Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1

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Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1

  1. 1.  Action Potentials (AP) release neurotransmitters (NTs) in the synapse
  2. 2.  Body must be able to produce the chemical (endogenous)  Must be produced by the neuron  When a neuron is stimulated, a chemical is released  Chemical must act upon a receptor to produce an effect
  3. 3.  Major excitatory NT  Excess of glutamate can lead to hyperexcitation  seizure  NMDA Receptor  AMPA and Kainate Receptor
  4. 4.  Major inhibitory NT  Deficit in GABA may lead to lack of inhibition  seizure (hyperexcitability or excitotoxicity) GABA
  5. 5.  Open chloride channels  Produces more profound sedative effects  Anti-convulsant  GABAA Receptor Agonist
  6. 6.  Benzodiazepene agonist  Cerebellum has a lot of GABAa receptors  Rats have been tested using the rotorod test
  7. 7.  Dopamine agonist leads to increase in pleasure, addiction, aggression  Dorsal vs.Ventral Pathways  D1 vs. D2 Receptors  D1- Postsynaptic  D2- Autoreceptor
  8. 8.  Binds DA transporter and blocks DA reuptake, which increases synaptic DA  Produces motor activation, reward, motivational, hedonic effects  Sensitization
  9. 9.  Causes DA transporter to release DA, blocks reuptake  Non-selective, so causes release of DA, NE, and 5HT  Used for ADHD
  10. 10.  Found in locus coeruleus (LC)  Involved in attention and arousal, sympathetic nervous system activation  α2 vs. β receptors  α2- Autoreceptor  β- Blocks NE
  11. 11.  Found in the raphe nucleus of midbrain  Deficit of 5HT can lead to depression  REM sleep deprivation can be used to treat severe depression short term
  12. 12.  5HT1a  Predominant autoreceptor that works through GPCR  5HT2a  Predominant postsynaptic receptor that works through GPCR  LSD (5HT2a agonist) produces sensory disturbances, hedonic and panic effects, and hallucinations
  13. 13.  Prozac, Zoloft  Many SSRIs have bad withdrawal symptoms like severe vertigo and nausea  Many antidepressants have increased suicide at onset primarily in younger population (within 2-3 weeks of drug use)
  14. 14.  Found in the nucleus basalis and projects to the cortex  Important for cognition and muscle contraction Acetyl CoA + Choline Choline + Acetate Acetylcholine + Coenzyme A Choline transferase Acetylcholineesterase (ACE)
  15. 15.  Ligand gated ion channel  Found in the peripheral NS (skeletal muscle)  Nicotinic antagonist (curare) causes muscle paralysis @ NMJ  Nicotinic agonist increases muscle tension and causes tremors
  16. 16.  Inhibitory receptor  Muscarinic agonist produces pupil constriction, diarrhea, and increase in GI activity (activates parasympathetic activity)  Muscarinic antagonist (scopolamine) used to treat diarrhea (block parasympathetic activity)
  17. 17.  InhibitsACh release  Toxin is very stable  Causes paralysis of the diaphragm
  18. 18.  Have their own GPCR, meaning that there are lots of receptors  Coexist with small molecule NT  Endorphins/enkephalins  Corticotropin Release Factor (CRF)
  19. 19.  Secreted by neurons in hypothalamus to stimulateACTH release from anterior pituitary  Amygdala  PAG  hypothalamus  activates sympathetic NS  CRF antagonist is anxiolytic  CRF is elevated in most depressed individuals
  20. 20.  Endogenous cannabinoids (anandamide and 2AG)  Cannot be packaged, synthesized and released on demand  Cannabinoid receptor CB1  CB1 agonist  Orexogenic, rewarding, affects timing behavior, analgesic
  21. 21.  Important second messenger  Viagra

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