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Know aids for no AIDS !

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About AIDS …

About AIDS
epidemiology , Etiology , HIV life cycle , mechanism , transmission , wrong facts , stage of HIV infections , sign and symptoms , Diagnosis , Treatment , Prevention etc etc ....

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine

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  • 1. Know AIDS for NO AIDS ! Anika Tabassum Bristy North South University
  • 2.       AIDS - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Syndrome means – group of diseases Its marked by opportunistic infections It limits the body’s ability to fight infection Final stage of HIV infection No cure
  • 3. EPIDEMIOLOGY Worldwide,  34.2 million people are living with HIV around the world.  1.8 million new cases of HIV in 2010  2.5 million deaths in person with AIDS in 2011.  Nearly 30 million people with AIDS have died worldwide since the epidemic began. Reference - http://aids.com/hiv-basics/basicstatistics/
  • 4.  No of people living with HIV Total 35.3 million [32.2 million – 38.8 million] Adult 32.1 million [29.1 million – 35.3 million] Women 17.7 million [16.4 million – 19.3 million] Children 3.3 million [3.0 million – 3.7 million] • People newly infected with HIV in 2012 Total 2.3 million [1.9 million – 2.7 million] Adult 2.0 million [1.7 million – 2.4 million] Children 260 000 [230 000 – 320 000] AIDS deaths in 2012 - 1.6 million Reference - UNAIDS
  • 5.  The first case of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh was detected in 1989. HIV and AIDS estimates (2012)      Number of people living with HIV Adults (15 to 49 age ) prevalence rate Adults aged 15 and up living with HIV Women aged 15 and up living with HIV Deaths due to AIDS 8,000 [3,100 - 82,000] - <0.1% [<0.1% - <0.1%] - 7,600 [3,000 - 80,000] - 2,700 [1,000 - 28,000] - <500 [<200 - 2,300] Reference – UNAIDS (http://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/bangladesh/)
  • 6. Most affected – USA, South Africa ,Eastern Africa, India Severely affected China , Russia, Brazil, Vietnam Less affected – Australia, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan
  • 7. • Causative agent – HIV • HIV - “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” • A lentivirus (slowly replicating retrovirus) •Two types of HIV have been characterized – HIV-1 & HIV-2. HIV 1 . HIV 2 Virulence High Lower Infectivity High Low Transmission Easily Less easily Prevalence Global West Africa Development Comparatively fast Slow
  • 8. Professor Luc Montagnier - discovered HIV in 1983. • How HIV causes AIDS ? - HIV destroys a certain kind of blood cell (CD4 + T cells) which is crucial to the normal function of the human immune system. • Loss of these cells in people with HIV leads to the development of AIDS. AIDS is the final state of HIV infection .
  • 9. 1. Binding 2. Reverse Transcription 3. Integration 3. Transcription 5. Translation 6. Viral Assembly and Maturation
  • 10. 1. Through Body Fluids – • Blood product • Semen • Vaginal Fluid • Breast milk 2. Through IV drug use 3. Through sex 4. From mother to fetus and baby
  • 11. Coughing , sneezing Insect bites Water , food Touching Kissing Handshake Sharing cups , plates, glasses Playing together Sharing study materials , office equipments HIV is not an airborne virus .
  • 12. Stage 1 : Primary • Short, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infection • no symptoms at all Stage 2 :Asymptomatic • Lasts for an average of ten years • This stage is free from symptoms • There may be swollen glands • The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels • HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood Stage 3 - Symptomatic • The symptoms are mild • The immune system is damaged • emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers
  • 13. Stage – 4 : HIV  AIDS • The immune system weakens • The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis Stage -1 Stage - 2 Stage -3 Stage - 4
  • 14.  HIV multiply inside CD 4 cell and destroy them .  Immune system becomes weakened.  Over time , the ability to fight against infection is lost.  HIV infected people become vulnerable to opportunistic infections . That is AIDS . Kaposi’s sarcoma, a kind of skin cancer Cryptosporidiosis Opportunistic diseases take advantage of weakened immune systems. These include… Pneumocystis carinii, a kind of pneumonia Candidiasis
  • 15. Dry skin Fatigue Fever (comes and goes ) Diarrhea Frequent vaginal infection Headache Mouth sores Rapid weight loss Swollen lymph nodes White spots on tongue, mouth & throat
  • 16. A sample of blood, urine or a swab of fluids from mouth are taken for the diagnosis . The tests include –  HIV antbody test  PCR test (Polymerase Chain Reaction test) - can detect the genetic material of HIV  CD4 count – 600-1200 cells per cubic mm of blood - A healthy person's CD4 count 350-600 – HIV+ person . But HIV medications are typically not indicated. 200 – 350 - the immune system is weakened & medications indicated. Less than 200 – The patient is classified as having AIDS.  Viral load – (measures the amount of virus in blood )  ELISA test  SPOT test  WESTERN BLOT test  Drug resistance
  • 17. There is ACTUALLY no cure for AIDS . 1. Antiretroviral therapy - reduce the presence of the virus in the body, but can not eliminate it. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors (Zidovudine) Non-Nucleoside Transcriptase inhibitors (Nevirapine) Protease inhibitor (Ritonavir) Taking two or more antiretroviral drugs at a time is called combination therapy. If only one drug was taken, HIV would quickly become resistant to it. 2. Opportunistic Infection Treatment Used in an event where antiretroviral drugs are not available
  • 18. • Protected sex - use a condom. • Using New and sterile needle • - to significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission. • Avoidance of same gender sex • Screen all blood and blood products • Getting medical care during pregnancy - to reduce the risk of virus transmission to baby PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE !