Juror comprehension improves when judges’ deliver instructions in a ‘narrative’ style which accommodates the reasoning strategies typically used by lay people, compared to a decontextualised ‘legal’ style used by the legally trained.
US Standardised ‘Pattern’ instructions read verbatim England and Wales Judge’s sum up each case, reviewing the evidence. Vs.
Three summings-up were drafted, each systematically varying by degree of narrativisation:
1 Only the legal directions from the Specimen Directions 2 Integrating specific evidence from the case into the Specimen Directions 3 Integrating specific evidence and using narrativising features e.g. vocatives and discourse markers