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Research and Writing Legal Citations in England/Wales  and the United States
English Court System
Typical England/Wales Citation
Reported Cases <ul><li>The Law Reports – considered most authoritative series of reports. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains d...
Typical Citations <ul><li>The Law Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weston v. Remington, 1986 A.C. 135 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Other Reports A. & E. Admiralty and Ecclesiastical (L.R.)  1865 - A.C.  Appeal Cases (L.R.)  1890 - All E.R.  All England ...
Resources <ul><li>Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.legalabbrevs.cardiff.ac.uk </li></ul></ul...
Citations in a Text <ul><li>See </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutorial at Cardiff University </li></ul></ul>
The United States
Typical U.S. Citation <ul><li>Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973) </li></ul>Name of the Parties Volume Report Name Page Numbe...
U.S. Supreme Court Cases <ul><li>Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 85 S. Ct. 1678, 14 L. Ed. 2d 510 (1965). </li></ul...
Federal Appeal Court Cases <ul><li>United States court of appeals cases are published in the  Federal Reporter  (F., F.2d,...
Federal Court of Appeals
Federal District Court Cases <ul><li>United States district court cases and cases from some specialized courts are publish...
State Decisions <ul><li>Published in several places </li></ul><ul><li>Many states have their own “official” reporters. </l...
Regional Reporter System
State v. Regional Reporter <ul><li>City of Troy v Ohlinger, 438 Mich 477 (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>People v Ferency, 133 Mi...
The Full Citation <ul><li>People v Ferency, 133 Mich App 526; 351 NW2d 225 (1984). </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: </li></ul><ul><...
Examples <ul><li>Palsgraf v. Long Island R.R. Co., 248 N.Y. 339 (1928) </li></ul><ul><li>Glassroth v. Moore, 229 F. Supp. ...
Pinpoint Citations <ul><li>Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, 158 (1973). </li></ul>What is this number?
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Basic Legal Citation

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A presentation covering very basic legal citation in the U.S. and England.

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  • Transcript of "Basic Legal Citation"

    1. 1. Research and Writing Legal Citations in England/Wales and the United States
    2. 2. English Court System
    3. 3. Typical England/Wales Citation
    4. 4. Reported Cases <ul><li>The Law Reports – considered most authoritative series of reports. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains decisions from HL, Appeals Court and High Court. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all decisions are published. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Weekly Law Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered second in the hierarchy of authoritative reports. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains same cases, plus more, as those published in Law Reports. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The All England Law Reports – commercially produced volume of cases. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Typical Citations <ul><li>The Law Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weston v. Remington, 1986 A.C. 135 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeals Case </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harbottle v. Terry, 1882 Q.B.D. 131 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Queens Bench – today just use QB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chancery - Ch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family – Fam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Weekly Law Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith v. Jones, [2004] 3 WLR 976 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The All England Law Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smith v. Jones, [2005] 1 All ER 237 </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Other Reports A. & E. Admiralty and Ecclesiastical (L.R.) 1865 - A.C. Appeal Cases (L.R.) 1890 - All E.R. All England Law Reports 1936 - B.C.L.C. Butterworths Company Law Cases 1983 - B.H.R.C. Butterworths Human Rights Cases 1996 - C.C.R. Criminal Cases Reserved (L.R.) 1865 - 1875 Ch. Chancery (L.R.) 1891 - Ch. App. Chancery Appeal (L.R.) 1865 - 1874 Ch. D. Chancery Division (L.R.) 1875 - 1890 Con. L.R. Construction Law Reports 1985 - C.P. Common Pleas (L.R.) 1865 - 1876 Cr. App. Rep. Criminal Appeal Reports 1987 - E.C.H.R. European Court of Human Rights Cases 1960 - And so on . . . . .
    7. 7. Resources <ul><li>Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.legalabbrevs.cardiff.ac.uk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOTE – there is a “neutral” citation system that is also used in England that we did not cover here. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Citations in a Text <ul><li>See </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutorial at Cardiff University </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. The United States
    10. 10. Typical U.S. Citation <ul><li>Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973) </li></ul>Name of the Parties Volume Report Name Page Number Year U.S. = United States Reports
    11. 11. U.S. Supreme Court Cases <ul><li>Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 85 S. Ct. 1678, 14 L. Ed. 2d 510 (1965). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. = U.S. Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Official government reporter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S.Ct. = Supreme Court Reporter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West Publishing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L.E.2d = United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lexis/Nexis </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Federal Appeal Court Cases <ul><li>United States court of appeals cases are published in the Federal Reporter (F., F.2d, or F.3d). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Published by West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No “official” reporter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smith v. Jones, 3 F.3d 111 (3d Cir. 1993) </li></ul>Name of Parties Volume Reporter Name Page Court Year
    13. 13. Federal Court of Appeals
    14. 14. Federal District Court Cases <ul><li>United States district court cases and cases from some specialized courts are published in the Federal Supplement (F. Supp. or F. Supp. 2d). </li></ul><ul><li>Smith v. Jones, 25 F. Supp. 2d, 444 (M.D. Ala. 2002) </li></ul>Parties volume reporter page court year
    15. 15. State Decisions <ul><li>Published in several places </li></ul><ul><li>Many states have their own “official” reporters. </li></ul><ul><li>West publishes “unofficial” reporters that are grouped by region: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Eastern Reporter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic Reporter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Eastern Reporter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Reporter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Western Reporter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Western Reporter, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific Reporter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOTE – NY, Cal, and Ill also have West reporter. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Regional Reporter System
    17. 17. State v. Regional Reporter <ul><li>City of Troy v Ohlinger, 438 Mich 477 (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>People v Ferency, 133 Mich App 526 (1984) </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>People v Ferency, 351 NW2d 225 (Mich. 1984). </li></ul>Parties Volume Reporter Page Year Court
    18. 18. The Full Citation <ul><li>People v Ferency, 133 Mich App 526; 351 NW2d 225 (1984). </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the state reporters can easily be identified because they use an abbreviation related to the state itself: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N.Y., Mich, Calif, Ill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many state court rules require both the official and “unofficial” citations for cases. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Examples <ul><li>Palsgraf v. Long Island R.R. Co., 248 N.Y. 339 (1928) </li></ul><ul><li>Glassroth v. Moore, 229 F. Supp. 2d 1290 (M.D. Ala. 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Geary v. Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary Parish Sch., 7 F.3d 324 (3d Cir. 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson v. Commonwealth, 583 S.E.2d 780 (Va. Ct. App. 2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State or Federal court? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifically, what court? </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Pinpoint Citations <ul><li>Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, 158 (1973). </li></ul>What is this number?
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