<ul><li>Over-Commoditised; </li></ul><ul><li>Over-Centralised; </li></ul><ul><li>Over-Observed? </li></ul><ul><li>What is ...
CCTV in the UK <ul><li>Prevalent in city centre </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in digital recording </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impr...
Identifying the Crime <ul><li>Evidence of actus reus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assault </li><...
Identifying the Crime Actions are identifiable from poor quality CCTV
Identifying the Person <ul><li>Quality is more important </li></ul><ul><li>Discernible facial features </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Unfamiliar Face Recognition <ul><li>Credit card study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% hit rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35% co...
Unfamiliar Face Recognition Target face
Familiar Face Recognition <ul><li>The image quality is less significant </li></ul><ul><li>Over 70% hit rates can be achiev...
Familiar Face Recognition
Familiar Face Recognition
Psychological Modelling
Admissible Comparisons <ul><li>Attorney General’s Reference (2 of 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear images can be left to ...
Jury Comparisons <ul><li>They are unfamiliar </li></ul><ul><li>High quality images may be misleading </li></ul><ul><li>Can...
Familiar Witness Recognition <ul><li>Family or close friend </li></ul><ul><li>Social or societal connection </li></ul><ul>...
Repeated Viewing <ul><li>This does not conform to  Ψ  model </li></ul><ul><li>Faces need to be learned </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Expert Opinion <ul><li>Not required if imagery is high quality </li></ul><ul><li>Can be inadvertently persuasive </li></ul...
Conclusions <ul><li>Quality of imagery is a problem for identification in criminal procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Less of an ...
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What is the Quality of this New Digital Legal World?

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Presentation for the BILETA 2005 conference

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What is the Quality of this New Digital Legal World?

  1. 1. <ul><li>Over-Commoditised; </li></ul><ul><li>Over-Centralised; </li></ul><ul><li>Over-Observed? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Quality of this </li></ul><ul><li>New Digital Legal World? </li></ul>Michael Bromby Hayley Ness Division of Law Department of Psychology Glasgow Caledonian University Napier University
  2. 2. CCTV in the UK <ul><li>Prevalent in city centre </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in digital recording </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved quality of footage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater storage capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valuable for criminal prosecutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does quality affect identification? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How valid are identifications? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Identifying the Crime <ul><li>Evidence of actus reus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality need not be an issue </li></ul><ul><li>Images convey more information that oral or written forms of evidence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Identifying the Crime Actions are identifiable from poor quality CCTV
  5. 5. Identifying the Person <ul><li>Quality is more important </li></ul><ul><li>Discernible facial features </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways to recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspect familiar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspect unfamiliar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on ‘who is observing’ </li></ul>
  6. 6. Unfamiliar Face Recognition <ul><li>Credit card study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% hit rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35% correct reject rate for similar faces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target arrays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More time available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matched for viewpoint and expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal conditions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Unfamiliar Face Recognition Target face
  8. 8. Familiar Face Recognition <ul><li>The image quality is less significant </li></ul><ul><li>Over 70% hit rates can be achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity is associated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Familiar Face Recognition
  10. 10. Familiar Face Recognition
  11. 11. Psychological Modelling
  12. 12. Admissible Comparisons <ul><li>Attorney General’s Reference (2 of 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear images can be left to the jury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A witness familiar to the suspect may make an identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special knowledge acquired by repeatedly viewing the footage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert opinion may be provided </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Jury Comparisons <ul><li>They are unfamiliar </li></ul><ul><li>High quality images may be misleading </li></ul><ul><li>Can familiarity be acquired? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Familiar Witness Recognition <ul><li>Family or close friend </li></ul><ul><li>Social or societal connection </li></ul><ul><li>Police or other agency involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At what stage does familiarity evolve? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Repeated Viewing <ul><li>This does not conform to Ψ model </li></ul><ul><li>Faces need to be learned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alteration of angle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context or setting variance </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Expert Opinion <ul><li>Not required if imagery is high quality </li></ul><ul><li>Can be inadvertently persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar face matching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated viewing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of anatomy and anthropology </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>Quality of imagery is a problem for identification in criminal procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Less of an issue for familiar witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>More problems than quality associated with unknown face matching </li></ul><ul><li>Expert evidence is not always permitted </li></ul><ul><li>More research is needed in some areas </li></ul>

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