INTRODUCTION TO
THE BRAIN
Outline
 Nervous System
 Orientation of the Brain
 Ways to Divide the Brain
 Lobes
 Evolutionary
 Forebrain
 Prosen...
Structure of the Vertebrate
Nervous System
 Neuroanatomy
 Anatomy of the nervous system
 Study of the various parts of ...
Nervous System
 Brain
 Spinal cord
 Somatic Nervous
System
 Autonomic
Nervous System
 Sympathetic
Nervous System
 Pa...
Brain Orientation
Brain Orientation
 Sagittal
 Coronal
 Horizontal
Brain Orientation
 Rostral
 Caudal
 Ventral
 Dorsal
 Anterior
 Posterior
 Inferior
 Superior
DIVISION OF THE
BRAIN
FOREBRAIN
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebral Cortex
 Divided into
4 lobes
 Frontal
 Parietal
 Occipital
 Temporal
Cerebral Hemispheres
Motor and Somatosensory
Cortices
Primary Motor Cortex Primary
Somatosensory
Cortex
Somatosensory Homunculus
Primary Motor Cortex
FOREBRAIN
Prosencephalon
Basal Forebrain
 Cholinergic output
of the CNS
 Nucleus basalis
 Arousal,
wakefulness,
attention
FOREBRAIN
Diencephalon
Thalamus
 Sensory relay
 “Gateway to the
cortex”
Hypothalamus
 Homeostasis
 Endocrine
Function
Anterior Pituitary
 Adenohypophysis
 Adrenocorticotropic
hormone (ACTH)
 Thyroid-stimulating
hormone (TSH)
 Prolactin
...
Posterior Pituitary
 Neurohypophysis
 Oxytocin
 Milk let-down
 Maternal care
 Vasopressin or Anti-
diuretic hormone
...
FOREBRAIN
Telencephalon
Limbic System
 Amygdala
 Hippocampus
Amygdala
 Directly connected to
the olfactory bulb and
the hippocampus
 Important in emotion
 Fear response
Hippocampus
 Important in memory and learning
Alzheimer’s Disease
 Destruction of
hippocampal
neurons
 Symptoms include
memory loss,
neurofibrillary
tangles, and
amyl...
Miosis
4 Hypotheses for the
Development of AD
 Demyelination Hypothesis
 Cholinergic Hypothesis
 Amyloid Beta Hypothesis
 Tau...
AD- Demyelination Hypothesis
 Cortex shrivels
 Hippocampus shrinks
 Ventricles fill with fluid
AD- Amyloid Beta and Tau
 Fewer neurons
 Fewer synapses
 Tangles
 Plaques
AD- Tau Hypothesis
Progression of
Alzheimer’s
Disease
 Treatments
 Early stages
 Mild to moderate stages
 Severe stages
Alzheimer’s Disease
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290
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Neuroanatomy%20%28 orientation%2c%20forebrain%290

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO THE BRAIN
  2. 2. Outline  Nervous System  Orientation of the Brain  Ways to Divide the Brain  Lobes  Evolutionary  Forebrain  Prosencephalon  Diencephalon  Telencephalon
  3. 3. Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System  Neuroanatomy  Anatomy of the nervous system  Study of the various parts of the nervous system and their respective function(s)  Nervous system consists of many substructures, each comprised of many neurons
  4. 4. Nervous System  Brain  Spinal cord  Somatic Nervous System  Autonomic Nervous System  Sympathetic Nervous System  Parasympathetic Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System
  5. 5. Brain Orientation
  6. 6. Brain Orientation  Sagittal  Coronal  Horizontal
  7. 7. Brain Orientation  Rostral  Caudal  Ventral  Dorsal  Anterior  Posterior  Inferior  Superior
  8. 8. DIVISION OF THE BRAIN
  9. 9. FOREBRAIN Cerebral Cortex
  10. 10. Cerebral Cortex  Divided into 4 lobes  Frontal  Parietal  Occipital  Temporal
  11. 11. Cerebral Hemispheres
  12. 12. Motor and Somatosensory Cortices Primary Motor Cortex Primary Somatosensory Cortex
  13. 13. Somatosensory Homunculus
  14. 14. Primary Motor Cortex
  15. 15. FOREBRAIN Prosencephalon
  16. 16. Basal Forebrain  Cholinergic output of the CNS  Nucleus basalis  Arousal, wakefulness, attention
  17. 17. FOREBRAIN Diencephalon
  18. 18. Thalamus  Sensory relay  “Gateway to the cortex”
  19. 19. Hypothalamus  Homeostasis  Endocrine Function
  20. 20. Anterior Pituitary  Adenohypophysis  Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)  Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)  Prolactin  Gonadotropins  Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)  Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  21. 21. Posterior Pituitary  Neurohypophysis  Oxytocin  Milk let-down  Maternal care  Vasopressin or Anti- diuretic hormone  Water retention
  22. 22. FOREBRAIN Telencephalon
  23. 23. Limbic System  Amygdala  Hippocampus
  24. 24. Amygdala  Directly connected to the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus  Important in emotion  Fear response
  25. 25. Hippocampus  Important in memory and learning
  26. 26. Alzheimer’s Disease  Destruction of hippocampal neurons  Symptoms include memory loss, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques  Miosis
  27. 27. Miosis
  28. 28. 4 Hypotheses for the Development of AD  Demyelination Hypothesis  Cholinergic Hypothesis  Amyloid Beta Hypothesis  Tau Hypothesis
  29. 29. AD- Demyelination Hypothesis  Cortex shrivels  Hippocampus shrinks  Ventricles fill with fluid
  30. 30. AD- Amyloid Beta and Tau  Fewer neurons  Fewer synapses  Tangles  Plaques
  31. 31. AD- Tau Hypothesis
  32. 32. Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease  Treatments  Early stages  Mild to moderate stages  Severe stages
  33. 33. Alzheimer’s Disease
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