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Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
Federalism and Separation of Powers Review
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Federalism and Separation of Powers Review

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  • 1. Federalism,  Review of Separation of Powers   
  • 2. The Government and the States  ● Overarching Question – on what topic can  States legislate? ● Constitution enumerates powers of Federal  Government ● Constitution and Amendments sets forth limitations  on States. ● State powers fall somewhere in the middle ● Two Final Federal v. State areas of law: ● Supremacy Clause  ● 10th Amendment  
  • 3. Three Groups of Governmental  Powers ● Those granted exclusively to the federal  government or expressly denied to the States, ● also includes implied grants of power. ● Those exercised concurrently with the States. ● Supremacy Clause ● Those reserved to the States exclusively, ● because they do not fall within enumerated powers  of the Congress. ● 10th Amendment   
  • 4. Supremacy Clause ● “Constitution and the Laws of the United States  which shall be made Prusuance thereof; and all  Treaties made, or which shall be made under  the Authority of the United States, shall be the  Supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in  every State shall be bound thereby - Article VI, United States Constitution   
  • 5. Two Preemption Areas ● Federal Law expressly preempts state or local  law. ● Preemption is implied by a clear congressional  intent to preempt state or local laws. ● Field Preemption – congress intends that federal law  should exclusively regulate an area (field) of law. ● Conflict Preemption – situation where there are  state and federal law on point, and there is no way  for person to comply with both.   
  • 6. Tenth Amendment ● The powers not delegated to the United States  by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the  States, are reserved to the States respectively,  or to the people. - Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ● Real question is: Can Federal laws be declared  unconstitutional as violating this constitutional  provision?   
  • 7. Why Protect State Sovereignty? ● Decrease likelihood of federal tyranny ● Probably more relevant in earlier times. ● Enhance democratic rule by providing  government that is closer to the people with  more power ● Allow states to be laboratories for new ideas. ● Remember the concurring opinion in Lopez?   
  • 8. Printz v. United States Brady Handgun Violence Prevention  Act Signed November 30, 1993   
  • 9. Questions ● What part of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act is  at issue in this case? ● According to Justice Scalia, can the federal government  force state courts to enforce federal law? ● Again, according to Justice Scalia is there in anything in the  Constitution or early federal law that indicates that the  federal government can impose obligations on state  governments to enforce federal law? ● Does Justice Scalia believe that President Wilson ordered  state governments during World War I to enforce the law  requiring men to sign up to be potential soldiers (selective  service)?   
  • 10. Questions ● What is the meaning of "dual sovereignty" on page 103? ● Why is the 10th Amendment important to this discussion?  ● Based on the prior decision of New York v. United States,  what does the court say about the federal governments  ability to compel States and state officers to enforce federal  law?   
  • 11. Amending the Constitution   
  • 12. Review Separation of Powers Exercise   
  • 13. Separation of Powers Exercise ● Hillary Clinton has just resigned as Secretary of State. A new Secretary of  State must be appointed. ● Congress passes a bill banning gay marriages. Opponents of the bill believe  it is unconstitutional and should not be law. ● A government anti­terrorism commission issues a report suggesting that  contributions by American citizens to charitable organizations in the Middle  East should be prohibited. ● The U.S. Government has never recognized the Islamic Republic of Iran as  a legitimate country. President Obama would like to do so. ● Pursuant to an Executive Order issued by the President, the Department of  Homeland Security orders workers in the U.S. Postal Service to begin  opening suspicious packages they believe might be from terrorists.   

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