Lecture 3 -_motivation

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Lecture 3 -_motivation

  1. 1. Principles of Organisational Behaviour Lecture 3 Theme 1: Individual Level Motivation in theory 2. Motivating in practice: Job design 1. 24 January 2011 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  2. 2. Motivation: Definition 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  3. 3. Types of motivation  Extrinsic motivation: tangible rewards   Outside the control of individuals.   Factors external to the individual and unrelated to the task they are performing. E.g. Money, rewards, incentives And also threat of punishment Intrinsic motivation: psychological rewards  Internal desires to perform a particular task  Related with attribution theory  E.g. giving pleasure, developing skills, hobby 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  4. 4. Theories of motivation 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  5. 5. Early Theories  Scientific management (F.W.Taylor)    Workers are motivated mainly by pay. This theory links closely with autocratic management style and Macgregor’s Theory X approach to workers. Human relations (E. Mayo)  Workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work .  This theory links closely with paternalistic style of management. 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  6. 6. Contemporary Theories  Content Theory (CT)    focus on the individual needs that activate tensions, which influence satisfaction and behaviour. emphasis on nature of needs and what motivates Process Theory (PT)  focus on mental process which transform the motive force into particular patterns of behaviour  emphasis on the actual process of motivation 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  7. 7. CTs: 1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  8. 8. 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  9. 9. 2. Herzberg’s two-factor theory 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  10. 10. 3. Alderfer’s ERG theory Frustration-regression principle An already satisfied lower-level need becomes reactivated when a higher-level need is frustrated. 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  11. 11. 4. McClelland’s achievement theory need for Achievement need for Power need for Affiliation Desire to control others and influence behaviour Desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations 23 January 2012 so Des an me ire d b thi to e r ng do es be po tte ns r ibl e Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  12. 12. PTs: 1. Expectancy Theory: Vroom’s model  Vroom’s model is based on three key variables:    Expectancy: belief that working hard will result in desired level of performance. Instrumentality: belief that successful performance will be followed by rewards. Valence: importance that individual places upon the expected outcome. It is the anticipated satisfaction from an outcome. Therefore, M = E x I x V If either E, I, or V is low, motivation will be low 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  13. 13. These three variable generate three relationships: 1. Efforts-Performance relationship: whether there is connection between effort and their performance (Expectancy) . 2. Performance-Reward Relationship: probability that the performance will lead to valued outcomes/rewards (instrumentality) 3. Reward- personal goal Relationship: expected net value of the outcomes that flow from the effort (valence) Individual Effort 1 Individual performance 2 Organisational Rewards 1. Effort-performance relationship 2. Performance-reward relationship 3.Rewards-personal goals relationship 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB) 3 Personal Goals
  14. 14. 2. Equity Theory: Adam’s  Focuses on people’s feelings of how fairly they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others. 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  15. 15. 3. Goal-setting theory: Locke’s Goal-setting theory assumes that the goals set for a person are the source of motivation rather than the needs that prompt people to derive their own goals. 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  16. 16. Job design and motivation  Job design is a set of activities that involve alteration of specific jobs or interdependent system of jobs with the aim of improving the quality of employee job experience and on-the-job productivity  It is concerned with the relationship between workers and the nature and content of jobs and their task functions.  It attempts to meet people’s personal and social needs at work through reorganisation and restructuring of work.  Two main reasons for attention to job design:   to enhance the personal satisfaction that people derive from their work to make the best use of people and to help overcome obstacles to their effective performance. 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  17. 17. Job characteristic model Core job dimension Skill variety Task identity Task significance Critical psychological states Experienced meaningfulness of the work Personal and work outcomes High internal work motivation High-quality work performance Autonomy Feedback Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities High satisfaction with the work Low absenteeism and turnover Employee growth-need strength (Hackman and Oldham, 1980) 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  18. 18. Motivation: Theory and Practice Theories Hierarchy of needs Two factor theory Alderfer’s ERG theory Self-respect Social Meaning         Equity theory Expectancy theory 23 January 2012 Autonomy       Goal setting theory Job design model Feedback   Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)   
  19. 19. Job redesigning  Job enrichment Vertical expansion of jobs  Job enlargement Increasing the number and variety of tasks  Job rotation Periodic shifting from one task to another 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)
  20. 20. Job satisfaction and motivation  Job satisfaction is more of an attitude, an internal state associated with a personal feeling of achievement.  However, necessary to achieve a high level of motivation and performance.  Content theories assumes a direct relationship between job satisfaction and improved performance.  Process theories recognise the importance of wider relationships involving motivation, satisfaction and performance.  Job satisfaction is influenced by various factors such as individual characteristics, social factors, cultural factors, organisational factors, and environmental factors. 23 January 2012 Principles of Organisational Behaviour (POB)

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