Reshaping the Nation


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PowerPoint to Cover Chapter 8 of "The Americans." Includes information on the 2nd Great Awakening, Reform movements, temperance, slavery, and abolition

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Reshaping the Nation

  1. 1.     stared in 1790 emphasized individual responsibility to seek salvation, said people could improve themselves and society rejected old Calvinist that God predetermined who would be saved/not saved power of the common citizen
  2. 2.       Charles Grandison Finney – “father of modern revivalism” emotional meetings designed to awaken religious faith through impassioned preaching and prayer last 4-5 days studied Bible, heard preaching most intensive ones in western New York where religious fires burned increased church membership
  3. 3.    strong sense that all people belonged to the same God South-slaves could attend but sat in different pews; many saw the sermons as a promise of freedom for their people free blacks in the East would worship in their own churches and the message was for faith and freedom
  4. 4.     Richard Allen started the Church it was a place where they could do things denied to them by whites such as read and attend school it would hold its first convention in 1830 where they would discuss free African American settlement and place fugitive slaves in Canada it would become an annual convention and supported the opposition to slavery
  5. 5.    philosophical and literary movement that emphasized living a simple life and celebrated the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination rejected all secular authority and the authority of organized churches and the Scriptures, of law, or of conventions Ralph Waldo Emerson took the lead
  6. 6.  Henry David Thoreau  writer that decided to live in solitude for 2 years;  believed in civil disobedience or peaceful refusal to obey laws that were considered unjust
  7. 7.  Give freedom to the slave.  Give well-being to the poor and the miserable.  Give learning to the ignorant.  Give health to the sick.  Give peace and justice to society.
  8. 8.     emphasis on reason and appeal to conscience as the path to perfection instead of emotions like revivals attracted the wealthy prominent leader was William Ellery Channing agreed with revivalists that social reforms were important and possible
  9. 9. experimental groups who tried to create a “utopia” or perfect place  best known ones were New Harmony in Indiana and Brook Farm near Boston  most only lasted a few years 
  10. 10.      followed teachings of Ann Lee in New York and New England and frontier shared goods with each other believed that men and women were equal and refused to fight did not marry or have children; adopted children
  11. 11.   Alexis de Tocqueville visited the United States to view its prisons and study them his findings showed little rights in the prison system
  12. 12.    Dorothea Dix fought to have the mentally ill removed from prisons she emphasized rehabilitation that might reform the sick she also wanted those imprisoned to receive rehabilitation so they might return to a useful position in society
  13. 13.      no uniform education and conditions varied across the country tax supported schools requested in the 1830’s Horace Mann called for reform in Massachusetts he called for teacher training and a curriculum education in the South and West took longer to establish
  14. 14.   By the 1820’s antislavery societies were pushing for African Americans to resettle in Africa saying they were an inferior race and could not coexist in a white society but many African Americans considered America their home Increasing support by whites for abolition, or outlaw of slavery – very popular by Charles Finney as he called it “a great national sin”
  15. 15.       radical white abolitionist who wrote about it in his newspaper, The Liberator he believed in immediate emancipation, or freeing of slaves, with no payment to slaveholders he founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society in 1832 he had many black supporters whites that opposed abolition hated him, and those that supported abolition did not like how he attacked the church and government for their response to slavery LwI
  16. 16.   a free black that Garrison befriended and supported advised African Americans to fight for freedom and not to wait for slave owners to end slavery
  17. 17. born into slavery and the wife of his master taught him how to read until her husband made her stop  he worked as a ship caulker in Baltimore but could not keep his wages  borrowed the identity of a free black sailor to go to New York  he read Garrison’s, The Liberator, and was a guest lecturer for Garrison  the two broke ties as Douglass hoped abolition could be achieved through political means  Douglass started his newspaper, The North Star, which guided runaway slaves to freedom  
  18. 18. Rural slavery  worked on large plantations or small farms with their owners  worked from dawn to dusk in fields  the owner or slave driver forced them to work faster
  19. 19. Urban slavery  there was a shortage of white laborers in the area of skilled labor so enslaved blacks could hire themselves out as artisans in Southern cities  slave owners could hire out their slaves for factories and collected the pay for their work  more privileges were given to urban slaves
  20. 20.       a slave in Virginia he was a preacher and believed he had been chosen to lead his people out of slavery in 1831 with 80 followers he attacked four plantations and killed 60 whites before being captured where he was eventually hanged in retaliation whites killed 200+ blacks many of whom had nothing to do with the rebellion it empowered white slave owners to defend slavery and keep power over their slaves
  21. 21.  New laws from revolt would result in the South that placed greater restrictions/slave codes on blacks         free blacks could not vote own guns purchase alcohol assemble in public testify in court own property learn to read and write work independently as artisans
  22. 22.    used Bible to defend slavery citing passages about servants obeying their masters ministers eventually agreed that slavery and Christianity could co-exist in the South even though prior to 1830 many preached against it slave owners created a myth about the happy slave that was cared for by their owner until their death in comparison to the free black in the North that made few wages and could be fired by the factory owner
  23. 23.    abolitionists began to swamp Congress with petitions to end slavery the Southern Congressmen were able to pass a gag rule that banned the petitions from being heard it was repealed in 1844
  24. 24.     tradition known as the cult of domesticity where housework and child care were considered the only proper activities for married women some women worked for a few years before their marriage but they were paid half that of a man women could not vote or sit on juries even if they paid taxes any wealth a woman had would become her husband’s upon marriage and she had no guardianship over her children
  25. 25.      Sarah and Angelina Grimke: the Second Great Awakening inspired women to be optimistic about their positions in society daughters of slaveholder in South Carolina they spoke against slavery and published An Appeal to Christian Women in the South to overthrow slavery women abolitionists raised money, distributed literature and collected petitions to be sent to Congress Garrison joined the women but many men denounced their behavior
  26. 26.     Temperance movement: an effort to prohibit the drinking of alcohol was a result of the Church and women’s rights movement alcohol was used widely by men and used in medicine drunkenness was a serious problem in America and some preachers started lecturing against its use a decline in the consumption of alcohol would continue until the 1860s
  27. 27.  until the 1820’s there were few educational opportunities for girls; the Grimke sisters ran a school for girls and complained about the equality of education for girls  1821 Emma Willard opened an all girl school in Troy, New York  1837 Mary Lyon opened a higher learning institution for women called the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in Massachusetts  Ohio’s Oberlin College in 1837 admitted four girls into its degree program  African-American women faced greater education challenges and attempts for their schools failed; after the Civil War education for African-American women would progress but very slowly
  28. 28. Elizabeth Blackwell was the first woman to graduate with a medical degree in 1849 she opened an infirmary for children and women  in the 1850’s Catharine Beecher did a study of women’s health and found for every healthy woman there were three sick (women of the day bathed rarely or exercised and wore corsets)  Amelia Bloomer started wearing loose pants tied at the ankles covered by a short skirt which would be called “bloomers” 
  29. 29.  Seneca Falls Convention (1848)  by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia     Mott Discussed grievances that women had struggled with Wrote the Declaration of Sentiments which was modeled after the Declaration of Independence 300 people gathered and passed resolutions that encouraged women to participate in all public issues on an equal basis with men there was some controversy over the right to vote which was also passed
  30. 30.  Sojourner Truth  a slave that obtained freedom that preached for women’s rights and abolition  she said that hard work was a central fact of life for most women