Templates X Tesol Ppt


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  • Japan 2x, Turkey, Namibia, Belgium
  • 2 pgs. of HO’s—No need to take notes?
  • MS thesis in Na began w/ charts & graphs Survey of lit required. Must fit into ac. debate Swales: 98% RP’s are in English & thus inevitably culturally bound & defined
  • Non-West. Discourse models Chi indirect vs. US direct criticism Finns less emph. on struc., org. Uks avoid eye-cathcing feature Arab/Asian: cover all aspects before coming to “pt.” NNS trouble with ANY writing WAC—esp. in nonverbal fields
  • “For excellence, the presence of others is required.”
  • Stk. Wds. phrases to intro. each sec. of RP—used by all acad. wrs. Profs. know intuitively; others don’t Practical means of generating and und. Spec. sents. & specific funcs. As well as gen. & analyze major rhetorical divisions & their “macro” functions Other funcs.—p’phrase, sum, quote, evidence, shift in pov, counter-arg., etc.
  • Templates X Tesol Ppt

    1. 1. TEMPLATES FOR ACADEMIC WRITING <ul><li>By Dr. Marna Broekhoff </li></ul><ul><li>American English Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>University of Oregon in Eugene </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
    2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>PROBLEMS FOR WRITERS </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUTION: TEMPLATES </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-Up Sentence-Level </li></ul><ul><li>Top-Down “Moves” Level </li></ul><ul><li>LIMITATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATIONS & VALUES </li></ul>
    3. 3. I. PROBLEMS FOR ACADEMIC WRITERS <ul><ul><li>Lack of ability to structure or generate the standard parts of a research paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of awareness of how their argument fits into ongoing academic debate </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><ul><ul><li>Especially true for writers from diverse backgrounds ( not seasoned professionals ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-academic backgrounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NNS (Non-Native Speakers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnically diverse (non-Western discourse models) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Academic writing now seen as collaborative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current writing pedagogy, both writing center and classroom, and metaphors of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burkean parlor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Garret </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storehouse </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. II. SOLUTION: TEMPLATES <ul><ul><li>Practical, concrete, hands-on way to analyze & generate a research paper and thus enter an academic dialog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide both bottom-up (sentence) skills, and top-down (structuring) skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic paradigm: “They Say, I Say,” but includes other functions of academic discourse </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. III.Bottom-Up, Sentence Level <ul><li>Both analytical and generative: </li></ul><ul><li>helps comprehend sentences as </li></ul><ul><li>well as create them </li></ul><ul><li>See Ellis handout for examples </li></ul>
    8. 8. A. “THEY SAY” <ul><ul><li>Others’ views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quote </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Templates for Paraphrasing & Summarizing <ul><li>Conventional wisdom has it that… </li></ul><ul><li>Among X, it is commonly believed that… </li></ul><ul><li>Many people argue that… </li></ul><ul><li>In their recent work, X & Y have criticized Z because. </li></ul><ul><li>In discussions of X, one controversy has been… On the one hand, __ argues…, but on the other hand… </li></ul><ul><li>My whole life I’ve assumed that… </li></ul><ul><li>X acknowledges/believes/emphasizes/refutes </li></ul><ul><li>reports/observes/claims/recommends that… </li></ul>
    10. 10. Ellis’s Paraphrases & Summary <ul><li>¶1 The Hamburg docs. place particular emphasis on the environment in which learning takes place. They recommend that there be awareness-raising campaigns on the need to learn, on promoting learning as &quot;a joy, a tool…” </li></ul><ul><li>¶2 The Agenda for the future (1997b) specifically calls for the enhancing of the literacy environment through— </li></ul>
    11. 11. Can you summarize Ellis, Paragraph 3? Which template? <ul><li>Ellis believes that Namibians have very few reading habits because reading is not required in normal daily business. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Templates for Quoting <ul><li>X states, “….” </li></ul><ul><li>As the prominent philosopher, Y, puts it, “….” </li></ul><ul><li>X agrees with Y when she writes, “….” </li></ul><ul><li>This view is echoed by Z, who argues, “…. </li></ul><ul><li>Basically, X is saying…. </li></ul><ul><li>X’s point is that…. </li></ul><ul><li>These words support my own view that… </li></ul>
    13. 13. Ellis’s Quotes <ul><li>The solution to the lack of a reading culture seems paradoxical, but is in fact quite simple: as one of the foremost authorities on reading, Frank Smith (1978) says, ”…people learn to read by reading.” Thus, since practice in reading is what improves one’s ability to read…. </li></ul>
    14. 14. QUOTING PRACTICE <ul><li>Choose a quote from Ellis, and introduce and explain it. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellis argues that Namibians should be required to read more because there must be “social pressure…for everyone to become literate.” ( ¶ 3) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Verb Tenses <ul><li>Reference to single studies: PAST </li></ul><ul><li>Reference to areas of inquiry: PRESENT PERFECT </li></ul><ul><li>Reference to state of current knowledge: PRESENT </li></ul><ul><li>Which pattern does Ellis use? </li></ul>
    16. 16. B. “I SAY” <ul><li>Your views </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the debate context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter-arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance of your views </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Templates for Your Views Within Debate Context <ul><li>Defenders of X can’t have it both ways. Their assertion that…contradicts their claim that… </li></ul><ul><li>By focusing on ___, X overlooks the deeper problem.. </li></ul><ul><li>If X is right, as I think she is, then we need to look… </li></ul><ul><li>Although I agree with Y up to a point, I can’t accept his overall conclusion that… </li></ul><ul><li>Though I concede that…, I still insist that… </li></ul><ul><li>X is right that…, but he is wrong that… because as I have shown… </li></ul><ul><li>X has missed the point! His view does not fit my…. </li></ul>
    18. 18. TEMPLATES FOR COUNTER-ARGUMENTS <ul><li>Some readers may challenge my view because… </li></ul><ul><li>Some conservatives might object that…, but I… </li></ul><ul><li>NNS are so diverse that it’s hard to generalize about them, but some might object on grounds that… </li></ul><ul><li>One might ask, Is my proposal realistic? </li></ul><ul><li>Although I agree with X that…, nevertheless I think… </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional interpretations of this topic do not address my claim that…because… </li></ul>
    19. 19. “I SAY” and PRACTICE <ul><ul><li>Your (the writer’s) views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Within the debate context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does Ellis agree with “them,” disagree, or both? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does he distinguish his views from others? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Ellis’s Views <ul><li>Thus, only once literacy becomes a way of life, will the social pressure exist for everyone to become literate. ( ¶ 3) </li></ul><ul><li>Although teachers for some strange reason seem to hate them, there is a very important place for comics, photo-novels, the Reader’s Digest, romantic novels, sensational newspapers and magazines, etc. ( ¶4 ) </li></ul>
    21. 21. TEMPLATES for ‘WHO CARES’ (Signif. & Meta-Commentary) <ul><li>My research corrects the earlier mistaken interpretation that… </li></ul><ul><li>These findings challenge dieters’ common assumptions that… </li></ul><ul><li>At first glance, teenagers appear to… But on closer inspection…. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, what’s at stake here is… </li></ul><ul><li>These findings support the claim that… </li></ul><ul><li>X is important to everyone concerned about social justice because… </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly any TITLE! </li></ul>
    22. 22. TITLES as Meta-Comment. <ul><ul><li>Titles, esp. with colons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( They Say, I Say: The Moves That Matter In Academic Writing; Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in Age of Show Biz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other templates: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In other words… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>My whole point is that… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ch. 2 explores X, while Ch. 3 explores Y. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To summarize… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In conclusion… </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. ‘ Meta-Commentary’ PRACTICE <ul><ul><ul><li>Significance of your views </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has Ellis answered the question, “Who cares?” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>¶6: In summary, what this interna-tional tour de force might mean for Namibia is, firstly, that we should celebrate multilingualism…. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can you add 2 examples of meta-commentary that E. might make? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. TITLE Practice <ul><li>Does Ellis’s title indicate the content? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you create a more interesting title with a colon? </li></ul>
    25. 25. C. COHESION <ul><li>Connectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitional words: although, after all, consequently, admittedly, for example (depend on function) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointing words: this, that, their, such </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key words (depend on subject) & synonyms (especially repetitions) </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. COHESION PRACTICE <ul><ul><ul><li>Connectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Ellis’s writing, underline all transitional words, key words, and pointing words & synonyms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>¶ 1(1) ¶ 3(4) ¶ 4(4) ¶ 5(1) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. IV. Top-down, ‘Moves’ Level <ul><li>Both analytical and generative </li></ul><ul><li>Helps identify and create major sections or functions (‘moves’) of a research paper </li></ul><ul><li>Much homogeneity across genres </li></ul>
    28. 28. IMRD Structure of Res. Paper
    29. 29. <ul><li>In pairs, try to do sentence scramble for Introduction to an RP in physics </li></ul>
    30. 30. CARS Model for Introductions Applied to Eakins RP <ul><li>Move 1: Establishing a territory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a ) by showing that the general research area is important, central, interesting, problematic, or relevant in some way (optional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) by introducing and reviewing items of previous research in the area (obligatory) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(can have author or subject orientation) </li></ul>
    31. 31. Move 2: Establishing a Niche (at least one is obligatory) <ul><ul><li>a) by indicating a gap in the previous research, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) by indicating an error, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) by extending previous knowledge in some way </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Move 3: Occupying the Niche <ul><ul><li>by outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present research (obligatory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by listing research questions or hypotheses (PSIF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by announcing principal findings (PSIF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by stating the value of the present research (PSIF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by indicating the RP structure (PSIF) </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Eakins & “Marsh” Pictures <ul><li>Divide Sentences 1-7, 8-10, 11-12 into 3 basic moves </li></ul><ul><li>Divide Move 1 into 1a, 1b? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of Move 2? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of Move 3? </li></ul><ul><li>Underline wds. in Sents. 1-4 used to establish research territory </li></ul>
    34. 34. Answer Key for Eakins Intro. <ul><ul><li>Move 1b (research review) begins w/ Sentence 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move 2a (gap) begins w/ Sentence 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move 3a (nature of present research) begins w/ Sentence 11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[ one of the greatest, over the last thirty years, many studies, major exhibition devoted…,his best known pictures, compositional brilliance, deep insight into character] </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Physics RP Intro. Unscrambled <ul><li>Adapted from S. Kelham & H.H. Rosenburgh, Journal of Physical Chemistry: Solid State Physics, 14, qtd. in Swales (2004). </li></ul><ul><li>7--6--2--4--3--1--5--8 </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>(7) THE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT OF EPOXY RESIN FROM 0.1 TO 80K. </li></ul><ul><li>(6) The thermal properties of glassy materials at low temperatures are still not completely understood. [Move 1a] </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The thermal conductivity has a plateau which is usually in the range from 5 to 10K, and below this temperature it has a temperature dependence which varies approximately as T2. [1a-General knowledge] </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>(4) The specific heat below 4K is much larger than that which would be expected from the Debye theory, and it often has an additional term which is proportional to T. [1a-general know.] </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Some progress has been made towards understanding the thermal behavior by assuming that there is a cut-off in the photon spectrum at high frequencies (Zaitlin and Anderson, 1995a,b), and that there is an additional system of low-lying two-level states (Anderson et al., 2002; Phillips, 1997). [1b: Previous research] </li></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>(1) Nevertheless more experimental data are required, and in particular, it would seem desirable to make experiments on glassy samples whose properties can be varied slightly from one to the other. [2-gap] </li></ul><ul><li>(5) The present investigation reports attempts to do this by using various samples of the same epoxy resin which have been subjected to different curing cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>[3a-purposes] </li></ul><ul><li>(8) Measurements of the specific heat (or the diffusivity) and the thermal conductivity have been taken in the temperature range 0.1 to 80K for a set of specimens which covered up to nine different curing cycles. [3e-rpt. struc.] </li></ul>
    39. 39. Analysis of RP Intros. <ul><li>In pairs, identify the moves and templates (including verb tenses) in the Introductions for two research articles from different fields. Which orientation? </li></ul><ul><li>Then exchange your articles with another pair and repeat the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Lastly, discuss your findings with your group. Similarities? Differences? </li></ul>
    40. 40. Teaching Applications <ul><li>Looking at templates from both the bottom-up and top-down perspectives, what problems do they help solve for graduate-level or advanced academic writing classes? </li></ul><ul><li>What problems to they not solve? </li></ul><ul><li>How might you design a course around templates? </li></ul>
    41. 41. V. LIMITATIONS OF TEMPLATES <ul><ul><li>Can seem formulaic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not provide models for imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not deal with all parts of the writing process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate and valid research (pre-writing steps) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complexities of logical argument </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><ul><li>Do not automatically generate the all-important and all-difficult thesis statements (main clause + reason why clause is true) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible thesis for Ellis article: Sophisticated Euro-centric lit is inappropriate for Namibia be- cause it lacks a ‘reading culture’ </li></ul>
    43. 43. VI.APPLICATIONS AND VALUES <ul><ul><li>Quantitative and qualitative and research papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up, or inductive, and top-down, or deductive teaching approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence generation & structural (“moves”) analysis </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><ul><li>Strong historical and contemporary support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classical tradition ( topoi) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current RFP’s (Proposals & article submissions) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Booth’s Rhetorical Triangle, Collaboration
    46. 46. <ul><ul><li>Support from current applied linguistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Popular writing texts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WAC (Writing Across the Curriculum) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genre theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus linguistics </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Concordance Data for Sentence-Level Templates <ul><li>“ Word Search” software </li></ul><ul><li>by Vivana Cortes </li></ul><ul><li>“ AntConc” software </li></ul><ul><li>by Anthony Laurence </li></ul>
    48. 50. Concordance Data For ‘Moves’ Level Templates <ul><li>“ AntMover” software </li></ul><ul><li>by Anthony Laurence </li></ul><ul><li>“ Moves” window shown in slide. Can also view original & outline of document </li></ul>
    49. 52. “ META” VALUES <ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World peace! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TESOL 2010 </li></ul></ul>
    50. 53. End of Show—Thank you for your attention! <ul><li>QUESTIONS? </li></ul><ul><li>Marna Broekhoff </li></ul><ul><li>American English Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>University of Oregon in Eugene </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Annotated References: See handout </li></ul>