Presentation title I would like to begin my presentation with a brief overview on the adverse effects of climate change on the African continent before highlighting how adverse effects of climate change need to be addressed through education, technology and increased collaboration. At the end of my presentation I will draw conclusions and suggest specific actions to address climate change mitigation and adaptation in Africa
Presentation title Climate change is already a reality on the African continent. There are prolonged and intensified droughts in eastern Africa; unprecedented floods in western Africa; depletion of rain forests in equatorial Africa; and an increase in ocean acidity around Africa’s southern coast. These effects endanger the lives and livelihoods of millions of Africans and also hinder the continent’s economic growth and social progress. Agricultural production, food, water and energy security is threatened by altered weather patterns and climate extremes. As the poorest continent, Africa is susceptible to climate change due to its difficulties in coping with consequences of climate extremes. In this context I would like to draw your attention to the importance of climate change science, education and technology in Africa and the need for increased collaboration to cope with adverse effects of climate change.
Presentation title The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts more floods, intense storms, heat waves and droughts if emissions continue to rise. Climate change will have disastrous consequences on the ecosystem services that are essential for our very survival. Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change and climate variability, a situation aggravated by the interaction of ‘multiple stresses’, occurring at various levels, and low adaptive capacity
Presentation title Climate change and variability are likely to impose additional pressures on water availability, water accessibility and water demand in Africa. Even without climate change, several countries in Africa, particularly in northern Africa, will exceed the limits of their economically usable land-based water resources before 2025. About 25% of Africa’s population (about 200 million people) currently experience high water stress.
Presentation title A number of countries in Africa already face semi-arid conditions that make agriculture challenging, and climate change will be likely to reduce the length of growing season as well as force large regions of marginal agriculture out of production. Projected reductions in yield in some countries could be as much as 50% by 2020, and crop net revenues could fall by as much as 90% by 2100, with small-scale farmers being the most affected. This would adversely affect food security in the continent.
Presentation title Climate change, interacting with human drivers such as deforestation and forest fires, are a threat to Africa’s forest ecosystems. Changes in grasslands and marine ecosystems are also noticeable. It is estimated that, by the 2080s, the proportion of arid and semi-arid lands in Africa is likely to increase by 5-8%. Climate change impacts on Africa’s ecosystems will probably have a negative effect on tourism as, according to one study, between 25 and 40% of mammal species in national parks in sub-Saharan Africa will become endangered.
Presentation title It is likely that climate change will alter the ecology of some disease vectors in Africa, and consequently the spatial and temporal transmission of such diseases. Most assessments of health have concentrated on malaria and there are still debates on the attribution of malaria resurgence in some African areas. The need exists to examine the vulnerabilities and impacts of future climate change on other infectious diseases such as dengue fever, meningitis and cholera, among others.
Presentation title Education is key to tackling climate change at its root cause and to win public support for climate change policies and actions. In their national communications to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, many African countries have reported that climate change has been included in the curricular at primary, secondary and higher education levels. In addition climate change issues are increasingly addressed through informal education by non-governmental and community-based organizations in many African countries.
Presentation title While it is important to teach science to foster an understanding of climate change and its adverse effects, it is equally important to focus climate change education on social aspects, ethics and skills that prepare individuals to adapt. key role in promoting behavioural change to embark on a low-carbon development path Furthermore education plays a. Given the strong economic growth in a number of African countries it becomes increasingly important to promote sustainable economic development.
Presentation title As a case study for climate change education in Africa I would like to present the case of Tanzania. Within the last years Tanzania has undertaken major efforts to incorporate climate change issues in the national curricula and ensure that climate change education is included on all educational levels. Furthermore the government has organized targeted training for teachers and developed a variety of educational tools to support education on climate change at primary, secondary and university level. In addition a number of non-governmental and community-based organizations are supporting informal education on climate change through the organization of events, films, debates, essay writing competitions in schools and the production of information materials that illustrate the impacts of climate change and engage the public in tackling climate change through initiatives in their communities and beyond.
Presentation title Technology can be a powerful solution for simultaneously addressing climate change and advancing development. The UNFCCC secretariat supports developing countries to assess their technology needs to identify, evaluate and prioritize technological means for both mitigation and adaptation, in order to achieve a sustainable development. According to the UNFCCC secretariat many African countries have a strong need for the development of institutional and human capacity. With regard to climate change mitigation action, countries identified technology needs in the energy, forestry, waste management sector. To support adaptation measures there is a particular need for technology in the agricultural sector and for water management.
Presentation title This diagram illustrates the priority area for technology needs of African countries
Presentation title In order to address climate change in Africa it is important to increase collaboration at the national, sub-national and local levels. At a regional workshop on climate change education, training and public awareness in Africa a number of case studies were presented that showcased that that effective education on climate change needs to involve faith and community-based organizations. At the same workshop the importance of climate change observation and research networks was highlighted. It is important that more attention is given to these areas in future.
Presentation title In addition to formal education at schools and universities it is important to support informal education activities by non-governmental organizations in order to ensure a broad dissemination of knowledge on climate change. Technology transfer is a crucial component for African countries to effectively mitigate and adapt to climate change. In order to strengthen support to education, science and technology, collaboration with regional bodies, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations as well as with the private sector need to be improved.
Unesco addressing climate change in Africa
United Republic of Tanzania Addressing Climate Change in Africa The Need for Increased Collaboration and an Enhanced Role of Education, Science and Technology Paper Presented at the UNESCO Africa Week, Paris. 23 May, 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi, Vice President’s Office UNFCCC SBSTA Chair23 May 2012
Outline Introduction Climate change science Education on climate change Technology Increased collaboration Conclusions23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
Introduction: Africa; A promising continent Africa has the source of many drivers of economic growth: Abundant natural resources, a large land mass, and a growing youthful population which means an increase in labor force and consumption market. Thus, World Bank forecast: growth rate of GDP of sub-Saharan Africa to be 5.3 percent for 2012 and 5.6 percent for 2013, higher than the 4.9 percent for 2011. The IMF put its estimated growth rate for the region at 5.5 percent for 2012. IMF Report: In the last decade, six out of 10 fastest growing economies were from Africa; the number is expected to rise to 7 ind Muyungi three years to 2015 23 May 2012 the
However, a continent faced with Real Climate Change Challenges Particularly Extreme weather events and sea level rise. Call for increased collaboration amongst nations and states and enhanced role of education, science and technology development and sharing to be able to adapt but also to take up opportunity arising from global mitigation under UNFCCC23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
Introduction African countries are among the most vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change Least to tap on opportunities arising from Climate Change mitigation23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
Climate Change Science: Emission are seriously impacting the continent 1. Water 2. Agriculture 3. Ecosystems 4. Health Source: IPCC23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
On Water Climate change will aggravate water stress across the African continent About 25% of Africa’s population (about 200 million people) currently experience high water stress.23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
On Agriculture Agricultural production and food security are likely to be severely compromised by climate change and climate variability Projected reductions in yield in some countries could be as much as 50% by 2020, and crop net revenues could fall by as much as 90% by 2100. 23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
On Culture and EcosystemsChanges in a variety ofecosystems are already beingdetected, particularly insouthern African ecosystems,at a faster rate thananticipatedIt is estimated that, by the2080s, the proportion of aridand semi-arid lands in Africa islikely to increase by 5-8% andbetween 25 and 40% ofmammal species in nationalparks in sub-Saharan Africa will 23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
On Health and Education Human health, already compromised by a range of factors, could be further negatively impacted by climate change and climate variability, e.g., malaria in southern Africa and the East African highlands. Highly impacting education23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
Some Efforts: Understanding our vulnerability. Tanzania case studyAverage temp. 1985 - 1994 12
At least there has been an average increase of about 0.2 degrees Celsius over the last 30years Average temp. 1995 - 2004 13
Some Efforts: Education on Climate Change Climate change issues are increasingly included in primary, secondary and higher education across Africa Informal education by non-governmental and community-based organizations plays an important role23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
Education on Climate Change Importance of teaching science, social aspects, culture, ethics and skills that prepare to adapt to climate change Promote behavioural change in support of a sustainable economic development, including embarking on a low-carbon development path23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
Example: Climate Change Education in Tanzania Efforts to formalize and incorporate climate change in the national curricula at all educational levels, consistent with EMA, 2005 Trainings and educational tools for teachers Informal education through non- governmental and community- based organizations23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
Technology needs in Africa Renewable energy technologies Forestry Waste and water management Agriculture, improved productivity23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
23 May 2012 Per cent of Parties 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Forestry 100 Water and land management Agriculture & forestry - 100% Crop management RET Fossil energy supply Source: UNFCCC CHP (cogeneration) countries Miscellaneous Generation - 93.1% Nuclear power plant Energy-efficient appliances Miscellaneous DSM Energy - 93.1% of Parties Green buildings - materials & design District heating Miscellaneous Transmission - 69% Waste management Waste management - 82.2% Fuel switchingMr. Richard Muyungi Industrial energy-efficiency Cement production Other High-efficiency motors Mining Furnaces Industry - 82.8% Boilers Steel industry Miscellaneous industries Aluminium industry Bread-making industry Facilities Management & policy improvements Vehicles Public transport Transport - 79.3% Technology needs identified by African Freight
Examples of the education, training and awareness- raising collaborative actions reported by Nairobi work programme partner organizations in Africa A. Enhancing the A.2 P r o m o t in g t h e U n l o c k in g Af r ic a ’s c l im a t e Sah ara an d Sah el assessment and u n d e r s t a n d in g a n d a w a r e n e s s s c ie n c e : U n d e r s t a n d in g O b s e r v a t o r y (O b s e r v a t o ir e d u understanding o f im p a c t s a n d v u l n e r a b il it y t o t h e f in d in g s o f t h e F o u r t h Sah ara of impacts and c l im a t e c h a n g e As s e s s m e n t R e p o r t o f t h e e t d u S a h e l )(O S S ) vulnerability to In t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l P a n e l o n climate change C l im a t e C h a n g e (IP C C AR 4 ) B. Improving the B .1 P r o m o t in g t h e Af r ic a n r e g io n a l ‘t r a in in g o f W e t l a n d s In t e r n a t io n a l ability to make d e v e l o p m e n t , d is s e m in a t io n t r a in e r s ’ c o u r s e o n informed decisions a n d a p p l ic a t io n o f m e t h o d s ecosystema nd on adaptation an d to o ls c o m m u n it y -b a s e d a d a p t a t io n planning, measures and actions B .2 F a c il it a t in g c o m m u n ic a t io n , R a is in g a w a r e n e s s in Af r ic a In t e r n a t io n a l U n io n o f F o r e s t d ia l o g u e a n d t h r o u g h a r e g io n a l p o l ic y b r ie f R e s e a r c h O r g a n iz a t io n s c o o p e r a t io n a m o n g d if f e r e n t e n t it l e d M a k in g Af r ic a n (IU F R O ) s tak eh o ld ers F o r e s t s F it f o r C l im a t e C h a n g e B .3 E n h a n c in g a d a p t iv e Af r ic a n C l im a t e C h a n g e S T AR T c a p a c it y t h r o u g h F e l l o w s h ip P r o g r a m . Cur ent 4 fell s fr 18A ica r ly, 5 ow om fr n t e c h n ic a l a n d in s t it u t io n a l count ies ae w kingon v r pr ects suppored r r or aious oj t c a p a c it y -b u il d in g byt fel ship pr a he low ogr mme23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
Conclusion: Increased collaboration in Science and Technology Through Climate Technology Centers and Networks provides unique opportunity for Africa Cooperation with climate service providers and systematic observation systems for better early warning.23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
Conclusions: Enhanced Education and technology development and transfer Ensure inclusion of climate change issues in curricula at all educational levels and support informal education activities by non-governmental and community-based organizations Cooperation in Technological areas with adaptation and mitigation benefits e.g clean coal production and use; renewable, improving productivity, efficiency and sustainability. Promoting transfer of technology to enable adaptation and Nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) with co benefits Collaborate with regional bodies, civil society and the private sector Education ant technology be linked to early warning and systematic observation.23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi
More important: Enhance existing collaboration on the role of Education, Science and Technology in Africa amidst the changing climate UNESCO UNESCO developed a grassroots observatory of climate change impacts using indigenous Knowledge. The assessment process for many NAPAs in Africa was based on local knowledge and traditional coping strategies as well as scientific assessment and research to identify UNFCCC AFRICA priority adaptation projects.23 May 2012 Mr. Richard Muyungi This will remain important in the preparation of NAPs
Thank you for your attention! Mr. Richard Muyungi23 May 2012