Respiratory system


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Respiratory system

  1. 1. Respiratory System Passages filter air and transport it from outside body to lungs. Microscopic air sacs are sites for gas exchange
  2. 2. Respiration <ul><li>1.    Pulmonary ventilation – movement of air in and out of lungs </li></ul><ul><li>2.    Exchange of gases between air in lungs and blood </li></ul><ul><li>3.    Transport of gases by blood between lungs and body cells </li></ul><ul><li>4.    Exchange of gases between blood and body cells </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cellular respiration <ul><li>Aerobic - utilization of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by the cells while forming ATP </li></ul>
  4. 4. Organs of respiratory system <ul><li>Nose – bone & cartilage, 2 nostrils (nares), internal hairs to filter large particles </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal cavity – hollow space behind nose; lined with a mucous membrane that filters, warms and moistens incoming air. Particles trapped in mucus are carried to the pharynx by cilia and swallowed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal septum – divides nasal cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal conchae – curls of bone that increase surface area, support mucous membrane </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Sinuses – spaces within the bones of the skull that open into nasal cavity; lined with mucous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx – (throat) behind oral cavity and between nasal cavity and larynx. Passageway for air. Aids in producing speech. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasopharynx – superior portion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oropharynx – middle portion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laryngopharynx – inferior portion </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Larynx – contains vocal cords which produce sound by vibrating when air passes over them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glottis – triangular opening in between vocal cords. Can close to prevent food from entering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiglottis – cartilage flap that covers glottis opening during swallowing </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Trachea – (windpipe) tube in the front of the neck; extends into thoracic cavity where it branches into left and right bronchi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held open by cartilage rings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner wall is lined with ciliated mucous membrane. Filters air and moves trapped particles upward to pharynx to be swallowed </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Bronchial Tree – branched airways leading from trachea to alveoli in lungs. Get progressively smaller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary bronchi – cartilage in walls similar to trachea; right and left divide into </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary bronchi – continue to divide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchioles – no more cartilage, smooth muscle instead; lead to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar ducts – no muscle; lead to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar sacs – made of clusters of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alveoli – microscopic air sacs surrounded by capillaries where gas exchange with blood takes place </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Lungs <ul><li>soft, spongy, right lung has 3 lobes, left lung has 2 lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Occupy the pleural cavities </li></ul><ul><li>Made of elastic tissue that stretches and recoils as we breathe </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues must be moist to allow gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Surfactants – keep alveolar surfaces from sticking together </li></ul>
  10. 10. Breathing mechanism - ventilation <ul><li>Inspiration – (inhalation) dome shaped diaphragm muscle contracts which decreases air pressure inside the lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air moves into the lungs because outside pressure is higher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External intercostal muscles can also raise the ribs which further decreases internal pressure </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Expiration (exhalation) <ul><li>Diaphragm relaxes returning to its dome shape </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic recoil of lung tissue forces air out </li></ul><ul><li>Internal intercostal muscles which pull ribs down and abdominal muscles which push up on the diaphragm can contract to exhale more forcefully </li></ul>
  12. 12. Air volume <ul><li>Tidal volume – the amount of air that enters and leaves during a respiration cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Residual volume – air that remains in the lungs even after exhaling the maximum amount </li></ul><ul><li>Vital capacity – the maximum amount a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible </li></ul>
  13. 13. Respiratory center <ul><li>Located in medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to the concentration of carbon dioxide, causes the urge to breathe </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperventilation – breathing fast and deep, can let you hold your breath longer, but may make you pass out. Don’t do it while swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoxia – low oxygen levels reaching tissues </li></ul>