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Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
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Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290

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Transcript

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE BRAIN
  • 2. Outline  Nervous System  Orientation of the Brain  Ways to Divide the Brain  Lobes  Evolutionary  Forebrain  Prosencephalon  Diencephalon  Telencephalon
  • 3. Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System  Neuroanatomy  Anatomy of the nervous system  Study of the various parts of the nervous system and their respective function(s)  Nervous system consists of many substructures, each comprised of many neurons
  • 4. Nervous System  Brain  Spinal cord  Somatic Nervous System  Autonomic Nervous System  Sympathetic Nervous System  Parasympathetic Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System
  • 5. Brain Orientation
  • 6. Brain Orientation  Sagittal  Coronal  Horizontal
  • 7. Brain Orientation  Rostral  Caudal  Ventral  Dorsal  Anterior  Posterior  Inferior  Superior
  • 8. DIVISION OF THE BRAIN
  • 9. FOREBRAIN Cerebral Cortex
  • 10. Cerebral Cortex  Divided into 4 lobes  Frontal  Parietal  Occipital  Temporal
  • 11. Cerebral Hemispheres
  • 12. Motor and Somatosensory Cortices Primary Motor Cortex Primary Somatosensory Cortex
  • 13. Somatosensory Homunculus
  • 14. Primary Motor Cortex
  • 15. FOREBRAIN Prosencephalon
  • 16. Basal Forebrain  Cholinergic output of the CNS  Nucleus basalis  Arousal, wakefulness, attention
  • 17. FOREBRAIN Diencephalon
  • 18. Thalamus  Sensory relay  “Gateway to the cortex”
  • 19. Hypothalamus  Homeostasis  Endocrine Function
  • 20. Anterior Pituitary  Adenohypophysis  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)  Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)  Prolactin  Gonadotropins  Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)  Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • 21. Posterior Pituitary  Neurohypophysis  Oxytocin  Milk let-down  Maternal care  Vasopressin or Anti- diuretic hormone  Water retention
  • 22. FOREBRAIN Telencephalon
  • 23. Limbic System  Amygdala  Hippocampus
  • 24. Amygdala  Directly connected to the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus  Important in emotion  Fear response
  • 25. Hippocampus  Important in memory and learning
  • 26. Alzheimer’s Disease  Destruction of hippocampal neurons  Symptoms include memory loss, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques  Miosis
  • 27. Miosis
  • 28. 4 Hypotheses for the Development of AD  Demyelination Hypothesis  Cholinergic Hypothesis  Amyloid Beta Hypothesis  Tau Hypothesis
  • 29. AD- Demyelination Hypothesis  Cortex shrivels  Hippocampus shrinks  Ventricles fill with fluid
  • 30. AD- Amyloid Beta and Tau  Fewer neurons  Fewer synapses  Tangles  Plaques
  • 31. AD- Tau Hypothesis
  • 32. Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease  Treatments  Early stages  Mild to moderate stages  Severe stages
  • 33. Alzheimer’s Disease

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