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Urinary system


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A look at the Urinary System

A look at the Urinary System

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  • 1. Urinary System Chapter 9
  • 2. Genitourinary (GU) System
    • Serves as the urinary organ system
    • Metabolic processes result in waste production - the GU serves as one of the hardest working systems
    • Functions
      • Removal of waste products
      • Adjust water and electrolyte levels
      • Maintains pH
  • 3. Genitourinary (GU) System: Organs
    • Kidney
    • Ureters
    • Urethra
    • Urinary bladder
  • 4. Catheterization (cath)
    • Urinary catheter is inserted into patient’s bladder via urethra
    • Maintains urine output for patients
    • Used for treatment or diagnosis
      • Urinary incontinence (leakage of urine or the inability to control when you urinate)
      • Urinary retention (being unable to empty the bladder when you need to)
      • Surgery that made a catheter necessary, such as prostate or gynecological surgery
      • Other medical conditions such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or dementia
  • 5. Catheterization: Types
    • Indwelling
      • Catheter with a small inflated balloon on the end to keep from sliding out
      • Left in the bladder for short or long periods
      • Inserted through urethra or into your bladder via belly button
    • Condom
      • Used in male dementia patients
      • Not inserted but placed over penis.
    • Intermittent
      • Used for short term periods
  • 6. Catheterization: Risks
    • Bladder stones
    • Blood infections
    • Blood in urine
    • Kidney damage
    • Urethral injury
    • Urinary tract (UTI) or kidney infections
  • 7. Cystoscopy (cysto)
    • Diagnostic procedure that uses a cystoscope to view the inside of the urinary tract
    • Areas viewed include urethra, bladder and the two ureters
    • Detects abnormalities or as surgical procedure
      • Evaluation of blood in the urine
      • Evaluation and treatment of kidney stones
      • Evaluation and treatment of bladder or ureteral tumors
      • Prostate surgery
      • Narrowing of urethral
  • 8. Cystoscopy: Risks
    • Serious risks are rare
    • Perforation or tear along urinary tract
      • Urethra, bladder or ureter
    • Scar tissue development causing narrowing of the urethra
    • Epididymitis
      • Only occurs in men
      • Inflammation or pain in the testicles
    • Inability to urinate
  • 9. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
    • Therapeutic procedure for kidney stones
    • High- energy shock waves are used to break kidney stones into smaller pieces for easier travel
    • On stones larger than 2.5cm a stent may be used
    • Kidney stone fragments will pass through the urinary tract over the course of a few days
    • Not appropriate procedure if pregnant, have bleeding disorder, kidney infection, urinary tract infection, or kidney cancer
  • 10. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL): Risks
    • Pain caused by the passage of stone fragments
    • Blocked urine flow as a result of stone fragments becoming stuck in the urinary tract
      • Fragments may need to be removed with a ureteroscope
    • Urinary tract infection
    • Bleeding around the outside of the kidney
  • 11. Retrograde pyelogram (RP)
    • Diagnostic X-ray procedure used with a cystoscopy to determine presence of kidney stones, tumors, or obstructions
    • Endoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder
    • Catheter is inserted into the ureters where a contrast dye is injected
    • Retention of the dye is evaluated
  • 12. References
    • Medical Terminology: A living language, Bonnie F. Fregman and Suzanne S. Frucht