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Metabolisme Karbohidrat

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Bahan kuliah Biokimia dengan judul Metabolisme Karbohidrat

Bahan kuliah Biokimia dengan judul Metabolisme Karbohidrat

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  • 1. METABOLISME KARBOHIDRAT
  • 2. Carbohydrate metabolism I
  • 3. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates computing composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only in the ratio C6H12O6 esentation copyright © 2002 David A Bender and some images copyright © 2002 Taylor & Francis Ltd 
  • 4. Carbohydrates • Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen • Their major function is to supply a source of cellular food • Examples: – Monosaccharides or simple sugars Figure 2.13a
  • 5. Carbohydrates • Disaccharides or double sugars Figure 2.13b
  • 6. Carbohydrates • Polysaccharides or polymers of simple sugars Figure 2.13c
  • 7. Nutritionally important disaccharides - 1 Nutritionally important disaccharides esentation copyright © 2002 David A Bender and some images copyright © 2002 Taylor & Francis Ltd computing 
  • 8. α-1,4-binding β-1,4-binding Figuur 11. De α-1,4-binding en de β-1,4-binding die in polysacchariden voorkomen.
  • 9. α-1,6-binding Figuur 12. De α-1,6-binding zoals deze in amylopectine voorkomt.
  • 10. Nutritionally important disaccharides - 2 Nutritionally important disaccharides computing CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH O O O HO OH OH OH O OH OH OH maltose (glucosyl-glucose) HO O OH CH2 isomaltose esentation copyright © 2002 David A Bender and some images copyright © 2002 Taylor & Francis Ltd O OH HO OH OH 
  • 11. Branched structure of starch and glycogen The branched structure of starch and glycogen CH2OH CH2OH O α1→6 links: branch points in amylopectin and glycogen O OH computing OH O O O OH OH CH2OH CH2 O CH2OH O OH O OH O O OH OH O O OH CH2OH OH esentation copyright © 2002 David A Bender and some images copyright © 2002 Taylor & Francis Ltd O OH O OH 
  • 12. Hydrolysis of starch Hydrolysis by alpha-amylase formation of dextrins, computing of starch by in saliva and pancreatic juice results in then: amylase glucose maltose isomaltose CH2OH CH2OH O α1→6 links: branch points in amylopectin and glycogen O OH OH O O O OH OH CH2OH CH2 O CH2OH O OH O OH O O OH OH O O OH CH2OH OH esentation copyright © 2002 David A Bender and some images copyright © 2002 Taylor & Francis Ltd O OH O OH 
  • 13. The major types of non-starch Major types ofpolysaccharide non-starch polysaccharides computing cellulose - glucose polymer linked β1→4 CH2OH CH2OH O O CH2OH O OH O CH2OH O OH O O OH O OH O inulin - fructose polymer linked β2→1 O OH OH OH OH CH2 HOCH2 O OH chitin - N-acetylglucosamine polymer linked β1→4 CH2OH CH2OH O O O CH2OH O OH O CH2OH O OH O OH HOCH2 O O OH O CH2 OH OH O O OH HN C CH3 HN O C HN CH3 HN C CH3 O O O C CH3 OH pectin - galacturonic acid polymer linked α1→4, partially methylated; some glactose and/or arabinose branches COOH O O OH OH O O O O O OH O OH O OH CH2 HOCH2 O COOH CO CH3 COOH CH2 HOCH2 O OH O O OH OH OH OH OH esentation copyright © 2002 David A Bender and some images copyright © 2002 Taylor & Francis Ltd 
  • 14. Glycaemic and noncomputing Glycaemic index The extent to which a test dose of a carbohydrate increases blood 1 glycaemic carbohydrates - glucose compared with an equivalent amount of glucose Glycaemic and non-glycaemic carbohydrates Dietary starches can be classified as:  rapidly digested (hence high glycaemic index)  slowly digested (lower glycaemic index)  not all digested in small intestine  amylose is hydrolysed more slowly than amylopectin  resistant starch (low glycaemic index)  only hydrolysed to a limited extent in small intestine  starch may be resistant because:  it is crystalline and resistant to amylases  it is enclosed in plant cell walls that are not digested some resistant starch is fermented by bacteria in the large intestine esentation copyright © 2002 David A Bender and some images copyright © 2002 Taylor & Francis Ltd 
  • 15. Carbohydrates • Serve as primary source of energy in the cell • Central to all metabolic processes Glucose Cytosol - anaerobic Hexokinase Pentose Phosphate Shunt Glucose-6-P glycolysis Pyruvate Glc-1- phosphate glycogen
  • 16. cytosol mitochondria (aerobic) Pyruvate Aceytl CoA FATTY ACIDS Krebs cycle AMINO ACIDS Reducing equivalents Oxidative Phosphorylation (ATP)
  • 17. insulin IR P Protein Kinase B (inactive) Glycogen synthase kinase (active) P Glycogen synthase (inactive) OH P Protein Kinase B (active) OH synthase P Glycogen(inactive) kinase OH Glycogen synthase (active) Glycogen formation
  • 18. GLYCOGENOLYSIS glycogen glucose-6-phosphate GLYCOGEN SYNTHESIS glucose ( 6 carbons) GLYCOLYSIS GLUCONEOGENESIS Overview of metabolism computing pyruvate (3 carbons) lactate triacylglycerols CO2 FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS acetyl CoA fatty acids (2 carbons) FATTY ACID OXIDATION ketones KETOGENESIS oxaloacetate LIPASE citrate CITRIC ACID CYCLE CO2 CO2 esentation copyright © 2002 David A Bender and some images copyright © 2002 Taylor & Francis Ltd 
  • 19. Glycolysis pathway
  • 20. [Tri-carboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle]