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 Action Potentials (AP) release
neurotransmitters (NTs) in the synapse
 Body must be able to produce the chemical
(endogenous)
 Must be produced by the neuron
 When a neuron is stimulated, a...
 Major excitatory NT
 Excess of glutamate can lead to
hyperexcitation  seizure
 NMDA Receptor
 AMPA and Kainate Recep...
 Major inhibitory NT
 Deficit in GABA may lead
to lack of inhibition 
seizure (hyperexcitability
or excitotoxicity)
GABA
 Open chloride channels
 Produces more profound sedative effects
 Anti-convulsant
 GABAA Receptor Agonist
 Benzodiazepene agonist
 Cerebellum has a lot of GABAa
receptors
 Rats have been tested using
the rotorod test
 Dopamine agonist leads to increase in
pleasure, addiction, aggression
 Dorsal vs.Ventral Pathways
 D1 vs. D2 Receptors...
 Binds DA transporter and blocks DA
reuptake, which increases synaptic DA
 Produces motor activation, reward,
motivation...
 Causes DA transporter to
release DA, blocks
reuptake
 Non-selective, so causes
release of DA, NE, and
5HT
 Used for AD...
 Found in locus coeruleus (LC)
 Involved in attention and arousal,
sympathetic nervous system
activation
 α2 vs. β rece...
 Found in the raphe nucleus of
midbrain
 Deficit of 5HT can lead to
depression
 REM sleep deprivation can be
used to tr...
 5HT1a
 Predominant autoreceptor that works
through GPCR
 5HT2a
 Predominant postsynaptic receptor
that works through ...
 Prozac, Zoloft
 Many SSRIs have bad withdrawal symptoms
like severe vertigo and nausea
 Many antidepressants have incr...
 Found in the nucleus basalis and
projects to the cortex
 Important for cognition and
muscle contraction
Acetyl CoA + Ch...
 Ligand gated ion channel
 Found in the peripheral NS (skeletal
muscle)
 Nicotinic antagonist (curare) causes
muscle pa...
 Inhibitory receptor
 Muscarinic agonist produces pupil
constriction, diarrhea, and increase in GI
activity (activates p...
 InhibitsACh release
 Toxin is very stable
 Causes paralysis of the
diaphragm
 Have their own GPCR, meaning that there are
lots of receptors
 Coexist with small molecule NT
 Endorphins/enkephalins
...
 Secreted by neurons in hypothalamus to
stimulateACTH release from anterior
pituitary
 Amygdala  PAG  hypothalamus 
a...
 Endogenous cannabinoids (anandamide and
2AG)
 Cannot be packaged, synthesized and
released on demand
 Cannabinoid rece...
 Important
second
messenger
 Viagra
Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1
Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1
Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1
Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1
Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1
Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1
Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1
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Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1

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Transcript of "Neurotransmitters%20and%20 psychopharmacology1"

  1. 1.  Action Potentials (AP) release neurotransmitters (NTs) in the synapse
  2. 2.  Body must be able to produce the chemical (endogenous)  Must be produced by the neuron  When a neuron is stimulated, a chemical is released  Chemical must act upon a receptor to produce an effect
  3. 3.  Major excitatory NT  Excess of glutamate can lead to hyperexcitation  seizure  NMDA Receptor  AMPA and Kainate Receptor
  4. 4.  Major inhibitory NT  Deficit in GABA may lead to lack of inhibition  seizure (hyperexcitability or excitotoxicity) GABA
  5. 5.  Open chloride channels  Produces more profound sedative effects  Anti-convulsant  GABAA Receptor Agonist
  6. 6.  Benzodiazepene agonist  Cerebellum has a lot of GABAa receptors  Rats have been tested using the rotorod test
  7. 7.  Dopamine agonist leads to increase in pleasure, addiction, aggression  Dorsal vs.Ventral Pathways  D1 vs. D2 Receptors  D1- Postsynaptic  D2- Autoreceptor
  8. 8.  Binds DA transporter and blocks DA reuptake, which increases synaptic DA  Produces motor activation, reward, motivational, hedonic effects  Sensitization
  9. 9.  Causes DA transporter to release DA, blocks reuptake  Non-selective, so causes release of DA, NE, and 5HT  Used for ADHD
  10. 10.  Found in locus coeruleus (LC)  Involved in attention and arousal, sympathetic nervous system activation  α2 vs. β receptors  α2- Autoreceptor  β- Blocks NE
  11. 11.  Found in the raphe nucleus of midbrain  Deficit of 5HT can lead to depression  REM sleep deprivation can be used to treat severe depression short term
  12. 12.  5HT1a  Predominant autoreceptor that works through GPCR  5HT2a  Predominant postsynaptic receptor that works through GPCR  LSD (5HT2a agonist) produces sensory disturbances, hedonic and panic effects, and hallucinations
  13. 13.  Prozac, Zoloft  Many SSRIs have bad withdrawal symptoms like severe vertigo and nausea  Many antidepressants have increased suicide at onset primarily in younger population (within 2-3 weeks of drug use)
  14. 14.  Found in the nucleus basalis and projects to the cortex  Important for cognition and muscle contraction Acetyl CoA + Choline Choline + Acetate Acetylcholine + Coenzyme A Choline transferase Acetylcholineesterase (ACE)
  15. 15.  Ligand gated ion channel  Found in the peripheral NS (skeletal muscle)  Nicotinic antagonist (curare) causes muscle paralysis @ NMJ  Nicotinic agonist increases muscle tension and causes tremors
  16. 16.  Inhibitory receptor  Muscarinic agonist produces pupil constriction, diarrhea, and increase in GI activity (activates parasympathetic activity)  Muscarinic antagonist (scopolamine) used to treat diarrhea (block parasympathetic activity)
  17. 17.  InhibitsACh release  Toxin is very stable  Causes paralysis of the diaphragm
  18. 18.  Have their own GPCR, meaning that there are lots of receptors  Coexist with small molecule NT  Endorphins/enkephalins  Corticotropin Release Factor (CRF)
  19. 19.  Secreted by neurons in hypothalamus to stimulateACTH release from anterior pituitary  Amygdala  PAG  hypothalamus  activates sympathetic NS  CRF antagonist is anxiolytic  CRF is elevated in most depressed individuals
  20. 20.  Endogenous cannabinoids (anandamide and 2AG)  Cannot be packaged, synthesized and released on demand  Cannabinoid receptor CB1  CB1 agonist  Orexogenic, rewarding, affects timing behavior, analgesic
  21. 21.  Important second messenger  Viagra
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