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Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
Linux week7
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Linux week7

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  • 1. Week 7Working with the BASH Shell
  • 2. Objectives Redirect the input and output of a command Identify and manipulate common shell environment variables Create and export new shell variables Edit environment files to create variables upon shell startup Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 2
  • 3. Objectives (continued) Describe the purpose and nature of shell scripts Create and execute basic shell scripts Effectively use common decision constructs in shell scripts Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 3
  • 4. Command Input and Output BASH shell responsible for: Providing user interface Interpreting commands Manipulating command input and output ○ Provided user specifies certain shell metacharacters with command File descriptors: Numeric labels that define command input and command output Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 4
  • 5. Command Input and Output(continued) Standard Input (stdin): File descriptor representing command input Standard Output (stdout): File descriptor representing command output Standard Error (stderror): File descriptor representing command error messages Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 5
  • 6. Command Input and Output(continued) Figure 7-1: The three common file descriptors Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 6
  • 7. Redirection Redirect stdout and stderr from terminal screen to a file Use “>” shell metacharacter Can redirect stdout and stderr to separate files Use separate filenames for stdout and stderr Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 7
  • 8. Redirection (continued) Redirecting stdin to a file: Use “<“ shell metacharacter tr command: Replace characters in a file sent via stdin Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 8
  • 9. Redirection (continued) Table 7-1: Common redirection examples Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 9
  • 10. Pipes Send stdout of one command to another command as stdin Pipe: String of commands connected by “|” metacharacters stdout on left, stdin on right Commonly used to reduce amount of information displayed on terminal screen Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 10
  • 11. Pipes (continued) Figure 7-2: Piping information from one command to another Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 11
  • 12. Pipes (continued) Can use multiple pipes on command line Pass information from one command to another over a series of commands filter commands: Commands that can take from stdin and give to stdout Can be on either side of a pipe tee commands: Filter commands that also send information to a file Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 12
  • 13. Pipes (continued) Figure 7-3: Piping several commands Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 13
  • 14. Pipes (continued) Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 14
  • 15. Pipes (continued) Can combine redirection and piping Input redirection must occur at beginning of pipe Output redirection must occur at end of pipe sed filter command: Search for and replace text strings awk filter command: Search for text and perform specified action on it Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 15
  • 16. Shell Variables Variable: A reserved portion of memory containing accessible information BASH shell has several variables in memory Environment variables: Contain information that system and programs access regularly User-defined variables: Custom variables define by users Special variables Useful when executing commands and creating new files and directories Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 16
  • 17. Environment Variables set command: Lists environment variables and current values echo command: View contents a specified variable Use $ shell metacharacter Changing value of a variable: Specify variable name followed by equal sign (=) and new value Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 17
  • 18. Environment Variables(continued) Table 8-3: Common BASH environment variables Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 18
  • 19. Environment Variables(continued)Table 7-3 (continued): Common BASH environment variables Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 19
  • 20. Environment Variables(continued) Table 7-3 (continued): Common BASH environment variables Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 20
  • 21. User-Defined Variables Variable identifier: Name of a variable Creating new variables: Specify variable identifier followed by equal sign and the new contents Features of variable identifiers: Can contain alphanumeric characters, dash characters, or underscore characters Must not start with a number Typically capitalized to follow convention Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 21
  • 22. User-Defined Variables(continued) Subshell: Shell created by current shell Most shell commands run in a subshell Variables created in current shell are not available to subshells export command: Exports user-defined variables to subshells Ensures that programs started by current shell have access to variables env command: Lists all exported environment and user-defined variables in a shell Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 22
  • 23. Other Variables Not displayed by set or env commands Perform specialized functions in the shell e.g., UMASK variable alias command: Creates shortcuts to commands Use unique alias names Aliases stored in special variables Can create single alias to multiple commands ○ Use ; metacharacter Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 23
  • 24. Environment Files When exiting BASH shell, all stored variables are destroyed Environment files: Store variables and values Executed each time BASH shell is started Ensures variables are always accessible Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 24
  • 25. Environment Files (continued) Common BASH shell environment files (in order they are executed): /etc/profile ~/.bash_profile ~/.bash_login ~/.profile Hidden environment files allow users to set customized variables Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 25
  • 26. Environment Files (continued) To add a variable, add a line to environment file Use command line syntax Any command can be placed inside any environment file e.g., alias creation .bashrc (BASH run-time configuration): First hidden environment file executed at login Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 26
  • 27. Shell Scripts Shell script: Text file containing a list of commands or constructs for shell to execute May contain any command that can be entered on command line Hashpling: First line in a shell script Defines which shell is used to interpret shell script commands Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 27
  • 28. Shell Scripts (continued) Executing shell scripts with read permission: Start another BASH shell, specify the shell script as an argument Executing shell scripts with read/write permission: Executed like any executable program Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 28
  • 29. Escape Sequences Character sequences having special meaning in the echo command Prefixed by character Must use –e option in echo command Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 29
  • 30. Escape Sequences (continued) Table 7-4: Common echo escape sequences Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 30
  • 31. Reading Standard Input Shell scripts may need input from user Input may be stored in a variable for later use read command: Takes user input from stdin Places in a variable specified by an argument to read command Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 31
  • 32. Decision Constructs Most common type of construct used in shell scripts Alter flow of a program: Based on whether a command completed successfully Based on user input Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 32
  • 33. Decision Constructs (continued) Figure 7-4: A sample decision construct Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 33
  • 34. Decision Constructs (continued) Figure 7-5: A sample decision construct Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 34
  • 35. The if Construct Control flow of program based on true/false decisions Syntax: Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 35
  • 36. The if Construct (continued) Common rules governing if constructs: elif (else if) and else statements optional Unlimited number of elif statements do these commands section may consist of multiple commands ○ One per line do these commands section typically indented for readability End of statement must be “if” this is true may be a command or test statement Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 36
  • 37. The if Construct (continued) test statement: Used to test a condition Generates a true/false value Inside of square brackets ( [ … ] ) ○ Must have spaces after “[” and before “]” Special comparison operators: –o (OR) –a (AND) ! (NOT) Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 37
  • 38. The if Construct (continued) Table 7-5: Common test statements Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 38
  • 39. The if Construct (continued) Table 7-6: Special operators in test statements Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 39
  • 40. The case Construct Compares value of a variable with several different patterns of text or numbers Syntax: Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 40
  • 41. The case Construct (continued) If a match is found, commands to right of pattern are executed Must end with esac Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 41
  • 42. The && and || Constructs Time-saving shortcut constructs When only one decision needs to be made during execution Syntax: command && command command || command Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 42
  • 43. The && and || Constructs(continued) &&: Second command executed only if first completes successfully ||: Second command executed only if first fails Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 43
  • 44. Summary Three components are available to commands: Standard Input, Standard Output, and Standard Error Standard Input is typically user input taken from the keyboard; Standard Output and Standard Error are sent to the terminal screen You can redirect the Standard Output and Standard Error of a command to a file using redirection symbols Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 44
  • 45. Summary (continued) Use the pipe symbol to redirect the Standard Output from one command to the Standard Input of another Most variables available to the BASH shell are environment variables that are loaded into memory after login from environment files You can create your own variables in the BASH shell and export them so that they are available to programs started by the shell Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 45
  • 46. Summary (continued) The UMASK variable and command aliases are special variables that must be set using a certain command Shell scripts can be used to execute several Linux commands Decision constructs can be used in shell scripts to execute certain Linux commands based on user input or the results of a certain command Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e 46

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