Common Law Legal System <ul><ul><li>Judicial Power </li></ul></ul>
Article III <ul><li>The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Co...
Judges <ul><li>Art. II says President appoints judges with “advice and consent of Senate.” </li></ul><ul><li>Art. III says...
Qualifications and Size <ul><li>The Constitution sets forth no specific requirements.  </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court Siz...
What can Federal Courts Hear? <ul><li>Three-Step procedure to determine jurisdiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nature of the ...
Why Have These Limitations? <ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve Judicial Resources </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Subject Matter Jurisdiction <ul><li>Generally, cases in which federal government has an interest (federal question jurisdi...
Subject Matter Jurisdiction <ul><li>Federal Court also has “diversity jurisdiction” where amount at issue is over $50,000....
Cases & Controversies <ul><li>Must be a real and substantial controversy </li></ul><ul><li>Several theories, we will only ...
Advisory Opinions <ul><li>“real and substantial” controversy = no advisory opinions on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>statutory in...
Ripeness <ul><li>Matters that are premature for litigation cannot be heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened harm must be real...
Mootness <ul><li>An actual controversy must exist at all stages of the federal court proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>If eve...
Standing <ul><li>“Whether the litigant is entitled to have the court decide the merits of the dispute.” </li></ul><ul><li>...
Judicial Review <ul><li>Art. III does NOT expressly provide for judicial review of constitutional questions. </li></ul><ul...
Marbury v. Madison Chief Justice John Marshall <ul><li>Is Marbury entitled to his commission? </li></ul><ul><li>Does Sec 1...
Impact of Marbury <ul><li>Holding  – section of Judiciary Act giving court original jurisdiction to hear mandamus suits vi...
Questions to Consider <ul><li>Is judicial review a good idea? Should nine unelected judges be able to tell our elected rep...
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee <ul><li>Why did the Virginia Supreme Court refuse to acknowledge the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling...
What About State Actions <ul><li>Can U.S. Supreme Court review and set aside state court decisions?  Martin v. Hunter's Le...
Federalism <ul><li>Does Supreme Court review of state actions undermine state sovereignty? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it necessa...
What Are We Left With? <ul><li>Dual Courts – Dual Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each is sovereign within its own spher...
State Governments <ul><li>Each State has it's own Constitution and own court system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, Const...
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Judicial Power

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  • Judicial Power

    1. 1. Common Law Legal System <ul><ul><li>Judicial Power </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Article III <ul><li>The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Judges <ul><li>Art. II says President appoints judges with “advice and consent of Senate.” </li></ul><ul><li>Art. III says judges are appointed for life </li></ul><ul><li>Art. III says salary of federal judges cannot be reduced. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although funding for the court system can. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can only be impeached </li></ul>
    4. 4. Qualifications and Size <ul><li>The Constitution sets forth no specific requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court Size – no set number of members in Constitution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current law says nine. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Courts – set by Congress </li></ul>
    5. 5. What can Federal Courts Hear? <ul><li>Three-Step procedure to determine jurisdiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nature of the dispute – subject matter jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>case or controversy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>political question </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Why Have These Limitations? <ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve Judicial Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Judicial Decision Making </li></ul>
    7. 7. Subject Matter Jurisdiction <ul><li>Generally, cases in which federal government has an interest (federal question jurisdiction). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution, laws, treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambassadors, public Ministers and Counsels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court has original jurisdiction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>admiralty and maritime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where U.S. is party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between 2 or more states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court has original jurisdiction </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Subject Matter Jurisdiction <ul><li>Federal Court also has “diversity jurisdiction” where amount at issue is over $50,000. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between citizens of different States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between citizen and foreign states. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOTE – when subject matter jurisdiction is lacking, there still could be a state claim. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Common Law? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Cases & Controversies <ul><li>Must be a real and substantial controversy </li></ul><ul><li>Several theories, we will only discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advisory Opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ripeness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mootness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Advisory Opinions <ul><li>“real and substantial” controversy = no advisory opinions on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>statutory interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>constitutionality of proposed legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>any other matter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is this efficient? </li></ul><ul><li>What about Declaratory Judgments? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Ripeness <ul><li>Matters that are premature for litigation cannot be heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened harm must be real and immediate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basically, the type of injury that might occur but has yet to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when can a party seek pre-enforcement review of a statute or regulation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, rarely. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Classic Exception – Freedom of Speech </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Mootness <ul><li>An actual controversy must exist at all stages of the federal court proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>If events subsequent to filing resolve dispute, then case is moot. </li></ul><ul><li>Exception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capable of repetition, yet evading review. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Standing <ul><li>“Whether the litigant is entitled to have the court decide the merits of the dispute.” </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury is traceable to D's conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favorable Court decision will remedy the injury. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Judicial Review <ul><li>Art. III does NOT expressly provide for judicial review of constitutional questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Courts are courts of limited jurisdiction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution lists subject areas – subject matter jurisdiction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Courts may hear matters only when there is BOTH constitutional and statutory authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The scope of the Court's power to review constitutional question remains contentious even today. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Marbury v. Madison Chief Justice John Marshall <ul><li>Is Marbury entitled to his commission? </li></ul><ul><li>Does Sec 13 of the Judiciary Act authorize the Court to issue a writ of mandamus? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Section 13 constitutional? </li></ul><ul><li>If Section 13 is unconstitutional, does the Supreme Court have the power to declare it void? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Impact of Marbury <ul><li>Holding – section of Judiciary Act giving court original jurisdiction to hear mandamus suits violated Constitution which specifically set forth issues on which Court has original jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact – Court answered the question “who has the power to determine constitutionality of federal laws and Executive actions”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court said that it (the Court) did! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This case is arguably the most important case in U.S. history. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Questions to Consider <ul><li>Is judicial review a good idea? Should nine unelected judges be able to tell our elected representatives what they can and cannot do? </li></ul><ul><li>Does Marbury mean that legislators or members of the executive branch have no responsibility to judge the constitutionality of their own actions? </li></ul><ul><li>Could the U.S. have a workable system of government without judicial review? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Martin v. Hunter's Lessee <ul><li>Why did the Virginia Supreme Court refuse to acknowledge the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling giving Martin the land in question? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the issue in this case? What is the Court being asked to determine? </li></ul><ul><li>What powers did the Court say Article III gave the U.S. Supreme Court? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the Court believe that uniformity of state decisions interpreting the Constitution is important? </li></ul>
    19. 19. What About State Actions <ul><li>Can U.S. Supreme Court review and set aside state court decisions? Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816) </li></ul><ul><li>Can U.S. Supreme Court review whether U.S. Constitutional rights of Defendant convicted in state were violated? Cohens v. Virginia (1821) </li></ul><ul><li>Can the U.S. Supreme review constitutionality of state laws and actions of state officials? Cooper v. Aaron (1958) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Federalism <ul><li>Does Supreme Court review of state actions undermine state sovereignty? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it necessary to insure Federal supremacy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If state court interpretation of federal law (within each state) was supreme, how effective would the constitution be? </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. What Are We Left With? <ul><li>Dual Courts – Dual Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each is sovereign within its own sphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Courts are supreme on federal matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Courts are supreme on state matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can State Courts hear federal claims? </li></ul><ul><li>Which “Rule of Decision” should state courts use? </li></ul>
    22. 22. State Governments <ul><li>Each State has it's own Constitution and own court system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, Constitutions create government structure AND grant individual rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Constitution creates floor for individual rights. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States can grant additional, more rights </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Amending the Constitution

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