation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to identify risks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to communicate with stakeholders? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plans created in the other knowledge areas are subsidiary parts of the overall project management plan, like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope Management Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing Management Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Figure 5-4: Intranet WBS and Gantt Chart in Microsoft Project
  21. 21. Figure 6-4: Sample PDM Network Diagram
  22. 22. Figure 6-8: Determining the Critical Path for Project X
  23. 23. Network Diagram using PDM A=5 0 5 5 10 B=10 0 10 0 10 C=7 10 17 10 17 D=2 17 19 18 20 E=3 17 20 17 20 Free Float Total Float
  24. 24. Earned Value Management (EVM) Planned Value (PV) How much work should have been done? Earned Value (EV) How much work has been done? Actual Cost (AC) How much has been spent? Budget At Completion (BAC) What was the entire project supposed to cost? Estimate At Completion (EAC) What is the project expected to cost now?
  25. 25. Earned Value Management (EVM) Cost Variance (CV) Deviation from the original budget (in monetary terms)? Schedule Variance (SV) Deviation from the original schedule (in monetary terms)? Cost Performance Index (CPI) How well is the WBS component doing in terms of cost? Schedule Performance Index (SPI) How well is the WBS component doing in terms of schedule?
  26. 26. More on EVM Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earned_value_management
  27. 27. Relationships Among Process Groups and Knowledge Areas (PMBOK ® Guide Fourth Edition) (Cont’d)
  28. 28. Quality Planning <ul><li>Quality is planned, designed, and built-in. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality is not inspected in. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Cost of Quality <ul><li>Total cost to produce the product or service of the project according to the quality standards </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of quality is the cost of conformance plus the cost of nonconformance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformance means delivering products that meet requirements and fitness for use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of nonconformance means taking responsibility for failures or not meeting quality expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is no free lunch! </li></ul>
  30. 30. Plan Quality <ul><li>What quality standard? </li></ul><ul><li>How to achieve that? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walkthroughs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality audits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How to make things better – process improvement? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for what? </li></ul><ul><li>Project managers are ultimately responsible for quality management on their projects </li></ul>
  31. 31. How Do you Measure Quality of IT Systems? <ul><li>No. of bugs </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume of data and transactions system should be capable of handling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability of a product or service to perform as expected under normal conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean time between failure (MTBF), mean time to recover (MTTR) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Basic Tools of Quality <ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect Diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run Chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scatter Diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histogram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pareto Diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowchart </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Figure 11-4: Sample Risk Breakdown Structure
  34. 34. Risk Register <ul><li>The main output of various risk management processes </li></ul><ul><li>Can contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>refer to specific, uncertain events that may occur to the detriment or enhancement of the project. E.g. project delay, increase in costs, shortage in supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually a number, with 1 being the highest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triggers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicators or symptoms, e.g. defective products, schedule overrun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability and impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owner </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Figure 11-6: Chart Showing High-, Medium-, and Low-Risk Technologies
  36. 36. Figure 11-7: Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Example
  37. 37. Responsibility Assignment Matrices <ul><li>A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a matrix that maps the work of the project as described in the WBS to the people responsible for performing the work as described in the Organization Breakdown Structure, OBS (the organization chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be created in different ways to meet unique project needs </li></ul>
  38. 38. Table 9-2: Sample RACI Chart R = responsibility, the performer A = accountability C = consultation I = informed
  39. 39. Develop the Project Team <ul><li>The main goal of team development is to help people work together more effectively to improve project performance </li></ul><ul><li>Some tools and techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team-building activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition and Rewards </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Managing the Project Team <ul><li>This involves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring team members ’ performance – performance appraisals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolving conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating changes to enhance project performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some advices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a team size of 3-7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan some team-building activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress team identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind virtual team members </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Keys to Managing People <ul><li>Important areas related to project management include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence and power </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Plan Communications <ul><li>C ommunications Management Plan is a document that guides project communications. Possible contents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder communications requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What information to be communicated, including format, content, and level of detail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When do they need the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The people who will receive the information and who will produce it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested methods or technologies for conveying the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glossary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating a stakeholder analysis for project communications also aids in communications planning </li></ul>
  43. 43. Performance Reporting <ul><li>Performance reporting keeps stakeholders informed about how resources are being used to achieve project objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status reports describe where the project stands at a specific point in time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress reports describe what the project team has accomplished during a certain period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasts predict future project status and progress based on past information and trends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hold status review meetings </li></ul>
  44. 44. About the Exam <ul><li>Date: 14 December, 2009 (Mon) </li></ul><ul><li>Time: 6:30 pm - 8:30 pm </li></ul><ul><li>Room: MPSH Chan Tai Ho Multi-purpose Hall </li></ul><ul><li>This is an open-book exam. You may bring any printed materials. </li></ul><ul><li>You are suggested to read through the entire examination paper before answering the questions. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, spend no more than one minute for each mark allocated (e.g. spend no more than ten minutes on a question that is worth ten marks). </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain a good mark, you should demonstrate your critical thinking ability and your analytical skills. </li></ul>

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