Supporting Them To Do It:Insights into the Beliefs and Experiences of Beginning Teachers Professor Mark Brown and Dr Anne Elliot Massey University, New Zealand International Conference on Teaching and Learning with Technology 30th March, 2012
About Massey… Auckland Palmerston North Wellington Distance International
About Mark… • Director, National Centre for Teaching and Learning • Director, Distance Education and Learning Futures Alliance • Previous Coordinator of the Doctor of Education (EdD) •Current Horizon Report Board Member - Australasia • On several executive committees (ACiLiTE, DEANZ, DEHub) • On several journal editorial boards (Research in Learning Technology, Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, etc.) firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter @mbrownz • Recipient of National Award for Sustained Excellence in Tertiary Teaching • Share some of my musings in “Pass the SoLT”
My Blog… Why I blog… • Walk the talk • Digital scholarship • Scratch pad for critical thinking and reflection • Knowledge harvesting and brokering • Wider impact with a worldwide audience http://tinyurl.com/solt-mbrown
My Philosophy… The light comes through the cracks… “The unexamined life is not worth living” (Socrates)
Supporting Them To Do It - Insights into the Beliefs and Experiences of Beginning Teachers
Supporting Them To Do It - Insights into the Beliefs and Experiences of Beginning Teachers What does the literature say?
Supporting Them To Do It - Insights into the Beliefs and Experiences of Beginning Teachers What does the literature say? • Numerous studies of ICT-related initiatives in pre-service teacher education • Interest in ICT in pre-service teacher education has not carried over to the continuing phase of teacher development for beginning teachers • Challenges beginning teachers face are well documented
Supporting Them To Do It - Insights into the Beliefs and Experiences of Beginning Teachers TPACK has become the „gold standard‟…
Supporting Them To Do It - Insights into the Beliefs and Experiences of Beginning Teachers 1. Underpinning drivers 2. Two basic questions 3. Implications for teachers
Supporting Them To Do It - Insights into the Beliefs and Experiences of Beginning Teachers A quick survey…
1. Underpinning Drivers The literature is not one-sided…
1. Underpinning Drivers • Social rationale - All students should have the skills to cope with increased access to ICT. • Vocational rationale - All jobs in the market place will require some skill in computer use in the future. • Pedagogical rationale – ICT can support student learning across the curriculum. • Catalytic rationale - ICT can help change education and thus improve schools. Reform agenda. Hawkridge, D. (1990). Who needs computers in schools in schools, and why? Computers in Education, 15(1-3), 1-6.
1. Underpinning Drivers • Vocational rationale - Can ICT skills be transferred from a school context to the workplace? • Social rationale -How is formal, school use of ICT related to ICT use in society? • Pedagogical rationale - What is the added value of ICT and howwe can measure its impact on learning? Wellington, J. (2005). Has ICT come of age? Recurring debates on the role of ICT in education. Research in Science & Technological Education, 23(1), 25–39.
1. Underpinning Drivers The Toolster “It’s just another tool for teachers to use in the classroom. Computers are only as good as the teacher using them.” “It’s how you use the tool that adds the real value to the educative process.”
2. Two basic questions 1. What are beginning teachers‟ views of ICT? 2. How do beginning teachers understand ICT policy for schools?
2. Two basic questions • Methodology: a phenomenological approach • The participants: eight self-selected New Zealand primary beginning teachers • All from one pre-service teacher education institution • Maximum variation sampling - employed in schools spread over both North and South Islands, large and small, rural and urban, high and low socio- economic
2. Two basic questions Data Collection… – background questionnaire to gain demographic and biographical information – semi-structured interview – photo interview based on photographs taken by the participants illustrating ICT use in their classroom
2. Two basic questions Pedagogical rationale Practice „Future‟ Social Vocational rationale rationale rationale ICT contributing Enhancing ICT as add- to learning learning onArnold a a Lucy a a aAnnabel a a Kay a a a Pam a a a a John a a a aSusan a a a a a Mary a a a a a
2. Two basic questions Future omnipresence… “ICT is a huge part of everything already” (Susan) “The way the world is going” (Annabel) “Computers are the future” (Lucy) “We are becoming an ICT world” (John) “The reason that so much money is now available for ICT is the future!” (Mary)
2. Two basic questions ICT as preparation for work… “There are more and more computers in the workplace, and they definitely need them in schools…The workforce is just computer orientated and it‟s just getting more and more towards that way, so I think they need the skills there for that.” (Arnold, Interview 1).
2. Two basic questions ICT as preparation for work… “There are more and more computers in the workplace, and they definitely need them in schools…The workforce is just computer orientated and it‟s just getting more and more towards that way, so I think they need the skills there for that.” (Arnold, Interview 1). “If you look at education as making successful people to be in the workplace for one, it‟s very unlikely that you are not going to have to have some kind of ICT knowledge, to exist in the workplace, even purely manual” (Mary, Interview 1).
Findings: Summary2. Two basic questions Summary… • In their emergent practice with ICT, most used a mix of rationales • Suggests views about the role of ICT in schools are fragile and still not fully developed • Predominant conception related to pervasiveness of ICT in society • Were unable to „decode‟ the rhetoric about ICT and see it in relation to the „bigger picture‟ of education
3. Implications for teachers The way ICT is perceived by beginning teachers is important because of the influence such beliefs exert on the way technology implemented and used in the classroom.
3. Implications for teachers Important gap in TPACK…
3. Implications for teachers Important gap in TPACK… • Overlooks strategic knowledge of bigger picture • Teachers need to problematise their work • Understand the wider policy context • Adopt the role as public intellectuals
3. Implications for teachers “Given all that we know about the social complexities of technology use in education, a pessimistic stance is the most sensible, and possibly the most productive, perspective to take” (Selwyn, 2011, 714).
Conclusion What trajectory might their further development as ICT-using teachers take if they remain in their current teaching contexts?
Conclusion What trajectory might their further development as ICT-using teachers take if they remain in their current teaching contexts? Importance of induction…
Conclusion “Most of the studies reviewed provide empirical support for the claim that support and assistance for beginning teachers have a positive impact on three sets of outcomes: teacher commitment and retention, teacher classroom instructional practices, and student achievement” (p. 201). Ingersoll, R., & Strong, M. (2011). The Impact of Induction and Mentoring Programs for Beginning Teachers: A Critical Review of the Research. Review of Educational Research, 81 (2), pp. 201–233.
Conclusion How should we be supporting beginning teachers „to do it‟ (and not do it) effectively in the classroom?
Questions “A prudent question is one-half of wisdom.” Francis Bacon http://www.slideshare.net/mbrownz/ email@example.com
What happened in the past is no longer a reliable guideto the future • Learning for the future • Teachers as future makers • Leading in a climate of change