Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
2.5 suppression.sprinklers.wk12a
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

2.5 suppression.sprinklers.wk12a

2,195

Published on

3 Comments
8 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,195
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
3
Likes
8
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Three basic purposes of private water supply systems: To provide water solely for fire protection To provide water for sanitary purposes and fire protection To provide water for fire protection and manufacturing processes Three basic purposes of private water supply systems: To provide water solely for fire protection To provide water for sanitary purposes and fire protection To provide water for fire protection and manufacturing processes
  • Transcript

    • 1. Fire Detection and Suppression Chapter 6 Automatic Sprinkler Systems
    • 2. Sprinkler Systems
      • Purpose : Discharge an extinguishing agent onto a fire while the fire is in the incipient stage
      * Should be simple , reliable , automatic , & use a readily available and inexpensive extinguishing agent Understanding sprinkler system operation is important so that firefighting operations in sprinklered buildings can be carried out in the most efficient manner.
    • 3. Sprinkler System Effectiveness
      • Reliability factor of 96% when sprinkler system is installed & maintained properly.
      • In 75% of the reported fires in sprinklered buildings, the fire was controlled by 10 or fewer sprinkler heads.
      • There has never been a multiple loss of life (3 or more deaths) due to fire and smoke in a building protected by a sprinkler system except in the case of intimate contact with the fire or an explosion.
    • 4. Reasons that sprinkler systems fail to protect:
        • improper maintenance
        • inadequate or inoperative water supply
        • incorrect system design
        • obstructions in system
        • partial protection
    • 5. Reasons for Installation 1. Code requirements 2. Insurance incentives 3. Fire protection of life & property 4. Flexibility in building design
    • 6. Standard
        • NFPA 13 - Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
    • 7. Sprinkler System Components 1. Water Supply 2. Distribution piping 3. Nozzles a.k.a. Sprinkler Heads 4. Valves 3. Nozzles a.k.a. Sprinkler Heads
    • 8. Sprinkler : portion of the system that senses the fire, reacts, and then delivers water to the fire area
      • Heat-sensitive device
      • Deflector
      • Discharge orifice
    • 9.
      • Fusible link - eutectic metal with a precisely established melting point is connected to a cap; when cap melts, restraining arms fall away and water flows through opening
      Heat-sensitive device:
      • Frangible Bulb - glass bulb contains liquid that expands when heated to a precise temperature; when liquid expands, the bulb breaks and water can flow
    • 10. Heat-sensitive device
    • 11. Heat-sensitive device
    • 12. Operating Temperatures 135°F 155°F 175°F 200°F 285°F Heat-sensitive device most common
    • 13. Fusible Link Heat-sensitive device
    • 14. Response Time Index (RTI) : speed of operation of a sprinkler head; smaller # means faster response
      • There will be a delay between the time when the air reaches a certain temperature and when the sprinkler head operates
      • Same as “thermal lag” in heat detectors
      • The surface area, mass, and thermal properties of the heat sensing device determine how quickly it will operate
      ESFR (Early Suppression Fast Response) Sprinkler Heads : Superior design with a very low RTI resulting in 5-10x faster response than standard sprinkler heads Heat-sensitive device
    • 15.
      • Surface that water hits as it flows
      • Determines the discharge pattern
      Deflector :
      • Old style sprinkler heads deflected some water toward the ceiling to protect structural elements … these are not effective in controlling or extinguishing fires
    • 16.
      • Upright
      Sprinkler Head Designs:
      • Pendent
      • Sidewall
      • *Water spray - specific pattern (conical) to protect a 3D hazard
    • 17.
      • Standard size is 1 / 2 ” opening
      • Flow 15-50 gpm
      • Large- and Small-Orifice sprinklers do exist
      Discharge Orifice :
    • 18. Sprinkler System Components 1. Water Supply 2. Distribution piping 3. Nozzles a.k.a. Sprinkler Heads 4. Valves 2. Distribution Piping
    • 19. Sprinkler System Piping Material:
      • Ferrous metal (a.k.a. Steel, Black Steel) - most common, heavy, corrodes
      • Copper Tubing - lighter, resists corrosion, less FL, expensive
      • Galvanized - steel or iron coated with zinc to protect against corrosion
      • Plastic (PVC) - lightest, least expensive, cannot within high ambient temps, needs fire resistant covering
    • 20. Sprinkler System Piping Size:
      • Hydraulically calculated - mathematical formulas used to calculate flow volume and pressure determine pipe size; requires initial $$$ for engineer but saves money in long run
      • Pipe Schedule Method - pipe size (diameter & thickness of pipe wall) determined by # of sprinkler heads to be supplied, excellent performance, may be more $$$
    • 21. Sprinkler System Piping Terminology:
      • Water supply main
      • System riser
      • Spring-up
      • Riser
      • Feed main
      • Cross main
      • Branch line
    • 22. Sprinkler System Components 1. Water Supply 2. Distribution piping 3. Nozzles a.k.a. Sprinkler Heads 4. Valves 4. Valves
    • 23. Sprinkler System Valves
      • Control valve - shuts off main water supply; normally kept in OPEN position
      • Check valves - ensures water flows in only ONE direction
      • Automatic Drain valves - allow water to automatically flow out of the piping; used to drain FDCs
      Operating valves:
      • Alarm check valves - opens when water begins to flow out of a sprinkler head & allows water to flow into small pipe which activates an alarm; needs a retard chamber to prevent accidental alarms
    • 24. Sprinkler System Valves Operating valves:
      • Globe valves - small handwheel-controlled valves used to open & close small portions of the system (for testing or draining)
      • Ball-Drip valves - small quarter-turn valves also used to open & close small portions of the system
      • Test valves - controls flow of water to certain areas & allows personnel to verify proper system operation
    • 25.  
    • 26.
      • Gate, indicating
      • Gate, non-indicating
      • Butterfly, non-indicating
      a b c
    • 27. Sprinkler System Components 1. Water Supply 2. Distribution piping 3. Nozzles a.k.a. Sprinkler Heads 4. Valves 1. Water Supply
    • 28. Sprinkler System Water Supply
      • Public water supply / Fire Pump
      • Storage tanks / Fire Pump
      • FDC / Engine

    ×