Renaissance= “rebirth”centered in Italyincreased interest inscience, arts, and literaturequestioning of blind faithfocus on humanity and lifeinterest in cultures of learned civilizations
HumanismPeople have the capacity toshape their own worldIndependence from tradition and religionDrew inspiration from Ancient Rome &GreeceSpread through the arts
Significant Events & People Artists that portray “realism” and significant advancements in art: Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raffaelo, Donatello, Botticelli Galileo, the remarkable yet controversial scientist who discovered that planets revolved around the sun. Invention of printing press (c. 1433) by Johannes Gutenberg Great literary figures: Cervantes (Spain), Shakespeare (England) Great explorers Christopher Columbus and Amerigo Vespucci
Important ComposersGuillaume Dufay, John Farmer, William Byrd, Claudio MonteverdiJosquin des Prez (c. 1450-1521) most influential composer of early Renaissance Career centered in Papal chapel (Italy) and in native France Master of the motet (80+) and over 20 polyphonic masses plus secular genres such as chansons uses imitative counterpoint (usually up to 4 voices imitating melodies) use of homorhythm and high concentration of harmonic structure often combines polyphony and homophony in same piece for musical variety.Giovanni Piergluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525-1594) Served at St. Peter’s (Rome), and several churches in Vatican City Master of late Renaissance music (100+ masses, madrigals, motets) Master of counterpoint
Important Musical events:1. Composers start writing in score form2. Increase in published music and literacy.3. Increase in number of musicians among upper and middle class.4. Use of meter and notation system advance5. Two dominant textures; imitative counterpoint (polyphony) and homophony6. Music gained importance in the aristoctratic courts, city/state, as well as in church.
Dominant Sacred Genres A Cappella is still the performance method Mass - polyphonic settings Attention towards text declamation (rhythm of text in melody matches natural speech patterns) New attention to word painting (music matches meaning of words) MOTETS (once considered sacred/secular) are focused in the Mass and other religious services. usually 3-4 voices, sung in Latin usually based on Gregorian chant (cantus firmus=fixed melody) composers focus on the Ordinary Mass Ordinary (fixed text)-Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei Proper (varied text)- Introit, Gradual, Alleluia(or Tract), Offertory, Communion
Protestant Reformation Oct. 31, 1517 - Martin Luther, an obscure, Augustian Catholic monk nailed 95 thesis (complaints about Roman Catholic Church) to the door of his castle church and was soon excommunicated increased wealth and worldliness, selling of indulgences (exchanging grace for money) abuse of power
c. 1526 - Martin Luther wrote a new church liturgy (in German and Latin) basedon Catholicismlaunched the Protestant movement - felt mostly in Germany, Switzerland,England, France, Austria, Poland, Hungary, and the low countries.opened doors for new compositions and shook the foundation of the RomanCatholic Church Martin Luther was also a musician who wrote new music for this new religion
Counter Reformation 1545 - Pope Marcellus led the Catholic response to Protestant reform movement Council of Trent- a group of cardinals and bishops had several sessions to organize the “new” rules of the Catholic church 1 session was dedicated to church music
Council of Trent’s musical focusProblems1. too much polyphony obscured the texts. 2. church composers weren’t paying enough attention to text declamation 3. secular influences were “invading” church music 4. concern with behavior of choir and in proper text pronunciationSolutions1. Composers should focus more on text declamation & choir’s clear pronunciation 2. Ban on secular music/styles in church 3. Return to use of chant
Pope Marcellus Mass Giovanni Piergluigi da Palestrina Palestrina’s masterpiece was a commissioned response to the Council of Trent that used the new rules without sacrificing the use of counter point. for full choir: SATTBB 6 part polyphony mixed with moments of monophonic chant and homophony upper parts sung by boy sopranos or adult males with high voices frequent changes in texture and register strict attention to text declamation
Dominant Secular Genres vocalChansons - Started in late Middle Ages (ex: Guillaume de Machaut) favored in French courts increased to 3 and 4 part love songs with instrumental accompaniment freer poetic structures often resulted in abandoning music form- no set repetition through-composed: no repeated sections, all new music and text throughout piece
Madrigals- new type of song becomes most popular genre in vocal music originated in Italy for 4-6 “a cappella” voices through-composed meter may change heavy use of word-painting short poems (often times=one stanza) cadences (ends of melodic phrases) match end of sentences Topics: love, unsatisfied desire, use of humor and satire ENGLAND adapted the madrigal into their native tongue and reflected the culture of the Elizabethan age (time during the reign of Elizabeth I from 1558- 1603)
Instrumental secular music Dances remain most popular form pavane, rondo, galliard, saltarello (Italian), jig (Irish) Duple meter gains popularity Instrumentalists start using embellishments on repeated sections of music to provide variety and satisfy personal expression New forms emerge binary and ternary forms regular 4 and 8 bar measures become the standard Instruments still categorized as soft (bas) or loud (haut)
Instruments New instruments were developed cornetto - hybrid brass/woodwind instrument sackbut - Renaissance trombone harpsichord - dominant keyboard instrument, plucks strings lute - dominant string instrument tabor- drum
Many historiansagree that thedeath of QueenElizabeth I in 1603marked the end ofboth theElizabethan eraand theRenaissance.