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Respiratory system

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  • 1. Respiratory System Passages filter air and transport it from outside body to lungs. Microscopic air sacs are sites for gas exchange
  • 2. Respiration
    • 1.    Pulmonary ventilation – movement of air in and out of lungs
    • 2.    Exchange of gases between air in lungs and blood
    • 3.    Transport of gases by blood between lungs and body cells
    • 4.    Exchange of gases between blood and body cells
  • 3. Cellular respiration
    • Aerobic - utilization of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by the cells while forming ATP
  • 4. Organs of respiratory system
    • Nose – bone & cartilage, 2 nostrils (nares), internal hairs to filter large particles
    • Nasal cavity – hollow space behind nose; lined with a mucous membrane that filters, warms and moistens incoming air. Particles trapped in mucus are carried to the pharynx by cilia and swallowed
      • Nasal septum – divides nasal cavity
      • Nasal conchae – curls of bone that increase surface area, support mucous membrane
  • 5.
    • Sinuses – spaces within the bones of the skull that open into nasal cavity; lined with mucous membrane
    • Pharynx – (throat) behind oral cavity and between nasal cavity and larynx. Passageway for air. Aids in producing speech.
      • Nasopharynx – superior portion
      • Oropharynx – middle portion
      • Laryngopharynx – inferior portion
  • 6.
    • Larynx – contains vocal cords which produce sound by vibrating when air passes over them
      • Glottis – triangular opening in between vocal cords. Can close to prevent food from entering
      • Epiglottis – cartilage flap that covers glottis opening during swallowing
  • 7.
    • Trachea – (windpipe) tube in the front of the neck; extends into thoracic cavity where it branches into left and right bronchi
      • Held open by cartilage rings.
      • Inner wall is lined with ciliated mucous membrane. Filters air and moves trapped particles upward to pharynx to be swallowed
  • 8.
    • Bronchial Tree – branched airways leading from trachea to alveoli in lungs. Get progressively smaller
      • Primary bronchi – cartilage in walls similar to trachea; right and left divide into
      • Secondary bronchi – continue to divide
      • Bronchioles – no more cartilage, smooth muscle instead; lead to
      • Alveolar ducts – no muscle; lead to
      • Alveolar sacs – made of clusters of
      • Alveoli – microscopic air sacs surrounded by capillaries where gas exchange with blood takes place
  • 9. Lungs
    • soft, spongy, right lung has 3 lobes, left lung has 2 lobes
    • Occupy the pleural cavities
    • Made of elastic tissue that stretches and recoils as we breathe
    • Tissues must be moist to allow gas exchange
    • Surfactants – keep alveolar surfaces from sticking together
  • 10. Breathing mechanism - ventilation
    • Inspiration – (inhalation) dome shaped diaphragm muscle contracts which decreases air pressure inside the lungs
      • Air moves into the lungs because outside pressure is higher
      • External intercostal muscles can also raise the ribs which further decreases internal pressure
  • 11. Expiration (exhalation)
    • Diaphragm relaxes returning to its dome shape
    • Elastic recoil of lung tissue forces air out
    • Internal intercostal muscles which pull ribs down and abdominal muscles which push up on the diaphragm can contract to exhale more forcefully
  • 12. Air volume
    • Tidal volume – the amount of air that enters and leaves during a respiration cycle
    • Residual volume – air that remains in the lungs even after exhaling the maximum amount
    • Vital capacity – the maximum amount a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible
  • 13. Respiratory center
    • Located in medulla oblongata
    • Sensitive to the concentration of carbon dioxide, causes the urge to breathe
    • Hyperventilation – breathing fast and deep, can let you hold your breath longer, but may make you pass out. Don’t do it while swimming.
    • Hypoxia – low oxygen levels reaching tissues