Church in the Middle Ages


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PowerPoint about a few key figures regarding the growth of power and influence of Christianity in Europe. Also some basic information about the Crusades.

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Church in the Middle Ages

  1. 1. CHURCH IN THE MIDDLE AGES Important People &The Crusades
  2. 2. Clovis Event  in 496, converted to Christianity after a military victory  by 511, united all the Franks into one kingdom Result  United a large and powerfulGerman kingdom with the Church.
  3. 3. Benedict Event  around 530, developed a strict, new set of rules for monasteries Result  Benedict’s rules became a model for many other religious communities in western Europe
  4. 4. Pope Gregory I Event  Sent St. Augustine to Britain to convert the Anglo-Saxons Result  Christianity spreads to Britain  Later missions from Britain to Europe will ChristianizeGermanic people
  5. 5. Charles Martel Event  In 732, defeated a Muslim raiding party at the Battle ofTours Result  Europe remains largely Christian and Muslims will not invade Europe again
  6. 6. Charlemagne Event  in 800, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III Result  Most of western Europe was under the rule of an entirely Christian government united with the pope
  7. 7. Otto I (Holy Roman Emperor) Event  beginning in 936, formed a tight alliance with the Church by gaining the support of the bishops and began to dominate the Church in Germany Result  Germany and the Church began to fall under the rule of a single German king
  8. 8. Pope Gregory VII Events  in 1075, banned lay investiture  in 1076, excommunicated German emperor Henry IV Result  Henry IV apologized to Pope GregoryVII thus taking power away from German emperors.  Europe will begin to come under the control of the papacy
  9. 9. Pope Gregory VII lay investiture: appointment of bishops by anyone who is not a member of the clergy excommunication: Banishment from the Catholic Church, the individual cannot receive their sacraments (sacred rites) and will not be admitted into heaven papacy: anything having to do with the pope or the office of the pope
  10. 10. Pope Urban II Event  in 1093, called for a Crusade against the Muslim in the “holy land” Result  Knights across western Europe united to defend Christendom from Muslims
  11. 11. Frederick I (Barbarossa) Events  in 1176, lost the Battle of Legnano and made peace with the pope Result  The power of the pope continued to grow while the monarch’s power waned (decreased)
  12. 12. The Crusades
  13. 13. Reasons for the Crusades  Muslims control the “Holy Land”  Byzantine Emperor asks pope for help against Muslims  Pope and kings see Crusades as a way of eliminating troublesome knights  Knights see this as an opportunity to gain land, riches, and adventure  Italian cities desire commercial power
  14. 14. 1st Crusade Events  Crusaders capture Jerusalem  Crusaders captured a 400 mile narrow strip of land stretching from Edessa to Jerusalem  Four feudal Crusader states were set up, each ruled by a European noble Effects  Crusaders gain wealth through trade  Constant conflict between Crusaders andTurks
  15. 15. 2nd Crusade Events  Crusaders organized to recapture Edessa  Crusaders suffer a terrible defeat Effects  Jerusalem falls to Muslims in 1187
  16. 16. 3rd Crusade Events  Richard the Lionhearted (last of three kings to undertake this adventure) fights the armies of Saladin  Neither side wins a victory Effects  A truce is signed  Jerusalem will remain in Muslim control  Unarmed Christian pilgrims may visit Jerusalem
  17. 17. 4th Crusade Events  Pope Innocent III called for another Crusade to recapture Jerusalem  Disagreements between the western and eastern Churches result in Crusaders looting the city of Constantinople Effects  The rift between the eastern and western Church grows wider and permanent
  18. 18. Children’s Crusade Events  Thousands of children set out for the “Holy Land”.  The children were armed with only their faith and the belief that God would turn Jerusalem over to them. Effects  Many children died on their way due to the cold or starvation.  One group turned back.  The rest drowned at sea or were sold into slavery.
  19. 19. Reconquista (Spanish Crusade) Events  This was a long effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain.  In 1492, the last Muslim stronghold in Spain fell to Spanish armies.  Ferdinand and Isabella used the Inquisition to eliminate any heretics. Effects  Spain becomes an entirely Christian kingdom.  Muslim kingdoms are entirely eliminated from Europe.
  20. 20. Outcomes  Byzantine Empire is weakened  Pope’s power declines  Power of feudal nobles weakens  Kings become stronger  Religious intolerance grows  Italian cities expand trade and grow rich  Trade grow between Europe and Middle East  European technology improves as Crusaders learn from Muslims