Style Characteristics• Rise in idealism(contrasts with “realism” of the Renaissance) • longing for perfection• Ornamented artistic style• Grandiose style and preference for high drama• Desire for luxurious lives • led to higher poverty rates, higher levels of oppression
Advancement in MusicRise in harmonic understanding • Figured Bass- special notation accompaniment • musicians improvised an appropriate harmony • basso continuo - at least 2 instruments • Bass line - bassoon/viola de gamba • Chords - harpsichord/lute/organ • Major and Minor tonalities are explored • Tuning system was standardized - Equal temperament - used equal mathematical “pure” intervals as tuning systemRise in popularity of instrumental musicDevelopment and advancement of instruments
Advancement in Music• Rise of virtuoso musiciansVivaldi - virtuosic violinistBach/Handel - virtuoso organistImprovisation played a significant role• Rise of vocal registersCastrato = men castrated as boys, sing in higher vocal ranges• Role of women rose once again• Doctrine of Affections - adapted from the popularity of text painting Baroque codification of basic emotional states (or “affections”) arousedby music.
New Secular Vocal GenresMonody - “one song” • developed by the Florentine Camerata (group of writers, artists, musicians, and humanists) • solo song with instrumental accompaniment • high emotional power of text • The “new music” was considered the “expressive” style • used the Doctrine of Affections • one emotional state for the entire duration of the song • led to operaOpera • marriage of all artistic styles (music, theater, poetry, art-set design/costumes)
OperaEntire drama is performed through music • Composer: writes music • Librettist: writes text/lyrics (or libretto)Recitatives - (plot advancement) • speech-like sections; frequent use of single/limited notes for lyrics. • Often performed by one or two characters • secco - Accompanied ONLY by continuo instruments; moves with great freedom • accompagnato - Accompanied by full orchestra; moves more evenlyArias follow recitatives; lyric moments • popular, more memorable songs • emotional, melody driven. • DA CAPO ARIA - ternary (A-B-A) form; conventional and popular aria typeSeveral ensemble numbers (duets, trios, etc). • Chorus is used to back up the solo voices OR may function independentlyOrchestra performs an overture before the opera. Often introduces melodies/themes fromthe opera’s arias.
Italian OperaOpera was born in Italy (First opera house = Venice) • Combination of Renaissance theatrical traditions & musical experimentation of the Florentine Camerata • 3 Acts • Plots • Greek mythology (typical subject) • history (later operas) • Italian operas gained popularity in Western EuropeClaudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) - singer, gambist • perhaps greatest Italian composer in Baroque • wrote nine books of madrigals • first great master of opera
English Opera• Masque - an early type of entertainment that combined vocal and instrumental styles with poetry and dance• England adapted the Italian model for opera and wrote libretto in EnglishHenry Purcell (1659-1695) - organist • Dido and Aeneas (1689) among his first written in the English language • libretto: Nahum Tate • based on Virgil’s Aeneid • Known for its climactic final scene • recitative “Thy Hand, Belinda” • aria = “Dido’s Lament” - aka. “When I am laid” • 5 measure ground bass - ostinato
New Sacred Vocal GenresOratorio • Descended from religious “plays-with-music” of the Counter-Reformation • Like a sacred opera, but without costumes • Plots based on biblical storiesGeorge Friderik Handel (1685-1759) • master of oratorios, cantatas, operas, orchestral suites, concerto grossi, and chamber music among others. • wrote his famous Messiah in 1742Cantata: vocal solo + orchestra + basso continuo (optional chorus) • sacred vocal composition with instrumental accompaniment • multi-movement work (12-20 minutes in length) • based on biblical stories • many movements are based on choralesJ.S. Bach (1685-1750) • wrote 60 cantatas each year for 5 years, yet only about 150 have survived
New Instrumental GenresSonata • secular solo piece • opposite to cantata (something played; multi- movement)Concerto • orchestral work with a featured soloist or solo groupBaroque Suite • multi-movement collection of dances of contrasting character and tempoKeyboard works • preludes, toccatas, fugues, and sonatas
Concerto characteristicsSolo concerto - solo instrument (violin) with accompanying instrumental groupConcerto grosso - use of small chamber group (concertino) verses a largergroup (ripieno or tutti) • Bach’s 6 Brandenburg Concertos among the most popular representation of c.g. • Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) - b. Venice, violinist • wrote operas, concertos, sonatas, and more. • His best-known work is The Four Seasons • 4 violin concertos depicting scenes appropriate to each season • Each concerto (1-4) contains 3 movements (fast, slow, fast) • example of program music = music intended to evoke something “extra-musical”... in this case, the mood and character of each season • each concerto is accompanied by a line from a poem • program music was inspired by word painting in Renaissance and Baroque vocal works • Use of orchestral ritornello, or repeated sections (refrains)
Suite characteristicsUsed popular dances from around Europe • allemande = German, quadruple meter, moderate tempo • courante = French, triple meter, moderate tempo • sarabande = Spanish, triple meter, stately tempo • gigue/jig = English/Irish, 6/8 compound meter, lively tempo • Optional dances • overture - opening piece • minuet • hornpipeForms (binary and ternary)For solo instrument, chamber group, or keyboard (harpsichord)
KeyboardPopular keyboards • Organ - produced sound by blowing air into pressurized tubes (or pipes) • Harpsichord - strings are plucked by quills • Clavichord - strikes the brass/iron strings with blades called tangeantsKeyboard forms * Free forms - harmony based with improvisational freedom • preludes - short piece based on continuous evolution of melodic and rhythmic figures; usually introduced a group of dance pieces (suites), chorales, or fugue • toccatas - virtuosic and sounds improvised • Strict forms - based on counterpoint (polyphony) • fugueWell-Tempered Clavier by J.S. Bach: 2 volumes of organ musicEach volume contained 12 major pieces and 12 minor pieces
Fugue Latin word fuga = flight flight• Most were written for the organ (JS Bach was the leading “master” of fugue compositions)• Single theme used in entire piece by being presented throughout 2 or more melodic voices (usually 3 or 4 voices - SATB registers) = IMITATIONMain theme = SUBJECTEXPOSITION = first large section- is over once all the voices have stated the SUBJECT in full • SUBJECT stated first in single voice; tonality established (I) • SUBJECT stated in a second voice = ANSWER (different register, 5 notes away V=dominant); meanwhile a counter-theme continues in the first voice • If there are 4 voices, another statement of SUBJECT and ANSWER occur while the first two continue to developEPISODES = are interludes that help relax the counterpoint.FINAL STATEMENT = last declaration of SUBJECT and final cadence (tonic chord).
Contrapuntal DevicesWays to alter the subject: • Augmentation = durations of note values are longer • Diminution = durations of note values are shorter • Inversion = subject’s melodic intervals move in opposite direction (same intervals); “upside down” • Retrograde = subject’s melody is presented “backwards” • Retrograde Inversion = backwards and upside down
Johann Sebastian Bach died in1750, which also marked the end of the BAROQUE ERA
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