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The Value of Distance Education: Burden or Blessing?
 

The Value of Distance Education: Burden or Blessing?

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Presentation at the Graduate Employment Conference: The Economic Value of Higher Education. Commonwealth Association of Universities, Auckland, 12th July, 2013.

Presentation at the Graduate Employment Conference: The Economic Value of Higher Education. Commonwealth Association of Universities, Auckland, 12th July, 2013.

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  • Moving on up: Ministry of Education
  • Moving on up: Ministry of Education
  • Massey over25 = 46%Auckland over 25 = 23%Otago over 25 = 19%
  • Moving on up: Ministry of Education
  • SmokingSmoking rates in the United States increased in the 1940s, leveled off at about 45% in the 1950s, and began a steady decline in the late 1960s. College graduates were at least as likely as others to smoke before the medical consensus on the dangers of smoking became clear.By 1970, when information was widespread and clear public warnings were mandatory, the smoking rate among college graduates had declined to 37%, while 44% of high school graduates smoked.Over the decade from 1998 to 2008, the smoking rate continued to decline rapidly for adults with at least some college experience, but more slowly for others. The percentage of four-year college graduates who smoked declined from 14% to 9%, while the rate for high school graduates declined from 29% to 27%.In 2008, only 6% of adults with advanced degrees smoked, and half of them reported trying to stop smoking in 2008.Among smokers with some college, an associate degree, or a bachelor’s degree, 46% to 48% of smokers tried to stop. Forty-one percent of high school graduates and 44% of adults with less than a high school diploma reported making this effort.
  • SmokingSmoking rates in the United States increased in the 1940s, leveled off at about 45% in the 1950s, and began a steady decline in the late 1960s. College graduates were at least as likely as others to smoke before the medical consensus on the dangers of smoking became clear.By 1970, when information was widespread and clear public warnings were mandatory, the smoking rate among college graduates had declined to 37%, while 44% of high school graduates smoked.Over the decade from 1998 to 2008, the smoking rate continued to decline rapidly for adults with at least some college experience, but more slowly for others. The percentage of four-year college graduates who smoked declined from 14% to 9%, while the rate for high school graduates declined from 29% to 27%.In 2008, only 6% of adults with advanced degrees smoked, and half of them reported trying to stop smoking in 2008.Among smokers with some college, an associate degree, or a bachelor’s degree, 46% to 48% of smokers tried to stop. Forty-one percent of high school graduates and 44% of adults with less than a high school diploma reported making this effort.
  • ObesityWhile the frequency of obesity is lower among adults with some college education than among high school graduates, for each age group the gap is largest between those with a bachelor’s degree and those with some college or an associate degree. Differences in obesity rates by education level persist through middle age but narrow considerably at older ages. For example, among 35- to 44-year-olds, 23% of four-year college graduates and 37% of high school graduates were obese in 2008. Among those 65 or older, 24% of four-year college graduates and 28% of high school graduates were obese.Within each household education level, obesity rates are higher for children ages 6 to 11 than for children ages 2 to 5. The frequency of obesity among the children from high school graduate households increases from 14% between the ages of 2 and 5 to 22% between the ages of 6 and 11. The frequency of obesity among the children from four-year college graduate households increases from 6% between the ages of 2 and 5 to 14% between the ages of 6 and 11.Within each education level, obesity rates are either about the same or slightly lower for children ages 12 to 19 than for children ages 6 to 11.
  • ObesityWhile the frequency of obesity is lower among adults with some college education than among high school graduates, for each age group the gap is largest between those with a bachelor’s degree and those with some college or an associate degree. Differences in obesity rates by education level persist through middle age but narrow considerably at older ages. For example, among 35- to 44-year-olds, 23% of four-year college graduates and 37% of high school graduates were obese in 2008. Among those 65 or older, 24% of four-year college graduates and 28% of high school graduates were obese.Within each household education level, obesity rates are higher for children ages 6 to 11 than for children ages 2 to 5. The frequency of obesity among the children from high school graduate households increases from 14% between the ages of 2 and 5 to 22% between the ages of 6 and 11. The frequency of obesity among the children from four-year college graduate households increases from 6% between the ages of 2 and 5 to 14% between the ages of 6 and 11.Within each education level, obesity rates are either about the same or slightly lower for children ages 12 to 19 than for children ages 6 to 11.
  • VotingIn the 2008 presidential election, the gap between the voting rates of individuals with at least a bachelor’s degree and those with a high school education was smallest among older voters. Among individuals ages 75 and older, there was an 11 percentage point gap between the voting rates of four-year college graduates and high school graduates. Among individuals ages 65 to 74, there was a 15 percentage point gap.In the 2008 presidential election, the gap between the voting rates of individuals with at least a bachelor’s degree and those with a high school education was largest among younger voters. Among individuals ages 25 to 44, there was a 32 percentage point gap between the voting rates of four-year college graduates and high school graduates. The voting rate gap for individuals ages 18 to 24 was 30 percentage points.The gap between the voting rates of individuals with some college or an associate degree and those with a high school education ranged from a 10 percentage point difference for those age 75 and over to a 19 percentage point gap for those ages 25 to 44, among whom 64% of those with some college or an associate degree and 45% of high school graduates voted.
  • • Access to the first year• Access to mid career professionals• Access to second chance learners• Access for cultural reasons
  • • Access to the first year• Access to mid career professionals• Access to second chance learners• Access for cultural reasons
  • • Access to the first year• Access to mid career professionals• Access to second chance learners• Access for cultural reasons

The Value of Distance Education: Burden or Blessing? The Value of Distance Education: Burden or Blessing? Presentation Transcript

  • The Value of Distance Education: Burden or Blessing? Professor Mark Brown Director, National Centre for Teaching and Learning Director, Distance Education and Learning Futures Alliance 12th July 2013
  • Outline… 1. Why this focus? 2. What are the key assumptions? 3. What do we know about distance education? 4. How can we better calculate the return on investment? - private - public 5. Why should digitally-mediated distance education be a matter of strategic priority?
  • 1. Why this focus?
  • 1. Why this focus? • Distance is the new normal • Increasingly demand for flexibility • Response to major societal changes • Shifting emphasis to life-long learning • Meeting growing international demand • Questions about the return on investment • Concerns based on performance indicators
  • 82% 66%
  • Note: 46% of Massey University students over 25
  • Major distance providers
  • Far better than the UK Open University…
  • 2. What are the key assumptions?
  • • Matters for individuals - private • Matters for regions and countries - public • Contributes to economic development • Provides significant societal benefits • Distance education is a subset of these benefits Higher education…. 2. What are the key assumptions?
  • Scott, 2010
  • Education Counts…
  • Education Counts…
  • New Zealand Education at a Glance…
  • New Zealand Education at a Glance…
  • New Zealand Education at a Glance…
  • New Zealand Education at a Glance…
  • Education at a Glance…
  • A third of GPD growth is related to labour income growth. New Zealand Education at a Glance…
  • - April, 2012
  • http://trends.collegeboard.org/education_pays In the US…
  • Smoking Rates Among Individuals Ages 25 and Older, by Education Level, 1940–2008 In the US…
  • Smoking Rates Among Individuals Ages 25 and Older, by Education Level, 1940–2008 Education at a Glance…
  • Obesity Rates Among Adults Ages 25 and Older, by Age and Education Level, 2008 In the US…
  • Obesity Rates Among Adults Ages 25 and Older, by Age and Education Level, 2008 Education at a Glance…
  • Volunteering Rates Among U.S. Citizens, by Age and Education Level, 2008 Higher Levels of Civic Engagement In the US…
  • In sum… “The evidence is overwhelming that higher education improves people’s lives, makes our economy more efficient, and contributes to a more equitable society. The existing gaps in participation and success are detrimental not only to individual lives, but also to society as a whole.
  • “The evidence is overwhelming that higher education improves people’s lives, makes our economy more efficient, and contributes to a more equitable society. The existing gaps in participation and success are detrimental not only to individual lives, but also to society as a whole. Different pathsare appropriate for different individuals, and our challenge is to make the most promising paths readily available to students from all backgrounds. We will all be better off if we continue to make progress in this direction” (Education Pays, 2010, p.9). In sum…
  • 3. What do we know about Distance Education?
  • 3. What do we know about Distance Education? In 2009… • 26.5% of all tertiary students studied by distance • distance students account for 14% of total tertiary EFTS
  • In 2009… • The university sector enrolled 25% of distance students (EFTS) • The ITP sector (mainly polytechnics) accounted for around 35% (EFTS)
  • In 2009… • The university sector enrolled 25% of distance students (EFTS) • The ITP sector (mainly polytechnics) accounted for around 35% (EFTS) • 15% of undergraduate degrees were being studied by distance students • 18% of postgraduate students (excluding doctorates) study by distance • Almost 80% of all distance students are over 25 years of age • Approximately two-thirds of distance students are female
  • • Distance learners are likely to study under conditions that are far less common among first year campus-based undergraduates. Poskitt, et. al. (2011) report…
  • • Distance learners are likely to study under conditions that are far less common among first year campus-based undergraduates. • Average commitment of 17.6 hours per week to paid employment, in contrast to 12.9 hours per week by campus- based students. Poskitt, et. al. (2011) report…
  • • Distance learners are likely to study under conditions that are far less common among first year campus-based undergraduates. • Average commitment of 17.6 hours per week to paid employment, in contrast to 12.9 hours per week by campus- based students. • Family circumstances, including the number and age of dependents, housing conditions and the pressures of responsibilities such as earning an income to support the family, can all have a significant impact on a distance learner’s decision to dropout. Poskitt, et. al. (2011) report…
  • AUSSE (2012) report…
  • What doesn’t appear in these data?
  • “Groups with similar characteristics to distance learners, such as part-time and older students, generally use student loans at lower rates and leave school with lower levels of indebtedness. More specific data on the indebtedness of distance students might be helpful, but seems unlikely to change this picture”. (2011)
  • Of those earning $100K+, 85% were distance students Graduate Destination Survey (2012)…
  • 4. How can we better calculate the ROI?
  • (Professor Christoph R. Schumacher, 2011) • In 2010, distance programmes offered by Massey University contributed a total of $470.9 million to the regional economies of New Zealand. 4. How can we better calculate the ROI?
  • (Professor Christoph R. Schumacher, 2011) • In 2010, distance programmes offered by Massey University contributed a total of $470.9 million to the regional economies of New Zealand. • After taking into account the direct, indirect and induced expenditure impacts, Massey University contributed $238.0 million worth of output focused on the Manawatu, Auckland and Wellington regions. 4. How can we better calculate the ROI?
  • • In 2010, distance programmes offered by Massey University contributed a total of $470.9 million to the regional economies of New Zealand. • After taking into account the direct, indirect and induced expenditure impacts, Massey University contributed $238.0 million worth of output focused on the Manawatu, Auckland and Wellington regions. • After taking into account the direct, indirect and induced expenditure impacts of the University’s extramural students, a further $232.9 million worth of output was added to regional economies across New Zealand. (Professor Christoph R. Schumacher, 2011) 4. How can we better calculate the ROI?
  • Three case studies… 1. Getting off a benefit 2. Unlocking human capital 3. Benefits beyond paid work
  • “The cost of paying benefits to working-age people is now over $8 billion a year, with much higher lifetime costs. The cost alone is concerning, but it is only a portion of the entire economic and social cost to New Zealand caused by lost productivity and negative social impacts.” August 2012 Getting off a benefit…
  • “Distance Education… …it has made me the person I am today, a productive working woman in her late forties contributing to society. I was in my early to middle thirties when I found distance education and… it was a godsend to enable me to make my life and my son’s life a much better one in the long term. I wanted to better myself by studying while on a benefit and not being able to afford childcare, distance education was the best way of making my life better.
  • “Distance Education… …it has made me the person I am today, a productive working woman in her late forties contributing to society. I was in my early to middle thirties when I found distance education and… it was a godsend to enable me to make my life and my son’s life a much better one in the long term. I wanted to better myself by studying while on a benefit and not being able to afford childcare, distance education was the best way of making my life better. I am now employed by a government department in a role helping victims in the community. I am now in a position that I am not reliant on a benefit and not likely to need one in the future. Where would I be if distance education was not available to me? Still in the same place as I was 12 years ago, stuck on a benefit with no future to speak of. Now I am… proof that it’s possible to change your life for the better by utilizing distance education” Sharon (18th Jan, 2011) http://exmss.org/presidentsblog/2011/01/18/treat-distance-students-with-respect
  • 2009 2010 2011 University 434 EFTS 480 ETFS 476 Auckland University of Technology 9 EFTS 18 EFTS 22 EFTS Lincoln University 0 EFTS 0.5 EFTS 4.3 EFTS Massey University 376 EFTS 353 EFTS 337 EFTS University of Auckland 0 EFTS 0 EFTS 3 EFTS University of Canterbury 14 EFTS 14 EFTS 7 EFTS University of Otago 35 EFTS 30 EFTS 36 EFTS University of Waikato 36EFTS 48 EFTS 46 EFTS Victoria University of Wellington 13 EFTS 16 EFTS 21 EFTS Unlocking human capital…
  • “Closing the gap between labour market participation rates and unemployment rates for people with and without disabilities by one- third would result in a cumulative $43 billion increase in Australia’s GDP over the next decade in real dollar terms.” 2009 2010 2011 University 434 EFTS 480 ETFS 476 Auckland University of Technology 9 EFTS 18 EFTS 22 EFTS Lincoln University 0 EFTS 0.5 EFTS 4.3 EFTS Massey University 376 EFTS 353 EFTS 337 EFTS University of Auckland 0 EFTS 0 EFTS 3 EFTS University of Canterbury 14 EFTS 14 EFTS 7 EFTS University of Otago 35 EFTS 30 EFTS 36 EFTS University of Waikato 36EFTS 48 EFTS 46 EFTS Victoria University of Wellington 13 EFTS 16 EFTS 21 EFTS Unlocking human capital…
  • Benefits beyond paid work…
  • What price do you place on a gold medal?
  • Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3pTUHd1iF1Q
  • • The contribution of sport and recreation to GDP (including volunteered services) in 2008/09 was more than $5.2 billion, or 2.8%.
  • • The contribution of sport and recreation to GDP (including volunteered services) in 2008/09 was more than $5.2 billion, or 2.8%. • This is as large as a recent estimate of the contribution made to GDP by the dairysector.
  • • The contribution of sport and recreation to GDP (including volunteered services) in 2008/09 was more than $5.2 billion, or 2.8%. • This is as large as a recent estimate of the contribution made to GDP by the dairysector. • Including the value of social and personal benefits, the total value of sport and recreation to New Zealanders is around $12.2 billion.
  • 5. Why a matter of strategic priority?
  • 5. Why a matter of strategic priority? “It will not be possible to satisfy the rising demand for Higher Education, especially in developing countries, by relying on traditionalapproaches” (Sir John Daniel, President, Commonwealth of Learning).
  • Now we can go to them… Previously international students had to come to us
  • • Singapore - Food Technology | Early Childhood • China - Business / Sciences • Vietnam - English Language / Business Studies • Brunei - Defence Studies • Open Universities Australia • World Bank – MVM/MPH (Biosecurity) Massey worldwide…
  • Conclusion
  • Conclusion Burden or Blessing?
  • Expanding access to tertiary education through different pathways has always been central to our mission. At Massey…
  • Expanding access to tertiary education through different pathways has always been central to our mission. More than any modern-era digital university we are committed to promoting development and life-long learning. At Massey…
  • Expanding access to tertiary education through different pathways has always been central to our mission. More than any modern-era digital university we are committed to promoting development and life-long learning. Massey understands the transformative potential oftertiaryeducation for inspiring people to better themselves,for building capacityfor change withincommunities and for promoting wider societal benefits. At Massey…
  • Final word… Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bfq5kju627c
  • Questions… “A prudent question is one-half of wisdom.” Francis Bacon http://www.slideshare.net/mbrownz