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Templates X Tesol Ppt

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"Templates Bring Success to Academic Writing and Publishing"

"Templates Bring Success to Academic Writing and Publishing"

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  • Japan 2x, Turkey, Namibia, Belgium
  • 2 pgs. of HO’s—No need to take notes?
  • MS thesis in Na began w/ charts & graphs Survey of lit required. Must fit into ac. debate Swales: 98% RP’s are in English & thus inevitably culturally bound & defined
  • Non-West. Discourse models Chi indirect vs. US direct criticism Finns less emph. on struc., org. Uks avoid eye-cathcing feature Arab/Asian: cover all aspects before coming to “pt.” NNS trouble with ANY writing WAC—esp. in nonverbal fields
  • “For excellence, the presence of others is required.”
  • Stk. Wds. phrases to intro. each sec. of RP—used by all acad. wrs. Profs. know intuitively; others don’t Practical means of generating and und. Spec. sents. & specific funcs. As well as gen. & analyze major rhetorical divisions & their “macro” functions Other funcs.—p’phrase, sum, quote, evidence, shift in pov, counter-arg., etc.
  • Transcript

    • 1. TEMPLATES FOR ACADEMIC WRITING
      • By Dr. Marna Broekhoff
      • American English Institute
      • Department of Linguistics
      • University of Oregon in Eugene
      • [email_address]
    • 2. OUTLINE
      • PROBLEMS FOR WRITERS
      • SOLUTION: TEMPLATES
      • Bottom-Up Sentence-Level
      • Top-Down “Moves” Level
      • LIMITATIONS
      • APPLICATIONS & VALUES
    • 3. I. PROBLEMS FOR ACADEMIC WRITERS
        • Lack of ability to structure or generate the standard parts of a research paper
        • Lack of awareness of how their argument fits into ongoing academic debate
    • 4.
          • Especially true for writers from diverse backgrounds ( not seasoned professionals )
          • Non-academic backgrounds
          • NNS (Non-Native Speakers)
          • Ethnically diverse (non-Western discourse models)
          • Interdisciplinary
    • 5.
        • Academic writing now seen as collaborative
        • Current writing pedagogy, both writing center and classroom, and metaphors of the
          • Burkean parlor
          • Garret
          • Storehouse
    • 6. II. SOLUTION: TEMPLATES
        • Practical, concrete, hands-on way to analyze & generate a research paper and thus enter an academic dialog
        • Provide both bottom-up (sentence) skills, and top-down (structuring) skills
        • Basic paradigm: “They Say, I Say,” but includes other functions of academic discourse
    • 7. III.Bottom-Up, Sentence Level
      • Both analytical and generative:
      • helps comprehend sentences as
      • well as create them
      • See Ellis handout for examples
    • 8. A. “THEY SAY”
        • Others’ views
          • Paraphrase
          • Summarize
          • Quote
    • 9. Templates for Paraphrasing & Summarizing
      • Conventional wisdom has it that…
      • Among X, it is commonly believed that…
      • Many people argue that…
      • In their recent work, X & Y have criticized Z because.
      • In discussions of X, one controversy has been… On the one hand, __ argues…, but on the other hand…
      • My whole life I’ve assumed that…
      • X acknowledges/believes/emphasizes/refutes
      • reports/observes/claims/recommends that…
    • 10. Ellis’s Paraphrases & Summary
      • ¶1 The Hamburg docs. place particular emphasis on the environment in which learning takes place. They recommend that there be awareness-raising campaigns on the need to learn, on promoting learning as "a joy, a tool…”
      • ¶2 The Agenda for the future (1997b) specifically calls for the enhancing of the literacy environment through—
    • 11. Can you summarize Ellis, Paragraph 3? Which template?
      • Ellis believes that Namibians have very few reading habits because reading is not required in normal daily business.
    • 12. Templates for Quoting
      • X states, “….”
      • As the prominent philosopher, Y, puts it, “….”
      • X agrees with Y when she writes, “….”
      • This view is echoed by Z, who argues, “….
      • Basically, X is saying….
      • X’s point is that….
      • These words support my own view that…
    • 13. Ellis’s Quotes
      • The solution to the lack of a reading culture seems paradoxical, but is in fact quite simple: as one of the foremost authorities on reading, Frank Smith (1978) says, ”…people learn to read by reading.” Thus, since practice in reading is what improves one’s ability to read….
    • 14. QUOTING PRACTICE
      • Choose a quote from Ellis, and introduce and explain it.
      • Ellis argues that Namibians should be required to read more because there must be “social pressure…for everyone to become literate.” ( ¶ 3)
    • 15. Verb Tenses
      • Reference to single studies: PAST
      • Reference to areas of inquiry: PRESENT PERFECT
      • Reference to state of current knowledge: PRESENT
      • Which pattern does Ellis use?
    • 16. B. “I SAY”
      • Your views
        • Within the debate context
        • Counter-arguments
        • Significance of your views
    • 17. Templates for Your Views Within Debate Context
      • Defenders of X can’t have it both ways. Their assertion that…contradicts their claim that…
      • By focusing on ___, X overlooks the deeper problem..
      • If X is right, as I think she is, then we need to look…
      • Although I agree with Y up to a point, I can’t accept his overall conclusion that…
      • Though I concede that…, I still insist that…
      • X is right that…, but he is wrong that… because as I have shown…
      • X has missed the point! His view does not fit my….
    • 18. TEMPLATES FOR COUNTER-ARGUMENTS
      • Some readers may challenge my view because…
      • Some conservatives might object that…, but I…
      • NNS are so diverse that it’s hard to generalize about them, but some might object on grounds that…
      • One might ask, Is my proposal realistic?
      • Although I agree with X that…, nevertheless I think…
      • Traditional interpretations of this topic do not address my claim that…because…
    • 19. “I SAY” and PRACTICE
        • Your (the writer’s) views
          • Within the debate context
            • Does Ellis agree with “them,” disagree, or both?
            • How does he distinguish his views from others?
    • 20. Ellis’s Views
      • Thus, only once literacy becomes a way of life, will the social pressure exist for everyone to become literate. ( ¶ 3)
      • Although teachers for some strange reason seem to hate them, there is a very important place for comics, photo-novels, the Reader’s Digest, romantic novels, sensational newspapers and magazines, etc. ( ¶4 )
    • 21. TEMPLATES for ‘WHO CARES’ (Signif. & Meta-Commentary)
      • My research corrects the earlier mistaken interpretation that…
      • These findings challenge dieters’ common assumptions that…
      • At first glance, teenagers appear to… But on closer inspection….
      • Ultimately, what’s at stake here is…
      • These findings support the claim that…
      • X is important to everyone concerned about social justice because…
      • Nearly any TITLE!
    • 22. TITLES as Meta-Comment.
        • Titles, esp. with colons
        • ( They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter In Academic Writing; Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in Age of Show Biz)
        • Other templates:
          • In other words…
          • My whole point is that…
          • Ch. 2 explores X, while Ch. 3 explores Y.
          • To summarize…
          • In conclusion…
    • 23. ‘ Meta-Commentary’ PRACTICE
          • Significance of your views
            • Has Ellis answered the question, “Who cares?”
            • ¶6: In summary, what this interna-tional tour de force might mean for Namibia is, firstly, that we should celebrate multilingualism….
            • Can you add 2 examples of meta-commentary that E. might make?
    • 24. TITLE Practice
      • Does Ellis’s title indicate the content?
      • Can you create a more interesting title with a colon?
    • 25. C. COHESION
      • Connectors
        • Transitional words: although, after all, consequently, admittedly, for example (depend on function)
        • Pointing words: this, that, their, such
        • Key words (depend on subject) & synonyms (especially repetitions)
    • 26. COHESION PRACTICE
          • Connectors
            • In Ellis’s writing, underline all transitional words, key words, and pointing words & synonyms
            • ¶ 1(1) ¶ 3(4) ¶ 4(4) ¶ 5(1)
    • 27. IV. Top-down, ‘Moves’ Level
      • Both analytical and generative
      • Helps identify and create major sections or functions (‘moves’) of a research paper
      • Much homogeneity across genres
    • 28. IMRD Structure of Res. Paper
    • 29.
      • In pairs, try to do sentence scramble for Introduction to an RP in physics
    • 30. CARS Model for Introductions Applied to Eakins RP
      • Move 1: Establishing a territory
        • a ) by showing that the general research area is important, central, interesting, problematic, or relevant in some way (optional)
        • b) by introducing and reviewing items of previous research in the area (obligatory)
      • (can have author or subject orientation)
    • 31. Move 2: Establishing a Niche (at least one is obligatory)
        • a) by indicating a gap in the previous research,
        • b) by indicating an error, or
        • c) by extending previous knowledge in some way
    • 32. Move 3: Occupying the Niche
        • by outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present research (obligatory)
        • by listing research questions or hypotheses (PSIF)
        • by announcing principal findings (PSIF)
        • by stating the value of the present research (PSIF)
        • by indicating the RP structure (PSIF)
    • 33. Eakins & “Marsh” Pictures
      • Divide Sentences 1-7, 8-10, 11-12 into 3 basic moves
      • Divide Move 1 into 1a, 1b?
      • What kind of Move 2?
      • What kind of Move 3?
      • Underline wds. in Sents. 1-4 used to establish research territory
    • 34. Answer Key for Eakins Intro.
        • Move 1b (research review) begins w/ Sentence 2
        • Move 2a (gap) begins w/ Sentence 8
        • Move 3a (nature of present research) begins w/ Sentence 11
        • [ one of the greatest, over the last thirty years, many studies, major exhibition devoted…,his best known pictures, compositional brilliance, deep insight into character]
    • 35. Physics RP Intro. Unscrambled
      • Adapted from S. Kelham & H.H. Rosenburgh, Journal of Physical Chemistry: Solid State Physics, 14, qtd. in Swales (2004).
      • 7--6--2--4--3--1--5--8
    • 36.
      • (7) THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT OF EPOXY RESIN FROM 0.1 TO 80K.
      • (6) The thermal properties of glassy materials at low temperatures are still not completely understood. [Move 1a]
      • (2) The thermal conductivity has a plateau which is usually in the range from 5 to 10K, and below this temperature it has a temperature dependence which varies approximately as T2. [1a-General knowledge]
    • 37.
      • (4) The specific heat below 4K is much larger than that which would be expected from the Debye theory, and it often has an additional term which is proportional to T. [1a-general know.]
      • (3) Some progress has been made towards understanding the thermal behavior by assuming that there is a cut-off in the photon spectrum at high frequencies (Zaitlin and Anderson, 1995a,b), and that there is an additional system of low-lying two-level states (Anderson et al., 2002; Phillips, 1997). [1b: Previous research]
    • 38.
      • (1) Nevertheless more experimental data are required, and in particular, it would seem desirable to make experiments on glassy samples whose properties can be varied slightly from one to the other. [2-gap]
      • (5) The present investigation reports attempts to do this by using various samples of the same epoxy resin which have been subjected to different curing cycles.
      • [3a-purposes]
      • (8) Measurements of the specific heat (or the diffusivity) and the thermal conductivity have been taken in the temperature range 0.1 to 80K for a set of specimens which covered up to nine different curing cycles. [3e-rpt. struc.]
    • 39. Analysis of RP Intros.
      • In pairs, identify the moves and templates (including verb tenses) in the Introductions for two research articles from different fields. Which orientation?
      • Then exchange your articles with another pair and repeat the process.
      • Lastly, discuss your findings with your group. Similarities? Differences?
    • 40. Teaching Applications
      • Looking at templates from both the bottom-up and top-down perspectives, what problems do they help solve for graduate-level or advanced academic writing classes?
      • What problems to they not solve?
      • How might you design a course around templates?
    • 41. V. LIMITATIONS OF TEMPLATES
        • Can seem formulaic
        • Do not provide models for imitation
        • Do not deal with all parts of the writing process
          • Adequate and valid research (pre-writing steps)
          • Complexities of logical argument
    • 42.
        • Do not automatically generate the all-important and all-difficult thesis statements (main clause + reason why clause is true)
      • Possible thesis for Ellis article: Sophisticated Euro-centric lit is inappropriate for Namibia be- cause it lacks a ‘reading culture’
    • 43. VI.APPLICATIONS AND VALUES
        • Quantitative and qualitative and research papers
        • Bottom-up, or inductive, and top-down, or deductive teaching approaches
        • Sentence generation & structural (“moves”) analysis
    • 44.
        • Strong historical and contemporary support
          • Classical tradition ( topoi)
          • Current RFP’s (Proposals & article submissions)
    • 45. Booth’s Rhetorical Triangle, Collaboration
    • 46.
        • Support from current applied linguistics
          • Popular writing texts
          • WAC (Writing Across the Curriculum)
          • Genre theory
          • Corpus linguistics
    • 47. Concordance Data for Sentence-Level Templates
      • “ Word Search” software
      • by Vivana Cortes
      • “ AntConc” software
      • by Anthony Laurence
    • 48.  
    • 49.  
    • 50. Concordance Data For ‘Moves’ Level Templates
      • “ AntMover” software
      • by Anthony Laurence
      • “ Moves” window shown in slide. Can also view original & outline of document
    • 51.  
    • 52. “ META” VALUES
        • Writing
        • Reading
        • Critical thinking
        • World peace!
        • TESOL 2010
    • 53. End of Show—Thank you for your attention!
      • QUESTIONS?
      • Marna Broekhoff
      • American English Institute
      • Department of Linguistics
      • University of Oregon in Eugene
      • [email_address]
      • Annotated References: See handout