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Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1






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    Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1 Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1 Presentation Transcript

      • Action Potentials (AP) release neurotransmitters (NTs) in the synapse
      • Body must be able to produce the chemical (endogenous)
      • Must be produced by the neuron
        • When a neuron is stimulated, a chemical is released
      • Chemical must act upon a receptor to produce an effect
      • Major excitatory NT
      • Excess of glutamate can lead to hyperexcitation  seizure
      • NMDA Receptor
      • AMPA and Kainate Receptor
      • Major inhibitory NT
      • Deficit in GABA may lead to lack of inhibition  seizure (hyperexcitability or excitotoxicity)
      • Open chloride channels
      • Produces more profound sedative effects
      • Anti-convulsant
      • GABA A Receptor Agonist
      • Benzodiazepene agonist
      • Cerebellum has a lot of GABA a receptors
      • Rats have been tested using the rotorod test
      • Dopamine agonist leads to increase in pleasure, addiction, aggression
      • Dorsal vs. Ventral Pathways
      • D1 vs. D2 Receptors
        • D1- Postsynaptic
        • D2- Autoreceptor
      • Binds DA transporter and blocks DA reuptake, which increases synaptic DA
      • Produces motor activation, reward, motivational, hedonic effects
      • Sensitization
      • Causes DA transporter to release DA, blocks reuptake
      • Non-selective, so causes release of DA, NE, and 5HT
      • Used for ADHD
      • Found in locus coeruleus (LC)
      • Involved in attention and arousal, sympathetic nervous system activation
      • α2 vs. β receptors
        • α2 - Autoreceptor
        • β - Blocks NE
      • Found in the raphe nucleus of midbrain
      • Deficit of 5HT can lead to depression
      • REM sleep deprivation can be used to treat severe depression short term
      • 5HT 1a
        • Predominant autoreceptor that works through GPCR
      • 5HT 2a
        • Predominant postsynaptic receptor that works through GPCR
        • LSD (5HT 2a agonist) produces sensory disturbances, hedonic and panic effects, and hallucinations
      • Prozac, Zoloft
      • Many SSRIs have bad withdrawal symptoms like severe vertigo and nausea
      • Many antidepressants have increased suicide at onset primarily in younger population (within 2-3 weeks of drug use)
      • Found in the nucleus basalis and projects to the cortex
      • Important for cognition and muscle contraction
      Acetyl CoA + Choline Choline + Acetate Acetylcholine + Coenzyme A Choline transferase Acetylcholineesterase (ACE)
      • Ligand gated ion channel
      • Found in the peripheral NS (skeletal muscle)
      • Nicotinic antagonist (curare) causes muscle paralysis @ NMJ
      • Nicotinic agonist increases muscle tension and causes tremors
      • Inhibitory receptor
      • Muscarinic agonist produces pupil constriction, diarrhea, and increase in GI activity (activates parasympathetic activity)
      • Muscarinic antagonist (scopolamine) used to treat diarrhea (block parasympathetic activity)
      • Inhibits ACh release
      • Toxin is very stable
      • Causes paralysis of the diaphragm
      • Have their own GPCR, meaning that there are lots of receptors
      • Coexist with small molecule NT
      • Endorphins/enkephalins
      • Corticotropin Release Factor (CRF)
      • Secreted by neurons in hypothalamus to stimulate ACTH release from anterior pituitary
      • Amygdala  PAG  hypothalamus  activates sympathetic NS
      • CRF antagonist is anxiolytic
      • CRF is elevated in most depressed individuals
      • Endogenous cannabinoids (anandamide and 2AG)
      • Cannot be packaged, synthesized and released on demand
      • Cannabinoid receptor CB1
        • CB1 agonist
          • Orexogenic, rewarding, affects timing behavior, analgesic
      • Important second messenger
      • Viagra