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Synapse
Outline
 Review the Action Potential
 What happens when the action potential reaches the
axon terminal?
 Synaptic Conne...
Action Potential Demonstration
3 Types of Synaptic Connections Between
Neurons
Neurotransmission at the Synapse
Lifecycle of Synaptic Vesicle
Two Types of Receptors
Ionotropic Metabotropic
 Channel opens in
response to ion binding
 Contains 4-5 subunits that
mak...
Ionotropic Receptor
Metabotropic Receptor
Second Messenger Systems
 Downstream
effects through a
series of
enzymatic
reactions
 Nitric oxide
Receptors can have an excitatory or
inhibitory effect.
Excitatory Postsynaptic
Potential (EPSP)
Inhibitory Postsynaptic
Po...
Summation
Temporal Summation Spatial Summation
 Many stimuli in a close
span of time
 Repeated stimuli can have
a cumula...
Temporal Summation
Excitation or Inhibition of a Muscle
Long Term Potentiation (LTP)
 Creating new or stronger synapses
 Occurs by repeated stimulation, an increase in dendriti...
Review of the Synapse
Neurotransmitters
Small Molecule Large Molecule
 Glutamate
 GABA
 Dopamine
 Norepinephrine
 Serotonin
 Acetylcholine...
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Transcript of "Synapse1"

  1. 1. Synapse
  2. 2. Outline  Review the Action Potential  What happens when the action potential reaches the axon terminal?  Synaptic Connections  Neurotransmission  Types of Receptors  Ionotropic vs. Metabotropic  Excitation vs. Inhibition  Temporal vs. Spatial Summation  Neurotransmitters
  3. 3. Action Potential Demonstration
  4. 4. 3 Types of Synaptic Connections Between Neurons
  5. 5. Neurotransmission at the Synapse
  6. 6. Lifecycle of Synaptic Vesicle
  7. 7. Two Types of Receptors Ionotropic Metabotropic  Channel opens in response to ion binding  Contains 4-5 subunits that make up the receptor structure  Fast speed of action • Channel opens in response to second messengers • Contains 1 subunit that makes up the receptor structure • Slow speed of action
  8. 8. Ionotropic Receptor
  9. 9. Metabotropic Receptor
  10. 10. Second Messenger Systems  Downstream effects through a series of enzymatic reactions  Nitric oxide
  11. 11. Receptors can have an excitatory or inhibitory effect. Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP) Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)  Promotes excitation of the postsynaptic membrane  Graded potential that decays over time and space  Cumulative effect of EPSPs are the basis for temporal and spatial summation  Temporary hyperpolarization of a membrane- prevent action potentials  How?
  12. 12. Summation Temporal Summation Spatial Summation  Many stimuli in a close span of time  Repeated stimuli can have a cumulative effect and can produce a nerve impulse when a single stimuli is too weak  Many neurons firing simultaneously in the same location  Synaptic input from several locations can have a cumulative effect and trigger a nerve impulse
  13. 13. Temporal Summation
  14. 14. Excitation or Inhibition of a Muscle
  15. 15. Long Term Potentiation (LTP)  Creating new or stronger synapses  Occurs by repeated stimulation, an increase in dendritic receptors, an increase in neurotransmitters  New synapses can be formed in the olfactory system and in the hippocampus
  16. 16. Review of the Synapse
  17. 17. Neurotransmitters Small Molecule Large Molecule  Glutamate  GABA  Dopamine  Norepinephrine  Serotonin  Acetylcholine  Neuropeptides  Lipids  Gases
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