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    Synapse1 Synapse1 Presentation Transcript

    • Synapse
    • Outline
      • Review the Action Potential
      • What happens when the action potential reaches the axon terminal?
      • Synaptic Connections
      • Neurotransmission
      • Types of Receptors
        • Ionotropic vs. Metabotropic
      • Excitation vs. Inhibition
        • Temporal vs. Spatial Summation
      • Neurotransmitters
    • Action Potential Demonstration
    • 3 Types of Synaptic Connections Between Neurons
    • Neurotransmission at the Synapse
    • Lifecycle of Synaptic Vesicle
    • Two Types of Receptors
      • Ionotropic
      • Metabotropic
      • Channel opens in response to ion binding
      • Contains 4-5 subunits that make up the receptor structure
      • Fast speed of action
      • Channel opens in response to second messengers
      • Contains 1 subunit that makes up the receptor structure
      • Slow speed of action
    • Ionotropic Receptor
    • Metabotropic Receptor
    • Second Messenger Systems
      • Downstream effects through a series of enzymatic reactions
      • Nitric oxide
    • Receptors can have an excitatory or inhibitory effect.
      • Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
      • Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
      • Promotes excitation of the postsynaptic membrane
      • Graded potential that decays over time and space
      • Cumulative effect of EPSPs are the basis for temporal and spatial summation
      • Temporary hyperpolarization of a membrane- prevent action potentials
        • How?
    • Summation
      • Temporal Summation
      • Spatial Summation
      • Many stimuli in a close span of time
      • Repeated stimuli can have a cumulative effect and can produce a nerve impulse when a single stimuli is too weak
      • Many neurons firing simultaneously in the same location
      • Synaptic input from several locations can have a cumulative effect and trigger a nerve impulse
    • Temporal Summation
    • Excitation or Inhibition of a Muscle
    • Long Term Potentiation (LTP)
      • Creating new or stronger synapses
        • Occurs by repeated stimulation, an increase in dendritic receptors, an increase in neurotransmitters
      • New synapses can be formed in the olfactory system and in the hippocampus
    • Review of the Synapse
    • Neurotransmitters
      • Small Molecule
      • Large Molecule
      • Glutamate
      • GABA
      • Dopamine
      • Norepinephrine
      • Serotonin
      • Acetylcholine
      • Neuropeptides
      • Lipids
      • Gases