Gerring : “an alignment among three intertwined components: the term ( a linguistic label comprised of one or a few words), the phenomena to be defined (the referents, extension, or denotation of a concept), and the properties or attributes that define those phenomena (the definition, intension, or connotation of a concept)” (39)
How do we build (background/systematized) concepts?
process of adjustment to maximize fulfillment of the criteria for a good concept (Gerring, see table --> )
“ successful definition involves the identification of attributes that provide necessary and sufficient conditions for locating examples of the term”
avoid homonymy, synonymy, instability
choose a definition from a classic work
find a causal-explanatory understanding of a term (term defined by what explains it or what it explains)
intellectual history of the concept (genealogy is a version of this)
focus on specific definitional attributes, grouping attributes that are similar
test-retest: about consistency of response to a treatment; assumes the characteristic being measures is stable over time
interobserver; intercoder: two or more observe or code; can be done as a test on a random subset of cases
alternative-form: measure same attribute more than once using two different measures of the same concept ( e.g. to measure liberalism, use two different sets of question on same respondents at two different times )
split-half: two measures of same concept applied at the same time ( e.g. survey of political opinions; ten questions related to liberalism, take two different sets of questions as different measures of liberalism )
Cronbach’s Alpha: average of all split halves coefficients - all possible combinations; a statistical technique...