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Endocrine System

Endocrine System

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  • 1. Endocrine System Chapter 11
  • 2. Endocrine
    • Endo- means within, inner; -crine means to secrete
    • Glandular system that secretes directly into the bloodstream
    • Regulates many body activities such as metabolic rate, water and mineral balance, immune system reactions and sexual functioning
  • 3. Organs
    • Adrenal glands
    • Ovaries
    • Pancreas
    • Parathyroid glands
    • Pineal gland
    • Pituitary gland
    • Testes
    • Thymus gland
    • Thyroid gland
  • 4. Adrenal Glands
    • A pair of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
    • Each gland can be divided into two distinct organs:
      • The outer region secretes hormones which have important effects on the way in which energy is stored and food is used and on characteristics such as hairiness and body shape
      • The smaller, inner region is part of the sympathetic nervous system and is the body's first line of defense and response to physical and emotional stresses
  • 5. Ovaries
    • A pair of oval or almond-shaped glands which lie on either side of the uterus and just below the opening to the fallopian tubes
    • Produce eggs or "ova"
    • Produce female sex hormones called estrogen and progesterone
  • 6. Pancreas
    • A long, tapered gland which lies across and behind the stomach
    • The right-hand end which is the broadest part of it, lies within the curve of the duodenum
    • This gland secretes digestive juices which break down fats, carbohydrates, proteins and acids; it also secretes bicarbonate, which neutralizes stomach acid as it enters the duodenum
    • Some cells in the pancreas secrete hormones which regulate the level of glucose in the blood
  • 7. Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
    • The thyroid gland controls the rate at which the body produces energy from nutrients.
      • The thyroid gland secretes hormones which regulate energy
      • Emotional balance may rely upon its normal functioning
    • The parathyroid glands are four small oval bodies located on either side of the thyroid gland.
      • Control the level of calcium in the blood
  • 8. Pineal gland
    • A gland that produces a hormone called melatonin
      • 24 hour clock that regulates periods of wakefulness and sleepiness
  • 9. Pituitary Gland
    • Link between the nervous system and the endocrine system and releases many hormones which affect growth, sexual development, metabolism and the system of reproduction
    • The pituitary gland has two distinct parts which releases different hormones which affect bone growth and regulate activity in other glands
    • The "hypothalamus" is a tiny cluster of brain cells just above the pituitary gland, which transmits messages from the body to the brain
      • A needed link between the pituitary gland and the brain
      • A way station between the body and the brain and sorts out messages going to and from the brain
  • 10. Testes
    • Held in a sac called the scrotum
    • Produces as many as 12 trillion sperm in a male's lifetime, about 400 million of which are ejaculated in one average intercourse
    • The scrotum has a built-in thermostat, which keeps the sperm at the correct temperature; three to five degrees below body temperature
    • If it becomes too cool on the outside, the scrotum will contract to bring the testes closer the body for warmth
  • 11. Thymus gland
    • Located in the upper part of the chest, behind the breastbone
    • Made up of two lobes that join in front of the trachea. Each lobe is made of lymphoid tissue, consisting of tightly packed white blood cells and fat.
    • Its function is to transform lymphocytes into T-cells (cells developed in the thymus)
    • Cells are transported to various lymph glands
      • Swelling of lymph glands and fever are a signal that immune cells are multiplying to fight off invaders of the body: bacteria, fungi, viruses or parasites
  • 12. Hypercalcemia
    • A condition of excessive calcium in the blood
    • The main cause is over activity in one or more of the parathyroid glands, which regulate calcium
      • Post-menopausal women are most likely to develop hypercalcemia
      • Other causes of hypercalcemia include cancer, certain other medical disorders, some medications, and excessive use of calcium and vitamin D supplements
  • 13. Hypercalcemia: Symptoms
    • Signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia may range from nonexistent to severe:
      • Nausea and vomiting
      • Loss of appetite
      • Excessive thirst
      • Frequent urination
      • Constipation
      • Abdominal pain
      • Muscle weakness
      • Muscle and joint aches
      • Confusion
      • Lethargy and fatigue
  • 14. References
    • http://www.innerbody.com
    • Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht